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H I O M

MAGAZINE

AIRCRAFT

LOVERS )u Tube

w w w .a ce sh ig h m a g a zm e .co m w w w .a k -in te ra c tiv e .c o m Phone & Fax: (+34) 941 22 30 64 [email protected] ak-interactive.com

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A ll the A K Interactive s ta ff and myself are proud to introduce this new F.A.Q. book, the d efin itive g u id e for all aircraft scale m odelers. Here you w ill fin d all the references needed to paint alm ost any aircraft of all eras; building, techniques, m aterials, etc.

Dani Zam arbide, w e ll-kn o w n m odeller th ro u gh o u t the w h ole w orld for his am az­ in g scale m odels drives us th ro u gh the process of m astering aircraft m odelling. Th is book is m eant fo r all of us w h o enjoy and love this great hobby.

Fernando Vallejo

AK Interactive President

|

O riginal Idea and Concept

T H A N K S TO

F e r n a n d o V a lle jo

T h is F A Q b o o k w o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s ib le w it h th e c o lla b o r a tio n o f se ve ra l

A K In te ra ctiv e

frie n d s w h o m I th a n k th e ir tim e , s u p p o r t a n d w o r k f o r th e r e a liz a tio n o f th is p ro je c t a n d a re :

C hief Editor D a n ie l Z a m a rb id e

A rt D irection A K In te ra ctiv e

Graphie D esign B M S D e s ig n s A K In te ra ctiv e

A itor A zk u e Juan V illegas Castro A nd rés M ontiel "Chem a" M artinez Fernández A nton io Morant A ndrés M artinez Rom ero A n g el Blasco Jim Hatch Tom ek W ajnkaim

Legal Deposit L R - 2 1 9 -2 0 1 5

A n d a b o v e a ll, I w a n t to t h a n k a ll th e ir s u p p o r t , t r u s t , tip s a n d id e a s fo r d e v e lo p m e n t o f th is b o o k to:

Maciej Goralczyk Fernando Vallejo T o all o f th e m T H A N K S .

(c) 2 0 1 5 A K In te ra ctiv e . A ll r ig h t re se rv e d . N o p a r t o f th is p u b lic a tio n m a y b e re p ro d u c e d o r tra n sm it­ te d in a n y fo rm o r b y a n y m e a n s, e le c tr o n ic o r m e c h a n ic a l, a c t u a l o r fu tu re , in c lu d in g p h o to c o p y , re c o r d in g o r a n y in fo rm a tio n s t o r a g e o r re trie va l syste m , w it h o u t p e r m issio n in w r it in g fro m th e p u b lish e rs.

F o llo w u s in

I w o uld like to sta rt by than king you for b u yin g this book, w hose

w rite a book like all the other books available on the m arket. I b e­

aim is to provide you w ith a guide , as w ell as help in g you out dur­

lieve that this w ay of e xplain ing how to w ork on a m odel, is actually

in g a po ssible creative “crisis". It also attem pts to m otivate us to

far better, or at least, it is w h at I like to fin d if I w as lo oking for a

continue w o rkin g on our m odel, as w ell as to do it in a reasonable

g u id e book m yself.

am ount of tim e. It w ill especially help us to face the ch allen ge of im proving the techniques that each of us used on our m odels.

T h e m o st co m p lica te d te ch n iq u e s in som e o f th o se a fo re m e n ­ tio n e d b o o k s o fte n d a z z le th e m o d e lle r w ith th e ir s p e cta cu la r

A ll the techniques that I present to y ou th ro u gh o u t this book are

re su lts, d r iv in g him /he r to u se th em . H o w ev er, w h e n th e y at­

characterized by their sim plicity. D urin g my 25 years in the m odel­

te m p t th em , th e re is a re a liza tio n th a t som e v ita l ste p s a re m iss­

ling w orld, I have tried to use and create techniques and solutions

in g , o r th a t a m ore d e ta ile d e x p la n a tio n is re q u ire d . T h is fin d s

that can be used and im proved upon, re g ard le ss o f the ty p e of

th e m o d e lle r h a lf w a y in to a te ch n iq u e , an d u n ab le to o b ta in

aircraft m odel.

th a t a m a z in g fin is h . T h is is e x a ctly w h a t I h a ve trie d to av o id in t h is b o o k .

T h ro u gh o u t these last years, m any o f us have bo ugh t books and specialized m agazin es in this area, bu t in m y case, these did not

T h e m o d e lle r, in m y h u m b le o p in io n , m u st be so m e o n e w h o

really help me, as they had too m any 'in text' explanatio ns, and

is e n te rp ris in g , cu rio u s a n d re stle ss, s o m e o n e w h o e n jo y s re ­

not en ou gh graph ic illustration. This w a s w h at I actually needed.

s e a rc h in g n e w p ro d u c ts , to o ls a s w e ll as te ch n iq u e s th a t w ill

This book has been de signe d so that you m ay easily find that sam e

o ffe r m ore realism to h is/h er co m p le te d m o d els. A g o o d m o d e l­

inform ation that I w as lo oking for in those books. By that, I mean

ler m u st like to t ry n e w t h in g s a n d u sin g th o se e x p e rie n c e s fo r

help and sup po rt for those techniques and essential skills that w e

fu rth e r p ro je cts also. A m o d e lle r h a s to be w illin g to in tro d u ce

m ust deal w ith w hen w o rking on an aircraft m odel, regardless of

n e w te ch n iq u e s fro m o th e r m o d e llin g area s, su ch as m ilitary,

its typ e or scale. I have tried to be as visual and as straightforw ard

n a va l, civil w o rk s an d eve n fig u re s . M an y o f th o se te ch n iq u e s

as I can, allo w in g the ph otograp hs to explain 75% of the process,

are p e rfe ctly v alid fo r th e airc ra ft m o d e llin g w o rld , so, it is g o o d

and the text only 25% .

to try a n d in co rp o ra te th em in to w h a t y o u w ill le arn w ith th e te ch n iq u e s y o u w ill learn in t h is g u id e .

A ll the techniques explain ed and developed th ro u gh o u t this book should serve as a basis to be im proved upon by you, and not as a

M o reo ver, t h is b o o k h a s b e e n cre a te d w ith m y g re a te s t e ffo rt.

rigid 'how -to'. Learn how to unfold the secrets o f this a m azin g h o b­

It re p re se n ts th e m o st im p o rta n t w o rk o f m y m o d e llin g life . I

by, and pass that kno w le dge onto the ne xt generation o f modeller.

h o p e it can fu lfil its o b je ctiv e s a n d m atch y o u r e x p e c ta tio n s .

Th ro u g h the exam p le s show n in th is m anual, w e d e velo p tech ­

Daniel Zamarbide Suárez

niques that can be used on any typ e of m odel. My aim w a sn 't to

Presentation

6 E X TER IO R D E T A ILS ................................................... 153

1 1N TR O D U C TIO N .

6.1 P r o p e l le r s a n d s p i n n e r s 6.1.1 W o r ld W a r O n e ..................................................................................1 5 4 6.1.1.1 G e r m a n p r o p e lle r .........................................................................155 6 .1 .1 .2 B ritish p ro p e lle r .............................................................................157 6 .1 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o .................................................................................1 5 8 6 .1 .2 .1 G e r m a n p r o p e lle r ....................................................................... 1 58 6 .1 .2 .2 B ritish p r o p e lle r ........................................................................... 1 6 0 6 1 .2 .3 U .S . p r o p e lle r ............................................................................... 162 6.1 2 .4 Ja p a n e s e p ro p e lle r ......................................................................1 64 6 .2 W h e e l s a n d l a n d i n g g e a r 6 .2 .1 W h e e l s w i t h m e t a l l i c r i m s ...............................................................1 6 6 6 .2 .2 W h e e ls w i t h b la c k r i m s ...............................................................167 6 .2 .3 W h e e l s w i t h w h i t e r i m s ............................................................. 1 6 8 6 .2 .4 L a n d i n g g e a r w i t h f i t t e d w h e e ls .......................................... 1 70 6 .2 .5 M e t a llic L a n d i n g g e a r .................................................................. 172 6 .3 L a n d i n g G e a r D o o r s 6 .3 .1 W h it e l a n d i n g g e a r d o o r s ..........................................................174 6 .3 .2 G r e e n l a n d i n g g e a r d o o r s ..........................................................175 6 .3 .3 B lu e a n d m e t a l l i c d o o r s a n d w h e e l b a y s .........................176 6 .4 W e a p o n s a n d f u e l t a n k s 6 .4 .1 B o m b s ..................................................................................................... 1 78 6 .4 1.1 C o ld W a r e ra U .S . b o m b s ........................................................ 178 6 .4 1.2 W W 2 U .S . b o m b s ....................................................................... 1 80 6 .4 .2 M is s ile s ....................................................................................................1 84 6 .4 .3 F u e l t a n k s .............................................................................................1 8 8 6 .4 .4 G u n s ........................................................................................................1 9 0 6 .4 .5 P y l o n s .......................................................................................................192 6 .4 .5 .1 W h it e p y lo n s ................................................................................. 192 6 .4 .5 .1 G re y p y lo n s ................................................................ 193 6 .5 E x h a u s t s a n d n o z z l e s 6 .5 .1 I n lin e e n g i n e e x h a u s t s ................................................................. 1 9 4 6 .5 .2 R a d ia l e n g i n e e x h a u s t s ...............................................................1 95 6 .5 .3 N o z z l e w i t h a d j u s t a b l e p e t a l s ................................................1 9 6 6 .5 .4 N o z z l e w i t h o u t p e t a l s ................................................................. 1 97 6 .6 W a l k w a y s ...................................................................................................... 1 9 8 6 .6 .1 W a lk w a y . E x a m p l e 1 ......................................................................1 9 8 6 .6 .2 W a lk w a y . E x a m p le 2 ..................................................................... 2 0 0 6 .7 M a k i n g a n d u s i n g p a i n t m a s k s 6.7.1 T r a n s p a r a n c i e s ...................................................................................2 0 2 6 .7 .2 L e t t e r s a n d n u m b e r s ....................................................................2 0 3 6 .7 .3 R o u n d e l s a n d l i n e s ......................................................................... 2 0 4 6 .7 .4 G e r m a n c r o s s e s ................................................................................. 2 0 6 6 .8 E n g i n e s 6 .8 .1 W o r ld W a r O n e ................................................................................ 2 0 8 6 .8 .1 .1 In lin e e n g in e ................................................................................2 0 8 6 .8 .1 .2 R a d ia l e n g i n e ............................................................................... 2 12 6 .8 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o 6 .8 .2 .1 Ja p a n e s e r a d ia l e n g i n e ..................... 214 6 .8 2 2 Ja p a n e s e ra d ia l e n g in e a n d h o o d ................................2 1 8 6 .8 .2 .3 U .S . ra d ia l e n g in e ...................................................................... 2 2 2

2 ASEMBI.Y, PREPARATION AND M A T E R IA LS ....11 2.3 C utting and sa n d in g ................................................................12 2.1 G lue and its a p p lica tio n s ....................................................... 14 2.2 Putties........................................................................................ 16 2.4 Scribed rivets............................................................................ 18 2.5 R escribing panel lin e s ............................................................ 20 2.6 Stressed skin e ffe ct.................................................................22 2.7 Sep arating flig h t control su rfa ce s.......................................24 2.8 P hoto-etcned p a rts .................................................................26 2.9 Resins and m etal p a r t s .......................................................... 28 2.10 W ire s ........................................................................................ 30 2.11 W orking w ith vacuum -form ed can o p ie s.......................... 31 2.12 Position lig h t s ........................................................................40 2.13 A n ten n ae................................................................................. 42 2.14 Control cables and stru ts .....................................................44 2.15 Scratch m aterials and to o ls.................................................48

3 P A IN TIN G G U ID E.

.51

3.1 Prim ers........................................................................................52 3.2 P aints..........................................................................................53 3.3 V arnishes...................................................................................58 3.4 Th in ners and a u xiliary pro d u cts.......................................... 59 3.5 A irb ru sh .....................................................................................60 3.6 Brush es......................................................................................62

4 T E C H N IC S ............................................................................65 4.1 Prim ing ...................................................................................66 4.2 Paneling ...................................................................................67 4.2.1 Panel p re s h a d e ................................................................ 68 4.2.2 Line p re sh a d e ...................................................................70 4.2.3 Paneling w ith ta p e .......................................................... 71 4.3 C am o u flage w ith a irb ru sh ....................................................72 4.4 Panel lig h t in g .......................................................................... 76 4.5 D ecals......................................................................................... 78 4.6 D em arcating p a n e ls................................................................80 4.7 W ashes.......................................................................................82 4.8 Filters..........................................................................................84 4.9 Fluid s.......................................................................................... 85 4.10 Rust........................................................................................... 88 4.11 C hip p in g and scratch e s........................................................ 90 4.12 Sm oxe s ta in s .......................................................................... 98 4.13 D irt and s tr e a k s ................................................................... 102

5

IN TER IO R .

.10 7

7 CAMOUFLAGE. PAINTING AND WEATHERING .2 2 5 7.1 W o r ld W a r O n e 7.1.1 F a b r ic - c o v e r e d s u r f a c e s ............................................................... 2 2 6 7 .1 .2 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g o i l s ................................2 2 8 7 .1 .3 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g a c r y l i c s ........................2 2 9 7 .1 .4 U s in g w o o d g r a i n d e c a l s .............................................................2 3 0 7 .1 .5 P a i n t in g w o o d g r a i n e f f e c t u s i n g m a s k s ......................... 231 7 .1 .6 L o z e n g e c a m o u f l a g e .....................................................................2 3 2 7 .2 W o r ld W a r T w o 7.2.1 B r it is h S c h e m e s ................................................................................. 2 3 4 7.2.1.1 T e m p e ra te L a n d s c h e m e ........................................................ 2 3 4 7 .2 .1 .2 D a y F ig h te r s c h e m e .................................................................. 2 3 8 7 .2 .2 U .S . S c h e m e s .......................................................................................2 4 2 7 .2 .2 .1 O liv e d ra b /N e u tra l g r a y ............................................................2 4 2 7 .2 .2 .2 U .S . N a v y s c h e m e ...................................................................... 2 4 6 7 .2 .3 J a p a n e s e S c h e m e s .......................................................................... 2 5 0 7 .2 .3 .1 G re e n s c h e m e ............................................................................. 2 5 0 7 .2 .3 .2 N a tu ra l m e ta l f in is h .................................................................. 2 5 4 7 .2 .4 G e r m a n S c h e m e s ............................................................................. 2 5 7 7 .2 .4 .1 D e s e r t s c h e m e ............................................................................. 2 5 7 7 .2 .4 .2 W in te r s c h e m e ............................................................................2 6 0 7 .2 .4 .3 M o ttle a n d w a v e s ...................................................................... 2 6 4 7 .3 T h e J e t A g e ................................................................................................... 2 6 7 7.3.1 U .S . j e t a i r c r a f t ...................................................................................2 6 7 7.3.1.1 S E A . s c h e m e ...............................................................................2 6 7 7 .3 .1 .2 U .S . N a v y s c h e m e .......................................................................2 7 0 7 .3 .2 N a t u r a l m e t a l f i n i s h ....................................................................... 2 7 4 7 .3 .3 S o v i e t j e t a i r c r a f t ............................................................................2 7 8 7 .3 .3 .1 D e s e r t sc h e m e . E x a m p le 1 .....................................................2 7 8 7 .3 .3 .2 D e s e r t sc h e m e . E x a m p le 2 ................................................... 2 8 2

5.1 Seats 5.1.1 W o r ld W a r T w o 5 .1 .1.1 B ritish S e a t ..................................................................... 5 .1 .1 .2 Ja p a n e s e S e a t .............................................................. 5 .1 .1 .3 G e r m a n S e t a t .............................................................. 5 .1 .2 T h e J e t A g e 5.1.2 .1 U .S . e je c tio n se a t ( g r a y ) ......................................... 5 .1 .2 .2 U .S . e je c tio n se a t ( b l a c k ) .......................................

. 1 08

.110 .111

112 114

5.2 Instrum ent Panels 5 .2 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o 5.2.1 .1 S c ra tc h b u ilt in s tru m e n t p a n e l ............................................. 116 5 .2 .1 .2 G e r m a n in s tru m e n t p a n e l....................................................... 117 5 .2 .1 .3 B ritish in s tr u m e n t p a n e l........................................................... 118 5 .2 .1 .4 U .S . in s tru m e n t p a n e l........................... 119 5 .2 .1 .5 Ja p a n e s e in s tru m e n t p a n e l....................................................1 20 5 .2 .2 T h e J e t A g e 5 .2 .2 .1 Je t a ir c r a ft in s tru m e n t p a n e l................................................. 121 5 .2 .2 .2 Je t a ircra ft instrum e n t p an e l im p ro ve d w ith p h o to -e tch e d a n d scratch b uilt d eta ils 122

5.3 Cockpits 5 .3 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o 5.3.1 -1 U .S , c o c k p i t ....................................................................................124 5 .3 .1 .2 B ritish c o c k p it ................................................................................126 5 .3 .1 .3 Ja p a n e s e c o c k p i t ........................................................................ 1 28 5 .3 .1 .4 G e r m a n c o c k p it ........................................................................... 1 30 5 .3 .2 T h e J e t A g e 5 .3 .2 .1 U .S . C o c k p i t .................................................................................. 131 5 .3 .2 .2 S o v ie t C o c k p it .............................................................................. 135

5.4 Pilots 5 .4 .1 W o r ld W a r T w o p ilo t s 5.4.1 1 B ritish p il o t ............................................................................... 136 5 .4 .1 .2 G e r m a n p ilo t .................................................................................1 38 5 .4 .1 .3 Ja p a n e s e p ilo t............................................................................... 1 40 5 .4 .1 .4 U .S . p il o t ... .142 5 .4 .2 J e t a i r c r a f t p il o t i m p r o v e m e n t .............................................. 1 4 4 5 .4 .3 M o d i f i e d a i r c r a f t c r e w ................................................................ 1 48

5.5 Stru ctu re s............................................................................... 150

8

S P EC IA L FIN ISH ES A N D M A R K IN G S ..... 287 8.1 Burnt a re a s ............................................................................. 288 8.2 Black p a in t ............................................................................. 290 8.3 C h e ckb o a rd ............................................................................ 291 8.4 Invasion s tr ip e s .....................................................................293

8.5 M etal w e ath erin g ...................... . 8.6 Flight control surfaces shading. 8.7 Shark mouth 8.7.1 Shark m outh P 3 9 ....................... 8 .7 .2 Shark m outh P 4 0 .......................

294 296 297 300

9 S C EN ES ..............................

303

9.1 A ircraft carrier deck section 9.2 D esert T e rra in ........................ 9.3 Cem ent T ra c k ......................... 9.4 Vehicles ................................

....304 ....308 ....310 ....312

10 G A LLER Y

Sprue cutters will be good for separating the pieces from the sprues without damaging them.

/ 'A

i p c r^ A i

rrn rn

woo *200

Wet/Dry sandpaper sheets of different grits are

The flexibility of the sanding sticks makes them perfect for

perfect for sanding plastic. Always remember to dampen them first.

small spaces.

When sanding, we always need to follow the shapes of the plane to avoid other details we don't wish to sand. These kinds of sanding sticks will allow us to adapt to those surfaces.

12 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

Este tipo de herramientas nos permiten limpiar piezas con dificil acceso.

Side cutters are the best tool for cutting parts off sprues. The flat side of the cutter should normally be put against the part to be removed. I don t cut right up against the part, as this way I could inadvertently damage the edge or surface of it. I always leave a small amount of sprue attached to the part, which then requires further clean up

Next, I carefully remove the sprue remnants using a sharp craft knife or fine sanding stick, and then further smooth the connection area with sandpaper of different grits, to get an even and neat surface. During this process, I progressively switch to higher grade grits, beginning with 800 and finishing with 1500 I don't recommend the use of abrasives of a lower grade than 600-800, as the latter may cause scratches or scars on the sanded surface.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 13

2. ASEMRLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS 2.2 CLUES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS T h e re are g lu e s o n th e m a rk e t w ith d iffe re n t c h a ra c te ris tic s th a t w ill m a k e th e m su ita b le fo r d iffe re n t u ses. In stru c tio n s m u st b e re a d a lw a y s b e fo re o p e n in g th e p a c k a g in g D u r in g th e a sse m b ly w e w ill u se o n e o r se ve ra l g lu e s. T h e y a re in d isp e n sa b le p ro d u c ts w h e n a s s e m b lin g o u r „ w y o d e l s . W e w ill try to e x p la in th e c h a ra c te ris tic s o f th e m o s t c o m m o n o nes. Û

1 J

Liquid glues Liquid glues for plastic actually melt the plastic. A s a result, the joining between different pieces is perfect. Usually, they come with a brush in the cap to facilitate their application. They evaporate very fast. They glue by capillarity, which allows us to join the piece and apply the glue just where we wish. It is the best glue for assembling our models.

Gel Glues Other glues for plastic are the gel glues. They usually come in a tube. We have to apply them on the piece before placing it, because they do not act by capillarity as the ones before. We must not apply too much glue to avoid dampening the pieces and damaging the plastic.

Cyanoacrylate We also have cyano glues, otherwise known as "Super Glue". These are fast, but, unlike the liquid glues, they do not melt and blend the plastic, so the union is more fragile. These glues are good for gluing photo-etched or metal pieces. There are also products to speed up this process, such as liquid or spray catalysts as well as products to remove the adhesive. They come in various thicknesses. Take care with your fingers!

Resin glues Other kinds of adhesives, such as the resin ones, are ready to be mixed with any kind of pigments as well as to create textures. But, if we use them with a small brush, we can glue small photo etched pieces and manipulate them comfortably before they completely dry.

White glue and dérivâtes "iî/ U . FOFinally, acrylic-based white glues (or its improved byproducts, like Gatorglue, Micro, etc...) allow us a much more flexible fix. They are perfect for gluing transparent pieces because their unions are invisible and they avoid some of those vapours that can damage the pieces. They do not dry quickly, but this allows us to rectify the position of the piece before they completely dry.

14 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

« D H E S IV f

Tamiya Extra Thin Cement is a glue which is extremely easy to use. With this very thin glue, we first put the plastic parts together, and then run the cement brush along the join. The cement is so thin that it is drawn into the joint using capillary action. We then leave the parts, secured with a little tape or clamps and allow to dry for a few hours

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 15

Dealing with ejector pin marks Ejector pins are part of the kit's mold, which spring outwards, ejecting the cooled parts from the tooling. A s these pins come into contact with the plastic, they invariably leave a small circular mark on our parts, and this is one of the issues with which we have to deal with when building model such as these. Raised pin marks should be cut down with a sharp craft knife, and the area then smoothed with sandpaper. In the case of recessed marks, I fill

Once the compound fully cures,

these with a thick liquid compound, namely Mr.Surfacer from Mr.Hobby. I apply this into

I sand it with a piece of fine sandpaper, held with tweezers,

each cavity, using a brush.

in order to get an even surface.

When the injected plastic does not fully fill the mold, small, localized depressions are created. Such molding

To deal with them, I also use Mr.Surfacer

flaws are called sink marks.

sink marks with the liquid compound.

500. With a small brush, I 'overpaint' the

Once the compound fully cures, I sand the surface in a circular motion, using sanding sticks of increasingly fine grit. During this process, I start with a fine grade abrasive and progressively switch to higher grade grits which polish the surface. Done correctly, you should see no surface irregularities.

Taking advantage of the short curing time, I can quickly apply a few layers of glue. After 10 to 12 minutes. I can start to sand the seam

The first thing to do whenever you are going to start with this type of effect, is

By pressing the riveter into the surface of the plastic, we end up with a slightly raised

to get some good blueprints of the aircraft’s rivet patterns. Then with a pencil,

area around each rivet. These need to be removed with a piece of fine sandpaper, to

I mark these rivet lines, and roll over them with the riveting tool which will

leave the surface uniformly smooth.

create the small dimple impressions into the plastic surface. Another example: this time we will make some deeper rivets on surface of the wing.

With a metal straight­

Here you can see the lines

edge, and following the

which are added with an HB

reference blueprints for

hardness pencil.

the plane. I mark the lines where the rivets rows will be added.

This is the section of the model onto which I will add rivet detail

Now. with the riveter. I start pressing by rolling the tool over the pencil lines I have

A m

just marked. We must ensure that, at the start of I each row, that we always 1 begin with the same tooth

t

of the riveting tool, starting from the same point on each line. This will make the rivet pattern as parallel as possible to the adjacent row.

Rivet lines marked with a pencil, from the previous step.

Pushing the rivet tool into the plastic will inevitably cause some plastic around each rivet to appear raised. This raised plastic now needs to be removed...

...with a piece of very fine sandpaper, leaving the surface completely smooth.

With a micro drill bit, inserted into a pin vise. I hand drill each rivet in a size which is representative of the scale of the model.

2. ASEMliLY IMÎEPÀIÎATION AND MATERIALS 2.5 RESCINDING PANEL LINES to m o d e m sta n d ard s in w h ich th e p an e l lines are e n gra ve d in th e fu se la ge

If w e o v e rp a ss a n in te rse c tio n o f lin e s, w e c a n fill it in w it h p u t ty o r w ith p ro d u c ts s u c h a s M r. S u r fa c e r to le a ve t h e u n io n o r in te rse c tio n

o f th e m o de ls. To d o this, w e have to e n gra ve th e p an e l lines w ith a scriber

in p e r fe c t c o n d itio n

u sin g th e m o d e ls lines a s a gu id e . T h e scrib e r is a sh a rp p u n ch m o re o r less

F in a lly, w e u se liq u id g lu e (T a m iy a c e m e n t ty p e ) to s m o o t h th e

so p h istica te d u sed to e n g ra ve th o se lines in plastic.

e n g ra v e d p a n e l lin e s. U s in g its f in e b ru sh w e p ro c e e d to p a in t th o se '

S o m e tim e s, th e relief o f th e se p a n e l lin e s is m inim al, b u t w e h a v e to p la ce

line s. T h is b ru sh w ill a ls o b e u se fu l to e lim in a te th e d u s t a n d s h a v in g s

th icker a d h e sive ta p e w h e re th e p a n e l line g o e s to g iv e u s a g o o d e d g e to

th a t a re g e n e r a te d d u r in g th e p ro c e ss

run th e scrib e r a g a in st U sin g so m e tap e a s a g u id e , w e m a rk all th e p an e ls.

S o m e o f th e p a n e l lin e s in o ld m o d e ls a re ra ise d . In th is ca se , w h a t

D y m o ta p e is p e rfe c t fo r th is task

w e d o is s a n d th e m d o w n s o w e c a n la te r a p p ly th e e n g r a v in g lin e s p ro c e ss o n th e m

M an y m o de ls, e spe cially if their m o uld s a re o ld, n ee d to b e u pd ate d a cco rd in g

Different types of materials that we can use for engraving lines

Jeweler saws used with photo-etched are perfect for cutting very delicate pieces, or for re-marking the lines in the panels and adding depth to them.

Sharp punch used for an engraving line tool

Different plastic tapes that will work as a

When engraving lines, we can use a guide

guide and support for engraving lines.

It is convenient that those tools are well sharpened

2. ASEMliLY P EPA AT ON AM MATERIALS 2.li STIlESSEI) SHIN EFFECT T o re p re se n t d e n ts w e c a n u se a r o ta r y to o l w ith a d rill h e a d . T h is te c h n iq u e ca n b e o f h elp . e sp e c ia lly in b ig g e r sca le s. To c re a te d e n ts a n d h its in th e su rfa c e o f th e p la n e , w e w ill u se a d rill in th e m id d le a re a s b e tw e e n th e rive ts, ta k in g c a re o f n o t m e ltin g th e p la s tic, w h ic h c a n h a p p e n d u e to th e sp e e d o f th e m in i drill a n d th e h e a t p ro d u c e d b y th e fric tio n T h is w o u ld b e a n e x a m p le o f th e re q u ire d ste p s

A n electric mini drill with a bit for levelling and another one for polishing is used to apply the following steps.

:lc c o o t i n g

Marks of the drill bit of the micro drill for dent effects.

Pt200

l smooth the area where I have used the mini □nil using sandpaper. Firstly, I use thicker grit but I finish with some finer ones

I apply the Mr. Surfacer with a ... and I spread it over the area where the dents are.

fine brush,...

I remove the excess Mr. S u r f a c e r ,^ once it is dry, with very fine sandpaper.

Finally, I start carefully polishing the area with a Doiishing cloth placed in the head of the mini drill.

Completely finished process

AFT

A ir c r a ft ca n h ave m a n y ro w s o f rivets, d e p e n d in g e n tire ly o n th e in te rn a l s tru ctu re s o ve r w h ic h th e a lu m in iu m sk in is fitte d . M a k in g im p ro ve m e n ts o f th is ty p e ca n ta k e tim e a n d p ro v e to b e a ve ry la b o rio u s p ro ce ss. T h is ca n b e im p ro ve d e ve n fu rth e r b y a d d in g a ’ stre sse d s k in ’ e ffe ct th at w ill g iv e m o re re alism to th e m o d e l. For th is e x a m p le I w ill u se th e fu s e la g e o f a 1/32 K i- 4 4 , fro m H a s e g a w a

y To create the look of stressed skin I use a knife with a curved blade, gently scraping

To add more realism to these areas, I press harder on some points, and less hard on

the plastic between each row of rivets.

others, creating dimples of varying depths

Appearance of the fuselage with the stressed skin ' effect applied Difference between both fuselages. The upper is without rivets, and the lower has been riveted and had the "stressed skin effect applied

3rocess finished

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 23

2. ASEMRLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS 2.7 SEPARATING FLIK IT CONTROL SURFACES C u t t in g a n d m o v in g th e fly in g s u rfa c e s a lw a y s a d d a lo t o f d y n a m ism to th e p la n e . T h e h a rd e r it is, th e m o re s p e c ta c u la r th e fin a l re su lt w ill b e. B e fo re - w e s t a rt c u tt in g , w e s h o u ld t r y se ve ra l tim e s o v e r th e p la c e w h e r e th e fla p * and*aiTeron T h a t w e w a'nt "to m o v e ” W é m u s t p a y atte ntion * to*th é p o sitio n o f th e fly in g su r fa c e to a v o id m a k in g a n y m ista k e s w h e n sy n c h r o n iz in g a n d a s s e m b lin g th e p ie c e s O n c e w e h a v e cu t th e p ie c e s, w e w ill u se t w o -c o m p o n e n t p u t ty to se a l th e

J

g a p th a t re m a in s b e tw e e n th e u p p e r a n d lo w e r p a rts o f th e w in g . O n c e it is c/ry. w e w ill s h a p e it w it h a se m ic irc u la r s e c tio n , w h ic h w ill a llo w u s to c h a n g e

. its p o sitio n w h e n w e p la c e it. W h ile th e p u t t y is still fre s h , I re c o m m e n d in t r o d u c in g s o m e c o p p e r w ire sp o k e s o f a c e r ta in th ic k n e s s in th e p ie c e th a t w e w a n t to m o v e fo r a b e tte r fix. T h is e x a m p le w ill h e lp u s to s h o w y o u th is p a r t o f th e a sse m b ly .

For this example, I will use the w ings of a B-25 Mitchell.

Surface of the direction rudders

Surface of the deep rudders.

Using a cutter, I will slowly mark the plastic by its panel line. To finish it up, I will cut the pieces with a very fine handsaw.

Surfaces cut from the direction rudders

Allready cut pieces.

Surface cut from the deep rudders.

I detail the pushers’ hinges of the flying surfaces and then, fill in the gaps of the upper and lower part with a two-component putty.

The gaps between the upper and lower surfaces are also filled in. Once the putty is dry, I sand it to shape i t I finish the pushers with pieces of copper w ire .

I repeat the process in the direction rudders surface with the same procedure as the one in the previous picture

Wing s flying surfaces

The combination of the flying surfaces already finished and ready to be placed in the model

AIRCRAFT FAQ

25

2. ASEMDLY 'PREPARATION AND MATERIALS 2.D PHOTO ETCHED PARTS i .... " T h e r e a re t h o u s a n d s o f p h o to -e t c h e d s e ts o n th e m a rk e t, e ve n m o re th a n m o d e ls. T h e s e p ie c e s a re v e ry in te re stin g b e c a u s e th e y a llo w us

m e ta llic s a n d p a p e r o r a sm a ll h a n d y f ile s a lo n g w it h a v e ry fin e * sa n d p a p e r. W e s a n d th e a re a w h e r e th e p h o to -e t c h e d w ill b e g lu e d

to im p ro v e th e m o d e ls, a lth o u g h s o m e o f th e ir p ie c e s, d u e to th e ir

in o r d e r to o b ta in a b e tte r g rip .

th in n e s s a n d th e s c a le , a re u se le ss.

W e w ill u se c y a n o ty p e g lu e (n o rm a l o r g e l) o r th e re s in -b a s e d g lu e s ,

- T h r o u g h o u t tim e , th e se p h o to -e t c h e d se ts h a v e e v o lv e d

T h e first

" lin e s w e re m a d e o f co p p e r. T h e n , th e y w e r e c o lo u r e d , a c tu a lly in ve ry

w h ic h a llo w u s to p la y a little b it w ith th e p h o to -e t c h e d , to p la c e it in th e rig h t p la ce .

g o o d d e ta il. N o w a d a y s , w e c a n e v e n fin d s e lf a d h e siv e etch .

O n c e th e p h o to e tc h e d p ie c e s a re in p la c e a n d ju s t b e fo re w e sta rt

T o u se th e se p ie c e s it is c o n v e n ie n t to h a v e g o o d to o ls, su c h a s g o o d c u tt in g p lie rs, m e ta l file s, a n d v e ry th in tw e e z e rs . O n c e th e se p ie c e s

p a in tin g , it is r e c o m m e n d a b le to a p p ly a la ye r o f p rim e r o v e r th e w h o le m o d e l. T h is w a y , th e b a s e la ye r o f p a in t w ill h o ld b ette r.

a re c u t fro m th e fre ts, w e e lim in a te th e fla s h fro m th e u n io n w ith

Nowadays, photo-etched sets cover all the parts of a model, from the cockpit

Using very fine pliers, I cut the places where the

and engine up to the exteriors. In some cases, they are coloured and selfadhesive.

piece joins the general photo-etched sprue,

»5$Cfc RES/W

We can use cyano glue, either normal or gel, or, as in

Glued piece in place

this case, resin-based glue

«

There also are specific liquids to treat these pieces.

Î I '

h

.N 0

Using this kind of liquid, we will be able to remove the varnish from the brass and the piece will be ready and with a better grip getting it ready to be painted.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 27

2. ASEMIÎLY I’ llEI’AltATION AND MATERIALS 2.9 HE8IN AND METAL PARTS N o w a d a y s , th e q u a lity o f th e re sin s e ts is im p re ssiv e . T h e y a d a p t

fo u n d fo r fin is h e d c o c k p it s , fin e ly re p ro d u c e d e n g in e s , fly in g

b e t te r a n d b e t te r to th e m o d e l th e y h a v e b e e n d e s ig n e d f o r

s u rfa ce s, w h e e ls o r a r m a m e n t. W e r e c o m m e n d y o u to w a s h

S o m e m o d e ls a re e v e n c o m p le te ly m a d e o f re sin

th e m f ir s t w it h s o a p a n d w a te r, a n d th e n to c o v e r th e m w it h a

W e m u s t a lw a y s b e v e ry c a re fu l w h e n m a n ip u la t in g th e se k in d s

laye r o f g r e y p rim e r to d e te c t a n y sm a ll fa ilu re s o n th e su rfa c e

o f p ie c e s, e sp e c ia lly w h e n c u tt in g th e m fro m th e ir s u p p o r t w it h a

a fte r th e y h a v e b e e n p la c e d a n d g lu e d

cu tte r, a v e ry fin e sa w , o r a s h a rp kn ife . Im p ro v e m e n t se ts c a n b e

nient to wash » all the resm pans v.ith

rm

water and soap in order

3090

HiJilTiin.i'e any mould rel. ase grease from thn mould • the as well as

n avoid any problems uring the next steps of the painting process

use cyano type glues to glue the different resm pieces Some catalysts such as accelerator can be used to speed Resm model and materials

up this gluing process.

We must have the right tools to work with resin. In this case, saws are essential

Several sets of different kinds models and brands

SP-ZUO ' SP-ZUO '

SP-ZU O '' SP-ZUO*

Several sets of different kinds. models and brands

28

KCRAFT FAQ

,

An exam ple o f how to manipulate a resin wheel

Piece straight

I start to separate the wheel

from the bag.

using a handsaw with very fine teeth.

Resin wheel separated from its support

Using low-grit sandpaper, I eliminate the cutting marks

I remove the excess with a sharp knife.

Then, I polish the area with fine sandpaper

Wheel ready to use

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 29




2. A8EMDLY P E »A AT ON AND MATEDIALS 2 .0 W DES M a n y d if f e r e n t w ir e s m a d e o f s e v e r a l m a te r ia ls a n d w it h d if f e r e n t

C o p p e r is a n o t h e r m a lle a b le m a te ria l w h ic h a d a p t s v e r y w e ll. Its

th ic k n e s s e s are u se d to d e ta il m a n y p a r t s o f th e m o d e ls. T h e y a re p e r f e c t

a d v a n t a g e s a re th a t, o n c e in p la c e , it is m o re r e s is ta n t to h its , it

* to r th e c o c k p it s , e n g in e s , a n d g u n b ay s.

is n o t e a sily d e fo rm e d a n d it c a n b e g lu e d w it h a n y ty p e o f c y a n o .

O n th e m a rk e t, w e c a n o b ta in th e m in d iffe r e n t k in d s a n d th ic k n e s s e s . T in

In e v e ry ca se , w e w ill c h o o s e th e ir th ic k n e s s in re la tio n to th e sca le .

w ir e s a re ve ry m a lle a b le a n d th e y a d a p t to a n y p ie c e g lu e d w it h c y a n o .

m o d e l a n d k in d o f d e ta il, n o t th e ir n atu re

*9

Tin wires

Copper Wires

Many brands sell different thickness wires for wiring any part of the plane, and wires with different scales to avoid oversizing the wires

Example of a wire plane engine

30 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

I apply polish over the whole piece and then, let it dry for 10 minutes.

Using a doth I slowly polish it until the piece is completely glossy.

.

rt is good to use a specific plastic polish for the transparent pieces in the box.

When gluing these pieces we must remember to use the right glue, as well as to manipulate them with clean hands as any glue stain would ruin their transparency.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 31

M a n y o f th e tra n sp a re n t p ie c e s th a t c o m e w ith th e m o d e l u su a lly h ave a n a n n o y in g jo in t, w h ic h c re a te s a kin d o f ra ise d line in th e m id d le o f th e p ie ce. T h is line w ill d im m ish th e re a lism o f th e m o d e l o n c e th is is fin ish e d . Its co m p le te e ra su re re q u ire s a lo t o f w o rk .

To eliminate the line, we sand it with 1200 grit sandpaper or higher.

Gently, we remove the line drawn with the marker by making small circles along the line.

I finish the process with super fine sandpaper, about 2000-3000 g r it , which is almost

I use a plastic polish (in this case, Tamiya Compound) to apply a thick coat of the

imperceptible to the human eye or touch.

product over all the sanded areas. Then, I let it dry for 5 minutes.

2.11.1 VACUUM CANOPIES If th e tra n sp a re n t p ie ce d o e s n o t e xist o n th e m a rke t, w e ca n cre a te it u sin g a m o u ld a n d a v a c u u m m a ch in e . W e ca n a lso u se a h e a t so u rc e su ch a s a lighter, a h air d ry e r o r a c a n d le to so fte n th e a ce ta te a n d a d ju st it to th e p ie c e itse lf o r to a h o m e m a d e m o u ld .

Example 1. Scratch-built sliding hood T h e re a re m a n y a ircra ft th a t h ave e lo n g a te d co c k p its, w h o s e h o o d s slid e b a c k a n d fo rth , b u t th e th ic k n e ss o f th e in je cte d p la stic p a rt ca n so m e tim e s m a ke it im p o ssib le to a ccu ra te ly re p re se n t th is. If w e w is h to p o se th e c a n o p y in a n o p e n p o sitio n , it re q u ire s u s to v a c u u m -fo rm th e h o o d w ith a th in n e r th ick n e ss p la stic. A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e h o o d fo r a 1/32 Ju 8 7 G S tu k a , fro m H a se g a w a .

l remove the ekcess acetate, and gently sand the edges to remove the With a piece of acetate, and using the kit part as its own mold, I plunge the hood into the soft acetate. This perfectly takes on the exact shape of the kit part.

sharpness of them. I now apply narrow pieces of very thin plastic card, to create the raised framework.

Contrast between a newly vacuumThe finished part.

34 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

formed piece, and my finished work.

'

I apply heat to the acetate using either a candle or a cigarette lighter, and when the acetate starts to get very soft, I immediately place it over

I then cut two pieces of acetate, with a thickness which works in accordance to

the epoxy putty mold I have made.

h e s o le I If e mode

mold keeping it for h I ! then inor •

to mark the

I carefully cut out the piece I place it on the model, and once secured. I add the narrow framework around its edge, using thin strips of plastic

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 35

Example 3. Working with vacuum-formed canopies O fte n , w h e n w e b u y a m o d e l, w e m a y se e th a t so m e p a rts are o ve rsize d in th ic k n e ss, a n d w h e n lo o k in g a t th e tra n sp a re n t p ie ces. th is ca n fu rth e r c o m p lic a te th e issu e. T h e e x a m p le th a t I w ill u se here, is th e c a n o p y o f a 1 /48 F 7 U C u tla s s fro m H o b b y c ra ft. I w ill e x p la in h o w , in se ve ra l w a y s, th a t yo u w ill b e a b le t o so lv e th e p ro b le m o f a th ic k c a n o p y

C R Y S T A L CLEAR C A N O P IE S 1 /4 8 s c a le va c -u -fo rm

C h a n c e Vought

F 7 U - 3 C u tla s s

Due to the thickness of the kit canopy, I decided to buy a vacuum-formed part, from the Squadron brand. This replacement is both very thin, and transparent

The difference between each of the canopies is very obvious when you place them

With a marker or fountain pen, I

side by side

outline the contour of the parts

carefully cut around the contours, and remove the excess Drawing around the contours is

acetate from the vacuum-formed canopy parts

now complete.

For the inner, rear structure of the canopy. I trace around the rear contour, whilst holding it flat onto a piece of white plastic card.

After several attempts, it became obvious The profile is now ready to be cut and fastened to the vacuum-formed canopy

36 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

that not even the vacuum-formed canopy w as particularly well-suited to the model. I now had to make the canopy part myself. The canopy on the left is the one made by myself. The center canopy is the kit part, and on the right you can see the Squadron part.

I finish the process by painting the glass of the position light transparent red (...or blue/green, depending on its location).

the position light ready to be painted

38 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

POSITION LIGHTS (BULBS) In some models, position lights are big. In these models it is not the glass that is tinted, as it usually is, in red, green or blue, but the bulb itself. This is

)

^

how it is done: >

Using a lighter we heat up and stretch the transparent plastic.

>

POSITION LIGHTS (ENGRAVED IN PLASTIC) Sometimes, the position lights are so small that they come engraved in the model's plastic. We could eliminate this part and make it ourselves, as we have seen before, or paint it, as we will see in this example.

POSITION LIGHTS (HEADLAMP) Sometimes, the hole of the landing headlamps is poorly designed and the parts do not fit, or simply the piece is too thick. We will see some examples of how to correct the problem.

The hole of the landing headlamp on

I paint the walls and the bottom of the hole matte

the finished and glued wing.

black and the landing headlamp silver.

Many pieces of the glass which protects the landing headlamp are too rough, so we have to Example of a transparent

consider polishing them.

plastic piece in place.

If the piece is thick, we can also use adhesive tape.

I cut a piece of tape to the size of the wing.

The definition that we obtain with the

Then, I trim off the excess tape.

tape is greater than what we get with the plastic piece.

41

2. ASEMRLY PREPARAT OK AND MATERIALS 2.13 ANTENNAS T h e a n te n n a c a b le s o f th e p la n e m u s t b e th e la st ste p in o u r p la n e 's c o n stru ctio n

M a n y a n te n n a c a b le s c a r r y c o u n t e r w e ig h t to ta u te n th e m e ven

a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, b e c a u se th e y a re th e m o st fra g ile p a rt o f th e co m b in a tio n

m o re . W e sim u la te th o se w ith a d ro p o f w h ite g lu e . A s th e g lu e is

W e ca n b uild in m any d iffe re n t w ays: u sin g ve ry fin e w ire s o r e la stic w ire s, w h ich

liq u id , w e p la c e a d ro p o f g lu e o n a p ie c e o f p a p e r a n d let it d ry fo r

just re ce ntly ca m e o u t. T h e b e st w ire fo r this task is n ylon w ire , w h ich is v e ry resist

a b o u t 15 o r 2 0 m in u te s until it h a s h a rd e n e d a little b it. T h e n , w e

a nt a n d h a s a ce rta in e xtru sio n cap acity. For th e a n te n n a s, w e ca n u se stretch ed

w ill p la c e a d ro p o n th e c a b le u sin g a v e ry fin e b ru sh . W h e n p la c in g

p lastic H o w ever, so m etim e s, th e le n g th s o f this p lastic ca n h ave d iffere n t thick

it, b y c ap illarity, th e d ro p w ill g e t a n elliptical sh a p e . O n c e th is ellipsis

nesses a lo n g the se ctio n a n d ca n a lso be m o re fra gile

is dry, w e w ill p a in t it in w h ite o r silver

’ l i l t u . It

There are many types of materials for the antennas such as nylon wire, very fine copper wire or very fine tin wire

We can use stretched plastic from any part of the sprues of the

model

We apply heat from a safe distance to avoid melting the plastic. It must be softened, but not melted

Instantly, we pull in opposite directions, thus, stretching the plastic... „.until it reaches the adequate thickness for the scale of the model

Preliminary presentation of the wire built in plastic.

My favourite option is to use nylon wire. For this, firstly, I use a punch to mark the antenna anchoring point.

We insert the nylon through the hole and then, we fix with a drop of cyano glue.

I perforate the anchoring point using a -land drill.

Many antennas carry a small conical basket on their Once the plastic is cold. mark the edge of the conical basket

cable. We will use for this a piece of very fine plastic that we will carefully heat

We insert an old airbrush

Once the plastic is cold, we cut it and reduce its outline

needle when the plastic is still soft because of the tieat

We tense the wire and

I use very fine pliers to cut the

glue it to the antenna

excess of wire

support with n ana

We insert the conical basket by putting the nylon wire through its hole, gluing the other end of the wire to the antenna stick and tensing it as much as we can with a drop of cyano.

I paint the wire with black or dark metallic paint.

nal result of the wire completely tensed. * What I do to build the

After about 10 minutes, once that

counterweights of the antenna

the glue has thickened slightly, I use

cables is to place a bit of white glue on a bit of plastic

a brush to apply a drop on the wire. By capillarity it will become round or elliptical, the perfect shape for this task

Finished antenna. Once the glue is dry (it will be almost transparent), the counterweights are painted in silver or clear grey

2. ASEM LY » EPA AT ON AND MATERIALS 2.14 CONTROL CARLES AND »RACES T h e b ra c e s a n d c a b le s n e e d sp e c ia l a tte n tio n . O n m a n y p la n e s, th e y b e c o m e , d u e to th e ir co m p le xity , a real p ro b le m fo r th e m o d e lle r. In th is ch a p te r, w e w ill tr y to p re se n t th e m in a v e ry d e ta ile d a n d visu a l w a y M a k in g b ra c e s ca n b e a te d io u s ta sk. H o w e ve r, a w e ll b ra c e d p la n e is ce rta in ly ve ry a ttra ctiv e . S te p b y step , w e w ill e xp la in h o w to b u ild th e a n c h o rs, rin g s, a n d te n so rs b e fo re th e a ctu a l b ra c in g

2.14.1 RINGS They are common on all the types of braces and we will use them for the tensors as well

We will use a 0.2mm

I braid

wire, which we can get

O.Smm tube with which

from computer cables or ir-V-"

will be one end ring

2.14.2 TENSORS i m i i m m carve a cross on a piece of wood.

This cross will work as our guide when marking the length of the tensors body.

I glue every end of the tube to the ring.

I roll the blade on the tube all the tubes

Now, the tensor is ready.

always

following the

2.14.3 CONTROL WIRES I cut a 0.6 x 0.4mm

I tense and fix the end with a drop of cyano

fishing wire through the

I cut the excess wire

shell and then through the ring. The thickness of the rings and wires will depend on the scale

44

I insert the wire through the tube again

tube shell. I insert 0.16

with sdssors

2.14.4 BRACES

2.14.4.1 German braces

start fixing a ring on each end of the brace

On the bottom area, I add a tensor to every ring as every cable carries a tensor

Depending on the kind of plane, we will decorate the tensor by rolling it around a 0.2mm cable

For the braces I use 0.16mm fishing wire. I insert a 0.5 x

I apply a drop of cyano almost at the end and moving

I do the same for the other end

0.3mm tube shell in the wire. Then I pass it through one

the shell around the drop, I cut the excess wire using •riv.:>i'.

but tensing the cable

of the ends of the tensor and through the tube again

Once the cable has been tensed, I apply a drop of cyano almost at the end and I move the shell around it. Using scissors again, I cut the excess. The brace is now ready

.AIRCRAFT FAQ

45



2.14.4 BRACES

2.14.4.2 British braces

Using the tow that we have

For the British brace I will use fishing wire with a

made before, we cut two

0.1x0.3mm plain spoke

0.5x0.3mm tube pieces



We glue each piece to one of the ends of the plain

I get all the lengths of the brace ready.

wire, and we insert half of it

I glue 0.16mm fishing wire to both ends of the brace. I insert a tube shell of 0.5x0.3mm in the thread, first through the ring and again through

I do the same for

the thread.

the other end.

I use the same process for the other end

I tense the brace and use cyano to fix the

46

shell almost

I trim off excess wire

I paint the shell and the wire in

on the end.

with scissors.

black. Now, the brace is ready.

2. A8EMBLY PREPARATION AND MATERIALS 2.15 SCRATCH MATERIALS AND TOOLS In o rd e r to w o r k w ith sc ra tc h -b u ilt tra n sfo rm a tio n s w e h a v e to s ta rt w ith a b asic m a te ria l, w h ic h m u s t b e v e ry e a s y to w o r k w ith a n d , e sp e cia lly , c h e a p a n d v e ry e a sy to fin d . T h is m a te ria l w ill a llo w u s to b u ild o u r p ie c e s w it h o u t a n y p ro b le m s. T h is kin d o f m ate ria l c a n b e fo u n d in th e m o st u n e x p e c te d p la c e s. S o m e y e a rs a go , so m e m a te ria ls w e re n o t e a sy t o fin d W e u sed to u se p la s tics fro m d iffe re n t k in d s o f d e te rg e n t b o x e s a s w e ll a s w in e b o ttle se a ls. T h e tru th is th a t w e h ave a lw a y s h ad p le n ty o f id e a s to g e t p ie c e s fo r o u r b o x o f sc r a tc h -b u ild in g su p p lie s

Regarding the variety of materials, tin

Among our scratch-building

sheets and aluminium covers are very

materials, we must have

useful due to their malleability and

plasticard of different sections

adaptability. They are especially good for

shapes and thicknesses, that will adapt to our model and

simulating cloths or the seat belts.

the scale

Tin wires can also be used. Because of their malleability, they perfectly represent the wires in cockpits and engines Copper wires are also necessary to simulate the tubes and conducts in some parts of the planes, such as the landing gear bays or the engines

For bigger pieces we can also use plastic sheets with different thicknesses, which are very handy. Acetate pieces are also crucial when it comes to carrying on several transformations on the planes

48

RCRAFT FAQ

The essential tools for scratch-building are; a sharp knife for cutting different pieces, an escalated ruler, a caliper for obtaining difficult lengths, glues of different kinds, and a contour caliper, which is good for obtaining sections.

To obtain sections with the caliper, first we align the table surface until it is straight.

Next, we press the metallic bars with our fingers until they adjust to the interior contour of the fuselage.

*

There are primers in different colours, but the most common ones are grey and Many resins sets come with white

white. The neutral primer is the most

metal pieces. They should be primed

recommendable for our project because

before being painted to improve the

it will allow us to see any minor defects

paint adhesion on these pieces.

and imperfections that can appear. This will be the time to correct them. Also, these neutral colours do not interfere with the base paint.

Primers

ADVANTAGES Better Control.

DISADVANTAGES The airbrush needs to be cleaned very well because

Rooms do not need to be aired that often.

the polyurethane is very resistant.

More economical due to its better performance.

3. PAINTING GUIDE! 1 2 PAINTS T h e y are e sse n tia l w h e n it c o m e s to d e fin in g fin a l re su lt a n d a s p e c t o f th e m o d e l. It is im p o rta n t to k n o w h o w to u se th e m co rre ctly a s w e ll a s th e ir c h a ra c te ristic s. C h o o s in g o n e kin d o f p a in t d o e s n o t d isca rd th e u se o f th e o th e rs. A ctu a lly , th e co m b in a tio n o f several o n e s w ill o ffe r us a w id e r r a n g e o f fin ish e s A s in a n y p ro je ct, th e c h o ic e w ill u ltim a te ly d e p e n d o n th e ta ste s a n d n e e d s o f th e m o d e le r

Paints can be split into two categories: acrylic-based and solvent-based. The acrylic paints

When we airbrush the paint, the paint should be very fluid. But, we must be careful, if it

are more flexible whereas the enamels are finer and more durable.

is too fluid, it will not cover the model properly.

Each one has its corresponding thinner. Although it is not necessary to use the same brand

A s a general rule the proportion is:

for both, thinner and paint, it is often recommended. Many paints are gloss or matte and sometimes satin, depending on the manufacturer. It is up to us to choose what finish we will use in our model. In general, this paint is usu­ ally airbrushed at about 0.8 and 1.2 ATM, depending on the scale and type of model.

75% paint + 25% Thinner The performance of the lacquers or enamels is similar, but their complete drying will take about a day. whereas the acrylic dries in just a few minutes.

Different enamel or oil paints. Different acrylic paints.

Boxes with the latest generation colours, identical to those of

uuum A

every Air Force. These paints have a new ideal formulation for better resistance, gloss and coverage.

AIRCRAFT FAQ I 53

3.2.1 ACRYLICS This option is dean and comfortable, and with very good results; Vallejo. Lifecolor and AK-Interactive are the most popular brands on the market at present. Due to their advantages, fast dry and non-toxic, these paints are highly appreciated. These paints can present different density, depending on their application, brush or airbrush,. We must remember that a 25% dilution will be the correct proportion to apply with an airbrush, but it will depend on the paint's brand because not all the manufacturers use the same density. The paints that are specifically designed for airbrushes can be used directly from the jar.

3.2.2 LACQUER BASE The most popular options are Tamiya and Gunze. Although their labels say 'acrylic', they will need a thinner to work properly. A s a general rule, we can airbrush them diluted at 2 5% (75% paint + 25% thinner).

3.2.3 ENAMEL We use them to obtain effects selectively. Due to their characteristics and drying time, these paints can be easily blurred on a surface to obtain transparencies and effects that will bring more realism to our model. When we use these paints it is useful to place them in a drying paper or cardboard first. This paper will absorb the oil excess and therefore, it will speed up the drying time, which will roughly be 4 8 hours.

3.2.4 OILS We use them to achieve effects selectively. Due to its characteristics and drying time, these paints can be used on a surface to create glazes and effects, providing more realism to the model. When using these paintis should first deposit on paper or paperboard, to absorb the excess of oil and to accelerate the drying process, which, even so. will last about 4 8 hours.

54 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

3.2.5 METALLIC COLOURS There are several types of metallic paints with different tones and finishes on the market. These paints can also be split into two groups: acrylic-based and oil-based. The oil-based metallic paints usually have a better finish because their pigment is finer than the acrylic-based paint's pigment. Many of these paints can be polished once they are dry, thus, increasing their brightness and fineness, which will provide our model with great realism. When we apply them, the compressor's pressure should not be higher than 0.8 ATMS. Also, the airbrush has to be perfectly clean. Every paint has to be diluted, except those that are already prepared for their immediate application with the airbrush. We must use the appropriate thinner, according to their composition and brand, as they are very delicate.

3.2.6 WATERCOLOUR PENCILS Watercolour pencils can have several uses. They can be used for chips and metallic or non-metallic scratches, mud and combustible splashes as well as different lines of dirt and grime, which appear as a result of the weather and engine fluids. They can be easily corrected with an eraser or softened with a diffuser or a silicone brush. The best way to use them is to work on a matte base so the pigment from the pen will adhere well. If we pass a brush dipped in water over this stroke it will intensify it considerably, making it more difficult to correct.

3.2.7 TRANSPARENT INKS We will use inks to obtain transparency effects and to shadow multiple surfaces. In air modelling they are usually used to tinge the nozzle and turbines. They are airbrushed very diluted. A s they are enamel paints, they need their

'T •|-ifJ

specific thinner.

An example of how different inks change their tonality on a metallic surface.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 55

Nowadays, these products are considered very valuable for weathering as well as to obtain all kind of realistic effects in our planes. Usually, these products are enamels, but we can also find them in an acrylic version. In this section we may also mention pigments: the prime materials from which the paints are made. Smoke or Steel tones are essential when representing effects on our planes. Another product for enamel-based effect is the "panel liners’ . The panel liners have an optimal dilution which allows them to run through the recessed lines of the panels, thus, adding a great depth to the painting phase and making a difference in the finishes of the model. Using washes will allow us to highlight an area or demarcate a piece to bring out all its detail. We can use them on cabins, landing gear, engines or any other piece. The advantage of these products is that the specific tone that we would like to use comes ready to use straight away. We will not have to make difficult mixes. The proportion of the dilution is correct, but it is sometimes a little more concentrated. We can thin it if w e need to.

3.2.9 WAXES One of the newest products on the market is the waxes with metallic tones packed in tubes. Their texture and aspect is similar to toothpaste but we don t recommend you brush your teeth with them. This is a very versatile product with great coverage power and work best on a primed surface.

Range of colours and metallic tones of waxes

We will explain briefly and visually their characteristics and properties This paint perfectly covers any surface. In this example, I use a brush to

It also offers an ultra-realistic finish to

extend the colour of a Gloster

any model

Gladiator s hood ring

This product can be A- -I

applied with a brush over

thei

with

the whole surface.

They can also be applied with an airbrush.

AIRCRAF

II cloth

polish : ioer

1 PAINTING (WIDE 3.3 VARNISHES W h e n d e a lin g w ith o u r m o d e l's p a in t, th e s e p r o d u c t s a re e s s e n tia l to

on wFncfTfinish.’ we wa'nt Tor’ our pTane, we will finish with'a matter

p ro t e c t th e m o d e l, to in te g ra te t h e d e c a ls o r to se a l s o m e e ff e c t s b e fo re

sa tin o r g lo s s y va rn is h

other painting stages.

W e m u s t ta k e in to a c c o u n t th e c o m p o s it io n o f th e v a r n is h e s b e fo re

V a rn ish e s a re e sse n tia l to o b ta in a g o o d fin ish . B u t, th e ir d ry in g tim e s,

a c t u a lly u s in g th e m . If w e u se o il-b a s e d v a r n is h e s a n d th e n a p p ly o ils

c h a ra c te ris tic s a n d a s p e c t m a y v a r y fro m o n e b ra n d to a n o th e r. C h o o s in g

o r w a s h e s th a t are m a d e o f th e sa m e b a s e th e y w ill d ilu te th e v a rn ish

b e t w e e n d iffe r e n t v a r n is h e s d e p e n d s e n tire ly o n th e m o d e lle r a n d h is

a n d rum th e o u r p re v io u s w o r k . W e m u s t a lw a y s u se p ro d u c ts w it h a

taste. A c r y lic v a rn is h e s a re id e a l to w o r k o n o ils, w a s h e s a n d filte rs. T h e y a lso

d iffe re n t b a s e to a v o id th is k in d o f c a t a s tr o p h e s . If w e d o n o t w is h to d o th a t, w e m u s t th e n le t th e v a rn is h d ry fo r a lo n g tim e

d r y fa s t

V a rn ish is th e p ro d u c t th a t g iv e s th e fin a l a p p e a ra n c e to th e m o d e l

H o w e v e r, w h e n w e a p p ly w o r n o u t a n d d ir t in e s s e ff e c t s w e

m u st u se th e m o ve r a c r y lic v a rn is h e s. O n c e w e fin is h a d d in g e ff e c ts , w e

(g lo s s y , s a tin o r m a tte ) r e g a rd le s s o f th e b a s e p a in t w e h a v e u se d

w ill h a v e to se a l a ll th e p ro c e s s e s w it h a la ye r o f v a rn is h . T h e n , d e p e n d in g

a lth o u g h w e m u s t a p p ly th e p a in t c o r r e c tly b e fo re u s in g th e v a rn ish :

-

-

« ■

-

-

o a r n iz

^ o l y u r e l ' 1'" ' a t i n V a r " 1'

y u re lh a j1 V ;irn > : ’ 6 65Q__

ä

^pU U RETAN O

^ °LV U R E T H A N E V A R N IS H

*-fc-

» r in

P O L Y l/ R E T H A N f

___

te .

a e -'

V a rn ish M ate

Varnishes are produced in different formats with different capacities depending on the manufacturer. We also have special varnishes like A K Ultra­ matte, or spray varnishes.

This wooden floor shine liquid became very popular as a kind of varnish. Although it was not better than other varnishes, it was indeed better to fix transparent pieces and to give them transparency.

58 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

ML m

pr>"‘ J

'• L O S S C i'T f l

:

1 PAINTINGmm 3.4 TIIINNEMS ANI)A X L A P 0 UCTS In o rd e r to u se so m e p ro d u c ts a n d p a in ts w e m u s t u se th in n e rs, e ith er

T h in n e rs c a n in flu e n ce th e p a in t's d ry in g tim e , its flu id ity o r its co ve ra g e

to im p ro ve th eir p ro p e rtie s o r ju s t to w o r k w ith th e m . T h e y ca n a lso be

p ow er. S o m e tim e s, th e se v a ria tio n s a re ve ry sm all o r sim p ly w e c a n n o t

q u ite u sefu l w h e n c le a n in g o u r to o ls o n c e w e h ave fin ish e d

a p p re cia te th e m ju s t b e c a u se w e d o n o t h ave a n o th e r th in n e r to co m p a re

W e re co m m e n d yo u to u se th in n e rs care fu lly, a lw a y s p a y in g a tte n tio n

th e m w ith . In a n y ca se , it is re co m m e n d a b le to u se th e o n e th a t is in d ica te d

to th o se p ro d u c ts w h e re w e w ill u se th e m o n

by th e m a n u fa c tu re r, ju s t to a vo id a n y su rp rise s

W e n e e d to k n o w th e p ro d u c t 's b ase, w h e th e r it is oil. e n a m e l o r acrylic,

W e a lso in c lu d e in th is s e c t io n th e a irb ru sh c le a n e r s T h e y a re th e b e st

to c h o o se its s p e c ific th in n e r U n like va rn ish e s, th in n e rs w o rk o n p ain ts th a t h ave th e sa m e kin d b ase. B u t n o t all o f th e m w ill p ro vid e th e p ain t

in s tr u m e n ts f o r th e c a r e o f th e s e to o ls . T h in n e r s a re t o o a g g r e s s iv e a n d if w e u s e th e m fre q u e n tly th e y m a y d a m a g e th e p a r t s a n d o r se a ls

w ith th e sa m e ch a ra c te n stic s , s o w e m u s t b e a le rt to a n y va ria tio n

o f th e a irb ru sh

The thinners used in modelling are more refined and less aggressive than the bulk thinners sold in hardware stores. Their refinement prevents us from ruining our job if they react badly

isa The performance of modelling thinners is excellent, which allows us to use them on our models. They are high quality products. X20A

Pu • Thinner »or acr** pour Rato gun )•••■■8

(tetp

' •-

1. o c v ^ l.

When we use enamel thinners or lacquers, either using a brush or an airbrush, we must bear in mind that we need to work in a very well ventilated place to avoid inhaling the vapors. Please, always read their instructions. Paints and thinners slowly damage our tools. However, we can find on the market other products for the maintenance of airbrushes and brushes or any other tool. Some have oil, which facilitates the movement of the airbrush's internal pieces. Taking good care of our tools and brushes will allow us to use them for a long time.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

59

draw some thinner with another, clean straw, and add it to the paint tray.

With a straw. I draw an appropriate amount of paint.


I mix the paint with the thinner. The resulting mixture should have the consistency of unskimmed milk

The air pressure should not exceed 15 PSI. This should be enough, if the mixture is well prepared.

I pour the mixture into the airbrush cup, and check the consistency by spraying a few passes over a piece of cardboard

During painting, keep in mind that the airbrush is not a camera, and it should always be moving. If you keep it in one spot for too long, it will result in paint runs, which are difficult to remove. Try to apply thin coats of paint. It is better to paint the surface in two or three sessions, than to apply one thick layer at once

3. PAINTING GUIDE

3.6 IÏIUISIIES B ru sh e s a re o n e s o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t to o ls u se d in m o d e llin g . T h e re a re m a n y d iffe r e n t k in d s a n d e v e ry s in g le o n e h a s a s p e c ific a p p lic a t io n . T h e re is a c o m m o n m is c o n c e p tio n th a t th e s a m e b ru sh c a n b e u se d fo r m a n y u ses, b u t th a t is w r o n g . It w o u ld b e a s if w e u se d a g o lf b all fo r fo o tb a ll B ru sh e s, a p a rt fro m th e n u m b e r th a t in d ic a te s th e ir d ia m e te r (th e n u m b e r is n o t th e sa m e fo r a ll th e b ra n d s), c a n a lso b e d iffe re n tia te d b y th e ir e n d s. B e a r in m in d th a t it is b e tte r to p a in t so m e p ie c e s a n d sm a ll d e ta ils w it h a b ru sh a n d a lso th a t so m e e ff e c ts c a n o n ly b e d o n e u s in g a b ru sh .

Good maintenance is essential. They must be kept with their bristles upwards. They must be cleaned with water and soap, or a specific cleaner. We recommend you to invest in a good brush.

Acrylic paint tends to accumulate and dry in the joint between the ferrule and the bristles. If this happens the hairs will spread apart and wind up frayed. Therefore, it is really important to dean this area very carefully.

62 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

PAINT

V

W

W

W

V

W

W

W

V

W

W

W

W

W

w—

TECHNIQUES In th is c h a p te r w e w ill d e sc rib e th e a ctu a l te c h n iq u e s u se d a t th e tim e o f th is w r it in g to p a in t a n d fin ish o u r m o d e ls T he re are o th e r te c h n iq u e s th a t w e h a v e n o t in c lu d e d b e c a u se th e y are w e ll k n o w n o r th e y h ave b e e n re p la ce d b y n e w o n e s T h e m o d e le r ca n e ith e r a d a p t o r e vo lve th e se te c h n iq u e s to w h a t su its th e m b est T h e se te c h n iq u e s ca n tra n sfe r o ve r in to o th e r a re a s o f m o d e lin g b e sid e s p la n e s.

w

v

^ _______ i _

^ ____

*

4. TECHNIQUES 4.1 l’ IIMEIt D u r in g th e c o n s tr u c tio n p ro ce ss, w e u se a lo t o f m a te ria ls o f a d iffe re n t n atu re , su c h a s p h o to -e t c h e d p a rts, p u ttie s, o r o th e r k in d s o f p la s tic s a n d m e ta l. It is r e c o m m e n d e d to a p p ly a c o a t o f p rim e r to g e t th e c o m p le te

can . P rim e r is a ve ry re sista n t p o ly u re th a n e c o m p o s itio n w h ic h a d d s g r ip to th e p a in t a n d it is p e r fe c t to a v o id su rp rise s later on w h e n w e w ill u se a g g r e s s iv e w e a th e r in g te c h n iq u e s . A c r y lic

e n se m b le h o m o g e n iz e d . If w e w o r k w ith lig h t c o lo u r s a n d th e p la s tic is d a rk , it is a lso co n v e n ie n t to p rim e th e m o d e l s o w e c a n o b ta in b e tte r

p rim e r fo r a irb ru sh , a s w e ’ve se e n b e fo re , is th e a lte rn a tiv e to the e n a m e l a n d sp ra y p rim e r a n d h a s o v e rta k e n th o se p ro d u c ts

co v e ra g e o f th e b a se p a in t F o r d o in g th is, th e re a re d iffe re n t p ro d u c ts th a t a llo w th e m o d e le r to a p p ly p rim e r c o a ts b y b ru sh , a irb ru sh , o r sp ra y

in p e rfo rm a n c e

When priming a plane with spray, it is convenient to start and finish spraying outside the area of the model, and trying to cover it in fine coats at a distance of around 20cm Although we waste some primer we will avoid specks that we will have to sand later.

Before starting the primer spraying process, shake the can well and gently heat it in your hands. This will both thoroughly mix the contents and also create an optimal spraying pressure. Ensure your work area has appropriate ventilation. When painting always wear an appropriate respirator

In many cases, when we improve the model; we use pieces made of tin, copper, plastic, or resin. Having different components makes it harder for the paint to grip the surfaces as easily as on plastic, especially on the

1. Do not start to spray directly onto the kit surface. Sweep the can horizontally and vertically

metallic pieces

past the surface as you spray. If you're moving left to right, you begin spraying to the left of the kit surface.

To solve this, we apply a coat of primer that will evenly cover the

2. Move the can over the kit surface in a long, sweeping stroke, as

surface with the same density

fast as you would brush out a stroke. Maintain a constant

of primer deposited on all areas suitable enough to have the paint

distance from the surface.

applied on.

3. End each pass to the right of A s a recommendation, in some

the painted surface. During the

cases we have to mark the panel and rivet lines because if they are

process, avoid tilting the spray can downwards or upwards, as this causes spitting and will result in an uneven application

66 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

marked softly, after we prime the

/ 7

*

model, they can get lost under it especially if the primer coat is too thick.

A. TECHNIQUES 4.2 PANELING P a n e ls o n real p la n e s d o u se to h a v e th e s a m e c o lo u r u n le ss th e y are

P e rh a p s th is is th e m o s t c o m m o n ly u se d te c h n iq u e b y th e a irp la n e

re p la ce d b y th e fa c to ry . M e c h a n ic s u se d to d is m a n tle a n d su b stitu te

m o d e le rs . It c o n s is ts o f p a in tin g d iffe r e n t p a n e ls in slig h tly d iffe re n t

th e p a n e ls fre q u e n tly s o e a c h o f th e m s h o w s a d iffe r e n t g r a d e o f u se

c o lo r s a s w e ll a s d e m a r c a t in g th e m to a d d m o re c h r o m a tic ric h n e ss

a n d d iffe r e n t c o lo u r s . P a n e ls c a n b e p a in te d se le c tiv e ly if w e w a n t

w h ile g iv in g th e m o d e l m o re v o lu m e to th e p la n e s s u rfa c e . T o a c h ie v e

to re p re se n t p a n e ls th a t h a v e b e e n s w itc h e d o u t b y th e m a in te n a n c e cre w .

th is e ffe c t w e c a n u se se v e ra l t e c h n iq u e s th a t w e w ill d e s c rib e n e x t

We can see the difference in the panels and the effect after masking them with adhesive tape and then airbrushing them. When the pre-shading is done on a metallic colour, the control on the paint and coverage capability will allow us to get some metallic and glossy tones that are very realistic.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 67

4.2.1 PANEL PRE-SHADING A m o n g th e m a n y te c h n iq u e s a va ila b le fo r p re -sh a d in g , I fe lt I h a d to p e rh a p s ta k e th in g s to th e n e x t level, a n d th a t w a s to a c tu a lly s h a d e th e p a n e ls in d iffe re n t c o lo u rs th e m se lv e s, b re a k in g u p a m o n o to n e su rfa ce , a n d in je ct­ in g life a n d in te re st in to su ch a s ch e m e . T h is w a s b ro u g h t to g e th e r u sin g a d ilu te d b a s e c o lo u r f o r th e fin a l c o a t. F o r th is te c h n iq u e . I w ill s h o w yo u h o w to ta c k le a 1 /48 D o 3 3 5 Pfeil fro m T am iya.

I apply the base colour over the whole aircraft. In this case, I use a sand color.

With the base color, I mix a little black, and apply the

Again with the base colour, I mix some yellow, and apply the

resulting colour over some random panels, but the same ones on

resulting colour over other random paneb.

each side of the model.

68 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

With a heavily diluted base colour, I apply several thin layers until all the previous shades are realistically integrated. You will notice how the various panels perhaps seem to have faded at different rates.

Finally. I apply some shadows, using black paint to the control surfaces. Everything is now sealed with matte varnish.

I apply a layer of gloss varnish and

To the base colour, I mix a little yellow or sand-yellow

add the decals.

paint, and add chips to the areas where the paint would be naturally be worn away.

4.2.2 PRE-SHADING BY LINES P r e s h a d in g b y lin e s is d o n e b y m a r k in g th e m w it h a d a r k e r to n e th a n th e b a s e p a in t o n th e p a n e l lin e s a n d riv e ts o f th e p la n e . A f t e r w a r d s , w it h a d ilu te d b a s e p a in t, w e w ill a p p ly se ve ra l la ye rs to th e m o d e l, a c h ie v in g d a r k e r s h a d o w s w h e r e w e h a v e a lr e a d y a p p lie d th e m a r k s . It is im p o r ta n t th a t t h e b a s e p a in t is d ilu te d a n d th a t it d o e s n o t co v e r in ju s t o n e p a s s so w e c a n h a v e c o n tro l o n th e in te n sity o f th e sh a d o w s .

In this example, we can see how I have pre-shaded the lines with a template that serves as guide, and later, as the paint does not cover totally, this kind of shadow can be seen

T h e sim p le st p re sh a d e is th e o n e a p p lie d b y fre e h a n d , o ve r all p a n e l a n d rivet lin e s. F o r th is ta s k , I h ave c h o s e n a 1/32 F -4 J P h a n to m fro m Ta m iy a .

And over this brown pre-shade. I apply matte white, obtaining this result. The white needs to be applied in thin coats, allowing for just a hint of the pre-shade to show through the

A

final colour.

A s I have already prepared the model for painting, I apply a brown colour paint to all panel and rivet lines on the underside.

I repeat the same process on the upper sides, but this time I use navy blue for all rivet and panel lines.

Here is the model after applying thin light gray coats over the previous navy blue pre-shaded surface. Again, you can see only subtle hints of the pre-shade. It is important that the effect isn't too contrasting. It should look very natural and under-stated.

70 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

4.2.3 PANELING WITH TAPE T h e p a n e lin g w ith ta p e te c h n iq u e is v e ry sim p le , it c o n s is ts o f d e m a r c a tin g

ta p e o r p o s t -it s h e e ts to d e m a rc a te th e a re a to b e p a in te d . P a n e lin g w ith

an a re a w ith d ilu te d p a in t. It c a n b e d o n e b y b ru sh o r a irb ru sh to m a ke

th e a irb ru sh g iv e s m u c h v o lu m e to th e p a in t. T h e p a in t h a s to b e v e ry fe w

o n e p a n e l d iffe r e n t fro m a n o th e r. T h e te c h n iq u e w it h th e a irb ru sh is v e ry

d ilu te d a n d th e m a r k in g h a s to b e w e a k a n d su b tle . T o a c c e n tu a te th is e ffe c t

easy, a s yo u o n ly h a v e to u se th e b a s e c o lo u r m ixe d w it h a c o lo u r o f th e

e v e n m o re , w e c a n m a s k t h e o p p o s in g s id e a n d a p p ly a lig h te r c o lo u r to

sa m e to n e , b u t a b it d a rk e r, fo r e a c h o f th e lin e s o f th e m o d e l in e v e ry

o b ta in a la rg e r co n tra st.

d ire ctio n , m a k in g a s h a d o w e ffe c t. W e w ill d o th is w it h th e h e lp o f m a s k in g

The same paneling with tape technique can be done with masking tape and a brush. We demarcate the area on which we want to work

We dampen the brush in paint which we will remove almost completely with a cloth.

As it is a dry-brushing, we emphasize the demarcated areas with the tape

The secret is to use the brush

After removing the tape we can see how the panel has been demarcated

almost without paint and to emphasize enough in every area.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 71

------------------

— —

4.3.2 AERIAL AIRBRUSHING

j

Following the painting

I

instructions on the model

/

blueprints, using paper

y

we cut the ou •'me of the

/

camouflage d r a w n previously

/

marked with a pencil. If yob scale the drawings instructions to the actual

With pieces of masking tape, making an "0", I place them on the contour

size of the model the process is much easier and e ffe cth d fl

where i will put the paper templates.

By placing the template do not push, just rest it on the

When applying the second color is essential that the

With the paint dry. remove carefully the paper m asks

surface, leaving few millimeters between the paper

airbrush angle related to the meodel surface keeps 90 °.

and the result of a cam ouflage design finely blur

and the model surface.

Just lean a little to get a subtle and fine blur.

between the two colors is appreciated.

4.3.3 HARD EDGE AIRBRUSHING To make a hard edge camouflage, the use of very wide masking tape is needed to cover the most area possible. We will cut the tape with a very sharp knife following the contour of the pattern and will stick it to the models surface

en the mask rel="nofollow">the mode ! surface there is no problem of the paint bleeding into the other

colour I remove the mask, the hard edge contour between the two colours can be seen perfectly.

Final result of the three camouflage types, starting by the free hand, going by the ones with air masks and finishing with the hard edge.

4.3.4 MOTTLE

It is necessary to clean

I apply the base layer of

the surface of the

the camouflage, in this

I apply the first colour

model well.

case German RLM76.

of the camouflage, RLM75...

sS^ To start the mottled scheme, I dilute the paint at 5 0% with A K paint thinner and using a pressure between 1.5 and 2 Atm, I draw the first mottles adjusted to the model and scale. We will have to place the airbrush close to the and next the second

: 'H/ RLM /4

model, around 4 cm, and to work very fast and not flood the area.

Once the first colour is finished I repeat the process with the other colours. I recommend to practice before-hand on a piece of p a p e r1

74 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

Depending on the type of the

or old plastic until we get used to the correct

mottled scheme, it can be done

shapes and the steady hand needed.

even more dense and smaller.

4.3.5 MEANDERING CAMOUFLAGE

The key of the fine lines is to make a perfect dilution of the paint too. for which I recommend a proportion of 6 0 % thinner and 4 0 % of paint and a pressure close to 1.3 I clean the surfaces that are going

I apply a layer of the base colour. German RLM76

to be painted

Atm. The closer we paint to the model, the finer the lines we can achieve

It is convenient to practice first on a piece of paper or plastic to warm up your hand. We have to realize that the fine lines do not have to always be the same thickness so I

We have to realize that this

change the distance of the airbrush to achieve

kind of camouflage can be

those effects (in the image they are overdone for them to be seen better)

more or less dense

I I paint the second layer of fine lines in a Lighter Grey colour

End result of the two kinds of camouflage, mottled in the fuselage and meandering lines in the wing.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 75

4. TECHNIQUES 4.4 PANEL LIGHTING LIGHTS SHADOWS j*

.

w -



A fte r a p p ly in g b a s ic c a m o u fla g e p ain t co m e s th e p ro ce ss o f g iv in g life a n d vo lu m e to

w ith o ils to in c re a se th e fe e lin g o f lig h t a n d sh a d o w , w ith th is w in g w e w ill e xp lain

v th e m o d e l su rfa ce s. T h e te ch n iq u e o f lig h tin g p an e ls w ith a irb ru sh is to app ly a clearer

in a g ra p h ica l w a y th e p ro ce ss w ith a so m e w h at e xa g g e ra te d e ffe c ts to se e the

„ p ain t to th e b as e in th e ce n te r o f the p a n e ls o r in the center o f a c a m o u fla g e color,

b e st o f e ach o f th e te c h n iq u e s u se d . T h is te c h n iq u e o f lig h t a n d sh a d o w ca n also

u sin g th is w e g e t a gre a te r vo lu m e e ffe ct. T h is te ch n iq u e ca n a lso be su p p lem e n te d

be u se d in sm a ll p arts in sid e the ca b in , w e a p o n s, etc.

-

W e sta rt b y ligh te nin g the green co lo ur w ith very dilu ted p ain t w ith an ade q uate thinner to pain t ratio A fte r a b asic p ro ce ss o f p an e lin g a n d p ee lin g , I hav e the

o f arou n d 6 0 % thinner and 4 0 % o f p aint. A lw a y s

piece ready fo r th e h ig h lig h t e ffe cts.

d e p e n d in g to the type o f pain t th at w e are u sing.

mm

B asic ca m o u fla g e finished.

Fo r the gre en co lo urs I u se S a n d C o lo u r ( 7 0 % green/ 3 0 % sa n d ) to ligh te n them . W e ca n also lighten the green w ith a ligh te r green.

b u t w ith w h ite . W e ca n a lso use lighter H ig h lig h ts app lie d and fin ish ed in th e G reen colour.

to n e s o f L ig h t Sa n d .

W e se a l all the ste p s w ith a layer o f g lo ssy varnish to

N o w w ith a p an e l liner liqu id, I m ark the p anel

W ith o ils app lie d by brush in ligh t to n e s (yellow , w hite,

g e t the piece ready fo r the fo llo w in g step s.

lines a s w e w ill se e later.

e tc...) I e m p h a size the are as m ore e xp ose d to the light.

76 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

I let the oil dry for around 20 minutes and afterwards with a brush with synthetic hair I start diffusing the oil................ to integrate the oil on the surface.

The result after diffusing the Yellow Ocher on the green regions of the camouflage.

To create shadows we will use cold colours such as green I repeat the same process, but now with White oil in the Sand colour regions of the camouflage.

blue, brown, black We emphasize the perimeters of the relieves with a very dark Grey-Brown

that I diffuse again. In this case what we obtain is volume and depth

But if we want to add a "touch" of dirt and worn effects, simply damping the brush in the thinner for oils, and as if we were making chips, we can create effects that once they are dry will give off a worn and dirty look.

I apply a coat of matte varnish and this is the final result. In the picture, you can see the difference

Finished

between the applied effects (left) and the area where they have a basic camouflage (right).

process.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 77

'VllCRfl M IC * 0

SET

SOL

A container with warn

Indispensable products for placing the decals are products like Micro Set and Micro Sol.

water and the decal individually

There are many of different brands and they

cut from the sheet

I sink the decal in the water around 4 0-6 0 seconds.

are all similar but some products do react differently with the type of finishing products Coloco sobre la superficie

usee

impregnada en Micro Set la calca

With tweezers. I take the decal out and

I get the surface ready with Micro Set.

dry the excess of water on a paper towel

With a cloth, I pass over the decal

With a flat brush. I gently pass it on

with care to remove the excess of

the decal to eliminate possible air

Micro Set and water.

bubbles.

Decal placed.

After an hour. I apply the Micro Sol liquid that will soften the decal and makes it settle perfectly over the surface of the models panel lines and rivets

With a fine pencil, I mark the lines of panels and 11vet1

Decal completely applied and adapted

4 TECIINIOIIES 4.0 DEMARCATING PANELS T o a ch ie v e a n d e n h a n c e th e sc o re m a rk s w e w ill u se th e p a n le liners, w h ic h

m id d le g ra y o f a G e r m a n W W II a ircra ft, a lig h t g r a y o f a m o d e rn U .S.

g iv e u s co n tra st a n d d e p th . It is u su a lly u se d e n a m e l o r o il p ro d u c ts to g e t i h e p ro p e r e ffe c t, th is is b e c a u se th e se p ro d u c ts f lo w p ro p e rly o v e r any

je t o r a silve r P51. T h e re e xist o th e r to n e s like th e s a n d c a m o u fla g e s w h ic h w ill re q u ie re a d a rk b ro w n p a n e llin g , th e b la c k s c h e m e s w h ic h

p a in te d su rfa ce a n d a llo w to re m o ve th e e xce ss w ith W h ite Spirit. It c a n also

w ill n e e d lig h t g ra y s, T h e g re e n sc h e m e s w h ic h w ill re qu ire d a rk s h a d e s

b e u se d so m e p ro d u c ts sp e c ia lly d e sig n e d to a ch ie v e th is e ffe ct. T h e co lo r

o r th e w in te r c a m o u fla g e s d e m a rc a te d w ith d a r k b o rw n .

to u se w ill d e p e n d o n th e co lo r o n w h ic h it is g o in g to d em a rca te . It is n ot n e c e ss a ry to co m p lic a te to o m u c h , o n e sh a d e c a n w o r k p ro p e rly o v e r m a n y c o lo rs o f sim ila r to n e . F o r e x a m p le a se p ia to n e w ill w o r k e q u a lly w e ll o n a

4.6.1 PANEL LINERS One of the most visual effects on a plane is marking the lines of rivets and panels of the aircraft. There many specific products on the market for this purpose that are always applied on a glossy surface. Be careful with the compositions of the products are made as many times if the product base is the same as the paint, it may dissolve. To demarcate panels properly is always wise to choose the appropriate color that fits at least 8 0 % of the base color. To apply these products must be done with a fine brush and place the product on the lines of nvets and panels. Once dry (10 to 15 minutes) with a dry cloth or a brush soaked in white spirit to remove the excess, always in the direction of airflow in the wings and from top to bottom on the surfaces of the fuselage. When removing the product, a slight patina of grime is left which gives much mo to the model.

With a fine brush, I am marking the lines of the panelsI

I dry the product, remove the excess carefully and slowly with a cloth.

80 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

After demarcating all rivet lines, leave to dry for 10-15 minutes

Final result after the whole process with panel lines and rivets marked.

We can see in those examples as after this process, the panels are demarcated and the result is very realistic and convincing. This technique is used in combination with others that we will see in other chapters, but is one of the basic techniques in the painting process.

4.6.2 DEMARCATING PANELS WITH PATINA O th e r v a r ia n t o f th is te c h n iq u e is to a p p ly th e a c ry lic c o lo u r a s a p a tin a o n th e p la n e o n a g lo s s y su r fa c e to re m o v e th e e x c e s s w it h a d r y c lo th a n d o n ly let th e p a in t in th e s u n k e n lines.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 81

4. TECHNIQUES 4.7 WASHES W a s h e s te c h n iq u e is to a p p ly a v e ry d ilu te d d a r k p a in t a r o u n d a d e ta il o r -

^ a n a re a , to e m p h a size it a n d to sta n d o u t its v o lu m e . T h e fu n c tio n o f the

- - co m m e rc ia l p ro d u c ts re a d y to u se a s th e m ixtu re s th a t w e ca n m a ke , is to

-I *

■* I

.

- d a rk e n a n d d e m a rca te th e d eta ils. W ith a n u n ifo rm p a in t a n d w ith o u t w a sh e s th e d e ta ils w ill b e in te g ra te d in th e b a s e co lo u r a n d th e y w ill b e a lm o s t n o t be se e n . W h a t w e w a n t w ith th is te c h n iq u e is to s ta n d o u t th o se d e ta ils in th e p a in tin g p h a se . T h e y c a n b e g e n e ra l, fo r a b ig are a o r iso la te d to d e m a rca te

«" '

a n d sta n d o u t a ce rta in d eta il.

A bit wide brush it is ideal for this technique. Washes are for emphasizing the screws, an area of the engines or the landing gear in a selective way. The paint will accumulate around the detail to be emphasized. Using the in a general way on a wide surface we will stand out a complete area, an engine, the wood streaks in a plane or any piece of a big size that will need of a general darkening. It is convenient that the surface is satin or gloss so the product will slide and we can remove the excess easily. The matte paint absorbs this product and produces a general darkening of the base paint. Once applied it is convenient to let them dry, and once they are dry we can remove the excess preferably with a brush, as with a doth we can leave traces of it. The wash has to be as much diluted as less contrast we wan to achieve. Depending on the base it is going to be used we will select the colour to apply so the contrast will be subtle and will have a real effect. The washes are dark and depending on the surface colour where we want to apply them we will choose one tone or other to achieve contrast in the details and harmony in the colours.

We can see a general wash on an engine to darken the ensemble and to add an used look (Up). With A K Engine Wash applied by brush in successive layers we stand out and emphasize all the slots in this engine, so the relieves are better seen, and giving an operative look (Down).

iWWSHi

4. TECHNIQUES 4.8 FILTERS T h e filte rs, in d iffe r e n c e w it h th e w a s h e s a re n o t d a rk , re a lly th e y c a n b e o f a n y c o lo u r T h e B lu e a n d G re e n c o lo u r s a d d d a rk . T h e W h ite , Y e llo w , o r O r a n g e a d d lig h t. T h e y c a n b e a p p lie d e ve n w ith P u rp le o r a n y o th e r c o lo u r. W e h a v e to a p p ly th e m p re fe ra b ly o n a m a tte s u r fa c e so it w ill a b s o r b b e s t a n d w ill c h a n g e th e to n e . P a n e l lin e rs a n d w a s h e s h a v e th e ir o w n sp e c ific p ro d u c ts , a n d th e filte rs c o u ld n o t b e le ss. In a ir p la n e m o d e lin g it is v e ry r e c o m m e n d a b le to a p p ly th o se filte rs to c h a n g e th e to n a lity o f a p a n e l o r o f th e c o m p le te p la n e It is a p ro d u c t ve ry e a s y to a p p ly a s w e c a n d o it ju s t w it h a b ru sh w ith th e a d e q u a t e th ic k n e s s

For a filter the ideal is the surface to be matte. We will apply it with a thick brush like

very diluted product which is elaborated with enamel paint and its main component is

a very diluted layer, dampening the brush a bit and extending it a lot. We will w ait it is

White Spirit so this last component has to be of a very good quality so it w ill not dam ­

dry to check the end result, once it is dry we can apply it again if we need to intensify

age the base paint. A n adequate proportion can be 9 0 % White spirit and 10% Enamel.

the effect. We can make this technique as a home made solution. But the filter is a

We can elaborate a

The approximate dilution is

home filter with White

9 0 % White Spirit and 10% Oil.

Spirit and Oil.

I demarcate the area where to apply the filter. In those cases we will apply it to the complete model.

With a filter after a layer of varnish, for not dam aging the decals we will get

The change of tonal­

to integrate them in

ity by the application

the model.

of the filter can be seen in the left wing.

Filters can be almost of any colour, from Brown or Green to Orange.

84

/ AIRCRAFT

A. TECHNIQUES 4.9 FLUIDS T h e lo st o f flu id s a re e v id e n t in m a n y p la n e s, e sp e c ia lly in th e a re a o f

a d e q u a t e c o n s is te n c y a n d c o m p o s it io n s o o n c e th e y a re d r y w ill h a v e

th e lo w e r p a rt o f th e e n g in e w h e r e th e e n g in e s s u m p is p la c e d o r

th e rig h t lo o k . A h o m e m a d e s o lu tio n o f r e p lic a tin g th o s e e ff e c t s is to

s o m e h y d ra u lic m e c h a n ism s. G re a se , o il, fu e l, w a t e r a n y liq u id is d u e

d ilu te O il in T u rp e n tin e a n d w it h a v e ry fin e b ru sh , a lw a y s in t h e a ir f lo w

to b e re p re se n te d in a p la n e

d ire c tio n , r e p lica te th e flu id s lo st w it h o u t o v e r d o in g th e m a n d a c c o r d in g

In th e m a r k e t th e re a re se v e ra l p r o d u c t s th a t a re d e s ig n e d a n d w ill se rve to r e p lica te th o s e ty p e o f e ffe c ts , a n d th e y a ls o h a v e th e

to th e s c a le o f th e m o d e l It h e lp s a lo t to h a v e re a l p ic tu r e s th a t w ill

• •

g u id e a s re fe re n ce

Not all fluids behave the same way. Depending on the substance that originates the fluid this will be more or less dense and

With a fine brush we draw in the wind flow some fine fluids lines in the joint of the panels,

it can accumulate in a way or another. A s example, kerosene does not accumulate due

register covers or where the liquid escapes. Emphasizing in the lines we will get variety

to its flow and will leave and will leave a very fine and subtle trace, while the oil can ac­

in the intensity of the flow. Spilled fuel and oil it is convenient to replicate them with a

cumulate in an area and will leave more defined stains, as many layers can accumulate

lineal shape as it is not more that liquid of the grease, or the oil stains that accumulate

as the old ones get dry.

in a more concentrated way.

With the already done products we do not have to worry about the look or exact colour of the •rr*ect

86 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

It is important to look some pictures, if it is possible, to inspire us in this kind of effects, they are aleatory but they follow a patron. Oil allows to be diffused before its complete dryness with a flat brush dragging it in the wind flow direction Using a panel or a cover as starting point we will make

Z 1

the effect in the wind flow direction.

VN Applying matte varnish those effects we will get a more older or dryer fuel or oil stain, while if we apply them directly from the jar its appearance will be more fluid and fresh. They both can combined for obtain ing more realistic results.

With a watercolour pencil we also can replicate some of those effects.

,

4. TECHNIQUES

4.10 IVIIST R u st th e m e in a irp la n e m o d e lin g is a b it su b je c t iv e a s th o s e e ff e c t s ca n

w e d o n o t h a v e to a b u s e o f th o se e ff e c ts b e c a u s e a s g e n e r a l ru le th e

o n ly b e e n re p lic a te d in a b a n d o n e d fo r lo n g tim e p la n e s , b u t th e y c a n b e

p la n e s u se to b e in g o o d m a in te n a n c e c o n d it io n s a n d re a d y to fly

a p p lie d in th e e x h a u s t s o r la n d in g g e a r, e n g in e o r p ie c e s in th e in te rio r o f

T h e u se o f p ro d u c ts d e p e n d in g o n th e ru s t le ve l, w ill b e th e c h o o s e

m a n y W W II p la n e s, a n d fo r d o in g th is th e b e st is to a p p ly w a s h e s , stra in s

o f th e m o d e le r, b e c a u s e a v e r y a g g r e s s iv e ru st in a f ly in g c o n d itio n

o r p ig m e n ts in ru st c o lo u r w h ic h a re sp e c ia lly d e s ig n e d fo r th is. A s I say,

w ill b e s o m e t h in g u n re a l.

When we make a rust strain we do it in a very controlled way. Rust only appears in an metallic area which can be rusted, when the paint is scratched. A very common mistake is to scratch and rust areas that do not allow this effect. The rust ones can vary from Light Red to Dark 3 '::w n

Although it is not easy to find examples of rust in planes, in this Zero's tail we can see how to make rust effects to settle it in the jungle after being hit by enemy fire.

rocess finished with the tail ready for a coming project

IRCRAFT FA

89

*4 . TECHNIQUES 4.11 CHIPS AND SCRATCHES C h ip s a re ve ry im p o rta n t in a irp la n e m o d e llin g. A s first rule, w e h ave to avoid

W e h ave to realize th a t n o t all th e ch ip s are e qu al a n d it w ill d ep e n d

fillin g th e p la n e w ith ch ip s in a n u n ifo rm w ay, o r th a t th o se o n c e th e y have a p ­

on th e sh a p e a n d intensity o f w h a t p ro d u ces it. S o th e ch ip s d u e to the

p lie d are ve ry sym m e tric in b oth sid es o f th e plan e. N o t th e co m p le te p la n e is

vib ratio n a nd th e b ad q u a lity o f th e p ain t w ill have th e lo o k o f jum p e d

„ fille d w ith ch ip s, th o se are co n ce n tra te d in the a re as o f a b ig g e r u se a n d w h e re

p ain t in b ig are as, th e c h ip s d o n e by ston es in th e w in g s a re as a n d clo se

- - *he p la n e is m o re fa tig u e d b y th e frictio n fo r th e air, a s ca n b e th e e d g e s o f the

to th e p ro p eller w ill b e sm all a n d co n ce ntrate d in o n e area, th e o n e s

’ .

' w in g s, o r b y th e m a in te n a n ce c re w o r the p ilo t. In m o st o f th e p la n e s th e a cce ss to th e ca b in is d o n e fro m o n e side, a n d th e o th e r has a lo w u sa g e , so w e have

m ade by th e co n ta ct w ith so m e elem ent o r an area w ith m a n y w ill leave the interior m etal at sig h t w ill b ig ch ip p e d areas.

to w o rn m o re o n th e sid e w h e re th e p ilo t w a lk s by. R e m o va b le p an e ls in the e n g in e h o o d , o r th e co ve rs o f th e g u n s b ays as a lso th e a m m u n itio n o n e s are ve ry se nsitive to th o se e ffe cts.

Scratches have to be aleatory, its shape will depend of what has hit it or the worn suffered. It is recommendable to base on pictures at the time of making them.

90 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

A s not all are the same we can combine several techniques when we replicate them,

4.11.1 WATER COLOUR PENCILS Water colour pencils are a very helpful tool at the time of making small chips and scratches. According to our acquired costume of using paints for writing, most of us have more practice at the time of using a pencil than a brush, and they are very comfortable and easy to use. and their effects are very easy to control. The pencils have to be very sharpened so w e can make very fine and irregular chips.

They are applied best

They allow to apply effects in

on a matte surface

an easy and comfortable way, as chips with a very effective result,

Different types and colours of water colour pencils

On colours of the same tone as the paint we will achieve to replicate small paint worn effects as chips. If we want to make chtps we can use Silver colour (if they are chips on a metallic piece) or the colour, as by example, its under the piece that has been painted on. In those examples we can see a clear way of using them and the achieved effects.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 91

4.11.2 SCRATCHES AND CHIPS BY BRUSH T h e e n a m e l o r a c r y lic p a in t is th e b e st a t th e tim e o f m a k in g a sc ra tc h o r a c h ip , b u t it a ls o is a te c h n iq u e h a rd to d o . T h e se c re t is to u se a v e ry fin e

O n a re a w ith c h ip s w ill b e m o re s p e c ta c u la r a s m o st d iffe r e n t is to a n o th e r. W ith th is p re m is e w e w ill r u n a w a y a lw a y s fro m r e g u la r c h ip s o n th e

b ru sh , sp e c ia lly th e s m a lle r th e s c a le is. a n d th e ju s t a m o u n t o f p a in t s o in its u n d e r co n tro l, b u t w it h o u t b e in g v e ry liq u id .T h e s h a p e o f th e c h ip s a lw a y s

c o m p le te su rfa c e , a n d w e w ill h a v e to s t u d y f ir s t w h e r e w e a re g o in g to m a k e th e c h ip s b e fo re p la c in g th e b ru sh in th e m o d e l.If a c h ip is d o n e in

h a s to b e irre g u la r a n d w ith e d g e s , n e v e r w it h r o u n d s h a p e .

a m e ta llic a re a , w it h t h e tim e , a fte r th e n a tu re a g e n t s h a v e a c t e d it w ill a p p e a r a ru s t e ffe c t.

S c r a tc h e s c a n b e d o n e in th e p a in t w ith a v e ry e a sy te c h n iq u e . It is to a p p ly w it h a v e ry fin e b ru sh d iffe re n t p o in ts a n d lin e s w ith th e b a s e c o lo u r p a in t o f th e a irp la n e s c h e m e lig h te n e d . Ju s t w it h th e filte rs, w a s h e s a n d c h ip s , it w ill g iv e th e m o d e l a v e ry re a l a n d c o n v in c in g w o r n . A n e a sy w a y o f e m p h a s iz in g th o se s c r a tc h e s (it w ill a lso se rv e fo r th e ch ip s) is to u se a fin e lin e o f m o re lig h t p a in t b e t w e e n th e ch ip / sc ra tc h a n d th e b a s e p a in t. U su a lly th e y a re sm all lo n g it u d in a l line s.

In th is se q u e n c e w e ca n se e h o w to m a ke a c h ip w ith a b ru sh in a ve ry g ra p h ic w a y , step b y step. First w e w ill m a ke the ch ip s, irre g u la rs w ith a fin e b ru sh a n d a D ark C o lo u r (711 C h ip p in g C o lo u r), a fte r w e w ill a p p ly a co lo u r lig h te r th a n th e b ase co lo u r in th e lo w e r area o f th e ch ip , a n d last w e h ave d o n e so m e sta in s o f rust th a t is th e co n se q u e n ce o f th e a c tio n o f th e m é té o ro lo gie a g e n ts.

4.11.3 CHIPS WITH A SHARP KNIFE For making the effect of chips with a sharp knife, previously we have to apply a layer of Aluminum colour, best if it is of and Enamel kind, on that areas that later will have the chips on the Aluminum color or Silver we will apply a layer of acrylic paint. The adherence of the acrylic paint on the Enamel is not satisfactory so it will help later. With a very sharp knife and a lot of care we will scratch the acrylic paint leaving the lower metalized paint at sigh t

4.11.4 CHIPS WITH A MASK Chips with mask will be make applying a liquid mask in the are where we want to replicate them and on the paint that we want o appear the chips. Maskol type mask can be applied with a toothpick with shape of small drops or in a bigger area. Fol­ lowing the colour to be chipped is painted and once it is dry we remove the mask leaving the base colour at sight. This technique produces chips with a round shape so it is convenient to retouch them with a brush.

'

ari

In this sequence we can check how we have applied this technique on a piece of wing and the irregular shape of the Chips

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 93

4.11.5 SPONGE CHIPPING Other technique easy to use is with a piece of sponge wet with the paint colour we want to replicate the chips. For this a small piece of sponge with an adequate grid to the scale model, it gets wet in the paint and the excess is removed as in the dry brush technique. Several tests are done on a paper and when it has the adequate consistency it is applied with a lot of care in the area to be treated. The paint does not have to be very liquid With this technique we will achieve groups of chips with dot shape, we can combine them with other techniques to enrich the results. It is very useful at the time of wearing away winter cam ouflage in the

Several types of sponges of different densities to

planes. We can use the sponge technique can also represent the rust in the engine exhaust.

replicate chips depending on the scale and the kind of worn

We can see this technique on a panel



With a piece of sponge wet with paint, in a piece of absorbent paper, I start removing the paint excess until leaving just a bit. The paint has to be thick

'

With tweezers, I get the piece of sponge damped in paint and make dots in the surface

94 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

Look once the tape mask is removed

4.11.6 CHIPPING PRODUCTS AND HAIR SPRAY T h e h a ir s p ra y te c h n iq u e is v e ry e a sy b u t a b it te d io u s. F o r d o in g it w h a t w e h a v e to d o is to p a in t th e m o d e l in a n A lu m in u m c o lo u r (or th e o n e w e w a n t to a p p e a r u n d e r th e c o lo u r to b e c h ip p e d ). O n c e th e p a in t is d ry w e w ill im p r e g n a te th o s e a re a s w h e r e w e w a n t to m a k e th e c h ip s, w it h th e h air sp ray. O n th e la ye r o f h a ir s p r a y th e s e c o n d la ye r o f p a in t is a p p lie d , th e b a s e c o lo u r o r th e c a m o u f la g e c o lo u r a n d o n c e it is d ry. w it h a n o ld b ru sh w h ic h h a ir is h a rd b u t th e y still ke e p so m e fle x ib ility in th e ir e n d s , d a m p e d in w a te r, w e s ta rt to sc r u b a n d re m o v e th e u p p e r p a in t, le a v in g th e in fe rio r la ye r o f p a in t a t se e a n d a c h ie v in g a w o r n o r c h ip e ffe c t v e ry irre g u la r. In th e m a rk e t th e re a re s p e c ific a n d m o re c o m fo r t a b le a n d c le a n p ro d u c ts fo r th is e ffe c t w it h o u t h a v in g to u s e th e h a ir sp ra y a n d th e y a c h ie v e th e s a m e o r a b e tte r re su lt. It is a v e ry in te re stin g te c h n iq u e if w e w a n t to re p re se n t a p a in t o ve r o th e r th a t h a s b e e n c h ip p e d a n d le ts th e o n e u n d e r it to b e se e n .

Hair spray (center) and products w ith sam e

charadei si

q

l a c a

I 'l l l H P I '« '

'Z X S S i'

W e w ill s h o w an e xa m p le o f h o w to u se th e co m m e rcia l p ro d u c ts fo r m a kin g

th e m a n d th e co n tro l o f th e result. T h e y ca n b e a p p lie d by b ru sh o r airbru sh

this techn iqu e. A K -In tera ctive w a s th e first b rand so m e years a g o in se lling them .

b etw e e n a layer a n d ano ther, a lw a ys th a t th e se co n d o n e is acrylic. O n c e it is

T h e a d v a n ta g e o f th o se p ro d u c ts is th e co n ve n ie n ce a t th e tim e o f a p p lyin g

d ry to th e to u ch w e ca n sta rt m a k in g ch ip s w ith a b ru sh w e t w ith w ater.

I apply the product on the surface.

Complete surface damped surface with the product.

I apply the lighter colour.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 95

With a wet brush, with hard hair,

With a fine brush I keep retouching

I start scratching the upper paint

the bigger chips. (Depending the

making the wear. We will insist more

grade of wear that we want to do).

in some areas than in others.

This example, we will use the hair spray

I apply the lighter colour.

to see the difference.

With a fine brush, with a bit rigid hair. I start to strip the area.

9 6 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

General look after the process. We can see how the chips are bigger.

Applying these techniques over the surface of a wing.

(1) With a doth, scrubbing, I remove the Maskoi leaving the metal in the lower area at sight.

a •

I apply the base colour to the complete wing.

(2) With the point of a sharp knife, I scratch the upper paint letting the lower metal at sight.

(5) Now with a Grey colour

(3) With a water colour pencil I make the chips. (6) With a Medium Blue, I make the chips that simulate to be scratches, without leaving the inferior colour to be seen.

(7) With a piece of sponge damped in Metal colour, I make the chips.

(4) With Silver colour paint, I make the

I make the same process that has be

scratches with a very fine brush.

done in the previous step.

J

‘ p n lig h t b a s e s w e w ill u se S e p ia sm o k e co lo u rs, w h ile in d a r k b a s e s w e w ill u se G re y to o b ta in . th e co n tra st a n d th e sm o k e e ffe c t. T h e sm o k e sta in s u se to b e m o re c le a r in th e ce n te r a n d th e y g o d iffu s in g in th e ir b o rd e rs, a n d in th e e x h a u sts it is u su a l th a t sm a ll o il sta in s w ill d e ta c h fro m th e e n g in e , th a t w ill a cc u m u la te a n d th a t w ill d irty th e a re a a ffe c te d by th e s m o k e a n d th e y w ill a d d a b ig g e r to n a l variety.

-


4.12.1 SMOKE WITH AIRBRUSH T h e ke y to m a k e th o se e ffe c ts is to d ilu te th e p a in t a lot.

90% Thinner or 96° alcohol + 10% paint. In th e sm o k e e xit in th e e xh a u st, m a n y tim e s, th e p la n e p a in t g e t s a S e p ia o r S a n d c o lo u r To re p re se n t th is w e w ill a p p ly th is m ixtu re o f p a in t b y th e a re a o f th e sm o k e trail. A t it is ve ry d ilu te d w e h a v e to a p p ly m a n y la ye rs s o th e tra ce w ill g e t o p a city. T h e s in g u la rity o f th o se g a s trails is th a t e ve ry p la n e fo llo w s a ch a ra c te ristic te m p la te , it is v e ry u se fu l to h ave d o c u m e n ta tio n to re p re se n t th is e ffe c t co rre ctly. T h e c o lo u rs va ry a lot, fro m G re y to B la c k. In th e ce n te r o f th e trail a n d a s m u c h clo se r to th e e x h a u st it is, d u e to th e b ig g e r a c c u m u la tio n o f g a s , th e e ffe c t is m o re in te n se , so in th is a re a o f th e trail it w ill g o d if­ fu s in g to th e sid e s. It is v e ry u se fu l to u se sm o k e co lo u rs, ve ry D a rk B ro w n s, o r tra n sp a re n t, th a t w ill a p p ly in th e sa m e w ay.

Here we can see the effect in a Skyrider, is a plane in which their exhausts produced a characteristic trail of smoke and also in other sequence on a Dark Blue tone using Grey colour to emphasize the effect.

On this Hellcat, Dark blue, it is interesting to see the variation of the tones in the smoke trails to emphasize on the base colour of the plane. In this case we make the effect with Grey colours.

In the following example we will see step by step how to make the smoke trail with airbrush and what colours to use

The first layer is a mixture of matte black and Dark

The second colour is a Sand Brown or Sepia that I apply

Brown very diluted in 96° Alcohol in a proportion

on the central area of the trail of the previous colour

of 9 0 % Alcohol and 1 0°% of the paint mixture.

where the dirtiness accumulates

If we want to give a look of having a lot of flight hours, the paint used to be burned and apply them again with the previous dilution darkening the rivet

using some sand tones

and panel lines again,

100

AIRCRAFT FAQ

Again, with the first colour I make a series of vertical traces that will be supported in the panel and rivet lines

4.12.2 SMOKE WITH CHALK/PIGMENTS T h e s m o k e c a n a ls o b e d o n e in a n e a sy w a y w it h c h a lk o r p ig m e n ts , fo r it w e o n ly n e e d so m e p ig m e n ts a n d a c o u p le o f b ru sh e s. T h e p ig m e n t is a d u s t m a te ria l th a t im ita te s p e r fe c tly th e sm o k e 's c o a l d u s t, so it is v e ry a d e q u a t e fo r th is e ff e c t. In th e n e x t e x a m p le w e w ill s e e h o w to d o it ste p b y step . Already finished model

With a very Light Brown pigment

and ready to apply

I apply the pigment with a brush

With a brush with flat end and wide enough to cover the trail

smoke s trail from the

giving the trail the shape of the

exhaust, I diffuse the pigment

exhausts.

exhausts.

With a pigment a bit more dark, with a Earth tone too, I make profile the trail of the exhausts

Again, with the wide flat

To mark the dirtiness of the

brush, I diffuse this tone

exhausts, with a Dark and

with the one applied previously

Red pigment, I mark the panel lines (... and rivets if they have it) and I diffuse them as in the previous steps.

With a pencil, I mark the panel lines again (..and the rivets if they are).

Last, to give a small sensation of volume, in the front lower corner of the side panels I apply a Clear Brown again and diffuse it as we make with the "lights" effect

Fina look of the exhausts.

4. TECHNIQUES : 4.13 DIRT AND STREAKS T h is c h a p te r d e se rv e s s p e c ia l a tte n tio n b e c a u s e th e c o n tro l o f th e d ir t in a m o d e l m a k e s a h u g e d iffe re n c e in its re a lism . a lth o u g h it h a s to b e a p p lie d c a re fu lly o r it w ill d e s tr o y all th e w o r k d o n e . It is a p ro c e s s th a t w e c a n e n jo y a lo t o f e ff e c t s a n d in te g r a te t h e a ir c r a ft in its p a r tic u la r c o n te x t. F o r e x a m p le it v e ry c o m p e llin g to v ie w a n a ir c r a ft o p e r a tin g o n g ra v e l d u sty o r a h e lic o p te r r a is in g d u s t w it h its b la d e s . It is im p o r ta n t to d o c u m e n t o u r s e lv e s a n d g e t in s p ira tio n fro m real p h o to s.

DANGER fiV T O W * /

To make this kind of effects the base colour has to be satin or gloss acrylic or has to have a layer of satin or glossy acrylic varnish. The flu ­ ids or dirt effects can be painted as they are lines with a fine brush and after a few minutes I diffuse with other brush, this time with a flat brush wet with White Spirit. It is very important to be pa­ tience in this process and let the paint dry during those minutes so it will be removed more difficult and we can get the desired effect

When it is time to represent the streaks, we have to take note of the gravity effect and in most of the cases those effects are perpendicular to the floor. In a plane, the angle to the floor when it is in land or in flight can vary regarding its shape and w e have to use those to represent this kind of effects, as usually they are produced when the plane is in land.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 103

Nowwe will see howto apply dirt with and earth effect in this wheel On the p in t between the wheel and the rim a medium earth colour is applied that is softened with a brush wet with clean thinner

We continue making the same with a colour lighter every time, letting some minutes to dry between one and other and working almost with fresh paint

Now an Earth colour pigment is applied and it is wet with thinner that will accumulate in the joint mostly. When it is dry it will soft a lot

made with a Dark Brown

In th is o th e r e x a m p le w e c a n se e h o w to re p re se n t a c c u m u la t e d d u s t w it h o ils in th e ta il o f a W W II p la n e A fte r d e p o s it th e m se le c tiv e ly w e d if f u s e th e m w ith th e h e lp o f a b ru sh a n d w h ite sp irit.

Co*»«*' w ax

r r / A j,

l

S«rn;

W Z 104

IRCRAFT FAQ

Finally some stains will me

The same effect is done with the same brush but this time placing an air flow with the

R e su lt o f th is te c h n iq u e m ix e d o f o th e r to m a ke

airbrush with a pressure of 2 kg close to the model, we can see both results and the

d u s t d irt m ix e d w it h sp la s h e s o f th e e n g in e in

effects that are done with one and other way

a W W II p la n e .

A I R B R U i ft

After attaching the armour plate and harness, I apply a base coat of RAF interior gray-green.

The remaining

With a very ^ dark brown colour

surfaces of the seat are painted with a

{almost black), I paint the seat back.

red-brown colour.

Next, I reproduce some small scratches on the seat with an orange-brown colour.

The seat harnesses are painted with a light beige colour, whilst the buckles are detailed with silver p aint

I then add highlights to the top of the seat back, using a slightly lighter shade of brown than previously.

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IRCRAFT FAQ

The seat harnesses receive a similar treatment. The highlights are applied with a lighter shade of the base colour, in order to give more volume to the protruding parts.

Using a propelling pencil with a 0.5 mm HB hardness lead, I recreate some small chips and scratches on the gray-green armor plate and headrest.

General

W

I seal everything

appearance after

with a layer of gloss

all processes so

varnish. Once it is dry, I

far applied.

apply a dark wash to emphasize all recesses and bring out the details.

The whole paintwork is sealed with a layer of matte varnish.

The finished seat.

AIRCRAFT FAO

109

5. INTEItlOH 5. SEATS r>.. WO L WA TWO 5.1.1.2 Japanese seat In th is ca se , I w ill s h o w h o w to p a in t a h e a v ily c h ip p e d se a t, fo c u s in g o n th e d iffe re n c e in th e a p p ro a c h to th e p a in tw o rk . P lea se n o te th a t m o st o f th e p ro c e sse s a p p lie d to th is se a t w e re th e sa m e a s d e sc rib e d in th e p re v io u s se ctio n

%

z

use a resin seat from Aires, with photo-etched seat belts and some small improvements made from pieces of copper

I apply a base coat of Tamiya X-11 Chrome Silver enamel colour.

When the paint is dry, I mask off the large chipped areas with Humbrol Maskol. This is applied with a fine brush. After airbrushing the Japanese interior green colour, I remove the Maskol, revealing the metallic colour below the green paint. After this, it s time to improve the overall effect by adding small chips with a metallic watercolor pencil. The seat belts are then detailed in a similar way as described in the previous section.

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RCRAFT FAQ

H i

m

6 6

With a medium gray, I add the paint chips and small scratches. I focus on Injected plastic seat with the

Firstly, I apply a base coat of

I use various brown, sand and leather

harnesses moulded into it.

RLM 66 from AK-Interactive.

tones for painting and shading the cushion.

Next, I paint the harnesses with a light khaki

With a silver colour,

I then outline the edges of the upper harnesses

brown colour.

I detail the buckles.

with heavily diluted black paint.

the upper part of the seat, as this area is most vulnerable to damage in the real seat.

The paintwork is sealed with a layer of gloss varnish.

Once the varnish is dry, I apply a little light grey oil onto the upper area of the seat, and blend this to fade the colours.

The finished seat.

The final touch is to seal the seat with a coat of matte varnish.

5. INTE 1111)11 5.1 SEATS 5.1.2 T E JET ACE 5.1.2.1 U.S. ejection seat (gray) T h e e je c tio n se a ts o f U S m ilita ry a ircra ft fro m th e 1 9 6 0 s, 1 97 0 s, 1 9 8 0 s

w ill u se a re sin e je c tio n se a t fro m A v io m x , fo r th e 1/32 F -1 0 0 S u p e r

a n d e a rly 1 9 9 0 s, w e re u su a lly p a in te d in a g ra y co lo r. T h is w a s d u e th e

Sa bre , fro m T rum peter.

a ircra ft m a n u fa c tu re rs th e m se lv e s m a k in g th e seats. For o u r e xa m p le ,

Ji W hen ch o o sin g a se at, it is a lw a y s better to see exactly w h a t is available , and co m pare them . In this case, the o ne on the left is from the k it. The center W ith a d ark coloured oil, heavily dilu ted w ith

is an A ire s release, and the o ne o n the right is from

w hite spirit, I enh ance all the n o o ks and

A v io n « . A ll are se a ts d e sig n e d for the 1/32 F-1 0 0

cran nies o f the ejectio n seat.

H u n ', fro m Trum peter. I start by ap p lyin g X F-1 9 G ray from Tam iya, a s a prim er coat

!» "3 X F-1 9

h

( U sing the b ase colour,

Takin g ad v a n tag e of

m ixed w ith a touch of

the w hite pain t, I apply

w hite from V allejo, I

it to the arm rests and

create a lighter g ra y that I

h eadrests. O n ce dry,

apply to the raised details

I app ly red pain t. This

of the seat, a s w ell as

w hite b ase co at allo w s

those e d g e s w h ich are

the red co o ur to have

the m o st easily seen

m ore vib ran cy

O ther sm all details,

W ith a pencil o f HB

I n ow proceed

such a s w irin g

hardness, I a d d sm all ch ips

to paint the

first aid p ouch and

and scratches to the fram e

cushions,

connectors, are

and seat shell

and also the

n ow painted.

p arach u te on the b ack of the seat.

Harnesses are painted in a greenish gray, and I outline them with a lighter tone around the edges. which creates a further impression These are then I now add the shadows by using black paint for the various recesses, and then mixing the green with a little yellow, I highlight the raised detail around them

For the entire set to look balanced, is important that

also outlined in

both the highlights and shadows of the seat and the upholstery are not too contrasting

vsual '."1

I paint the ejection handles in yellow, and with a black fountain pen. I add some scratches onto them Matte varnish now seals all the completed work,

The finished seat.

black for greater

Then using the dry brushing technique, but this time using graphite powder instead of paint, I enhance the relief detail. For your

With a fine brush, and based on photo references. I add stencils to the seats.

graphite powder, simply sharpen a pencil and use the dust which accumulates.

Here, the seats are finished. Each colour used has a small highlight applied, mixing the gray with white, green, and yellow.

114 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

r>. INTERIOR 5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS 3.2. WORLD WAR TWO 5.2.1.1 Scratch built instrument panel O c c a s io n a lly , th e m o d e lle r w ill w is h to b u ild a n a ir c r a ft w h ic h d o e s n 't

sc r a tc h b u ild a n in s tr u m e n t p a n e l fo r th e H A .1 1 1 2 B u c h d n . T h is

yet e x ist o n th e m a rk e t, o r h e /sh e w ill w a n t to c o n v e r t a n e x is t in g k it to

S p a n ish ve rsio n o f th e fa m o u s M e s s e rs c h m itt Bf 1 0 9 G , h ad a s lig h tly

a n o th e r v e rsio n w h ic h fe a tu re d a d iffe r e n t in s tru m e n t p a n e l T h e o n ly c h o ic e is th e n to m a k e th is p a r t y o u rs e lf. In th is c a s e . I'll s h o w h o w I

d iffe re n t in s tru m e n t p a n e l th a n its L u ft w a ff e c o u n t e r p a r t

,

To ensure that the new panel will fit the model, I use the kit's panel as the basis, and draw its shape onto a thin styrene sheet, using a penal. Next, I carefully cut out the marked shape. I repeat this process to make other raised parts of the instrument panel, and then I glue them to the base p a rt

with a pencil, I draw the shape of dials, and then make the recesses

l apply a black base coat, and enhance the raised detail with a dark gray colour. I then

using a punch and die set

outline the dials with a neutral gray

I detail the stencils with a very fine brush, and attach the

gunsignt glass 116

The finished

instrument panel

>

5. INTE { Oil 5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS 5.2.1 WOULD Wall TWO 5.2.1.2 German instrument panel G e rm a n in stru m e n t p a n e ls a re ve ry sim p le to b o th cre a te a n d p ain t. T h e ir sim p lic ity a n d lo w c o lo u r co n tra st o f th e v a rio u s e le m e n ts m e a n s th a t w e n e e d to u se a fe w p a in tin g tric ks to m a ke th e m lo o k m o re a p p e a lin g For th is ta sk, I h ave c h o se n to p ain t a 1/32 in stru m e n t p a n e l fro m a T ru m p e te r Bf 1 09 G - 6

o

ö

Instrument panel prepared for the

I apply a base coat of German dark gray, in this

Using a very fine brush, I detail each of

painting phase.

case, XF-6 3 German Gray from Tamiya. The

the dials with white paint.

enhance the raised detail with a gray

dials are primed with matte black

Guided by the reference pictures, I paint a few of the instrument bezels with different colours

With a heavily diluted black oil pamt. I add a pin wash to the edges of the raised detail.

Now, I paint some details in black, and colour that is lighter than the base coat

With a light gray, I detail each of the

I then apply a layer of gloss

screws.

Yarn sf

The areas between the dials and buttons are gently highlighted with white oil paint,

I seal everything with a layer of matte varnish.

giving the instrument panel more visual volume I

I attach the Revi gunsight. Finally, I detail the gunsight with various acrylic colours, and add the glass elements The latter are made from pieces of a thin

Tne ' r si'od instrument panel

acetate sheet

AIRCRAFT FAC

117

/r, - V

5. INTERIORS 5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS 5.2. WORD WAR TWO 5.2.1.3 British instrument panel T h e in stru m e n t p a n e ls in all B ritish a ircra ft te n d e d to b e b la c k , a n d lo o k e d q u ite strik in g a g a in s t a n interior w h ic h w a s p a in te d in R A F inte rior g ra y -g re e n . F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a resin in stru m e n t p a n e l fo r a 1/48 S p itfire M k .lX , fro m E d u a rd

« Parts of the instrument panel ready to paint. I attach

A s the parts are made from resin, it is a good idea to start with

Next, I apply a black base coat, and paint the raised areas

them to a piece of adhesive tape for easier handling.

a gray priming coat.

with a dark gray.

Using a very fine brush, I detail the

This is how things look so far.

With a slightly lighter gray colour, I emphasize the

instrument dials.

relief on the bezels. I also add some stencils

All the small screws are detailed with a lighter gray Some of the buttons are

with a few drops of gloss

■ etouched with different

varnish.

gray shades.

The finished instrument panel

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iRCRAFT FAQ

Finally, I create the instrument glass lenses

5. INTERIORS 5.2 INSTRUMENT PANELS 5.2. WO L WA TWO 5.2.1.4 U.S. instrument panel M o st in stru m e n t p a n e ls o f U .S . fig h te rs d u r in g W o rld W a r II, w o re a b la c k fin ish . A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e in stru m e n t p a n e l o f a 1/32 P -4 0 N , fro m H a se g a w a

}

;

apply

b ase :oa;

W ith

pa n-

raised sections of the panel

W i'r Wtl tt saint

d

fine brush instrument faces

0 -0

a

With a gray colour that is slightly lighter than the

I paint the buttons, screws and stencils in their appropriate

I finish the whole process by attaching the instrument

previously used gray, I paint those areas whose relief

co lours.

panel to the cockpit section which includes the rudder

stands out the furthest from the panel.

pedals. These are painted with U.S. interior green.

The finished instrument

sane

I apply the base layer of Tamiya XF-71 Cockpit Green.

The panel dials are painted in matte black.

With white paint, I detail the instrument faces. This requires the use

Based on photo references, I further detail the instrument faces with several colours, keeping things as authentic as possible. I also enhance the relief on the bezels, using a

All the bezel screws are highlighted with a very light gray paint, and never silver.

a very fine brush.

I add small stencils onto the panel using a fine brush and white paint.

neutral gray colour.

After applying a layer of gloss varnish, I simulate dashboard wear with ochre yellow and white oil paints.

The finished instrument panel. I seal everything with a layer of matte varnish. Once dry, I reproduce the instrument glass with tiny drops of gloss varnish.

120 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

5:INTERIM

:

15.2 IKStliÙMÊNT PANELS 5.2.2 THE JET ACE 5.2.2.1 Jet aircraft instrument panel T h e in stru m e n t p a n e ls o f th e m o d e rn je t fig h te rs are u su a lly p a in te d in e ith e r b la c k o r gra y. In b o th ca se s, th e p a in tin g p ro ce ss is e x a c tly th e sa m e . A s a n e xa m p le , I have c h o s e n th e in stru m e n t p a n e l o f T ru m p e te r's M iG -2 1 F -13 , in 1/32 sca le .

After airbrushing the instrument panel with a matte

I use photos of the real instrument panels as a

To create more volume, I detail the raised bezel

black base coat, I take a very fine brush and detail the

guide, in order to reproduce such small details

relief with a medium or neutral gray.

dials with different colours.

as the attitude indicator, which will certainly add realism to the finished piece.

The finished dials add a lot variety and

I use a lighter gray colour to emphasize the screws

richness to the plain black instrument panel.

and small buttons.

Next, I recreate the stencils and simulate the glass of the instrument dials by applying tiny drops of gloss varnish.

This is the back of the panel that will be seen when installed. I now sand the

Using either round sprue sections, or commercially available plastic rod. I

entire area to prepare it for the next step.

attach the instilment bodies to the rear of the panel, cutting them to roughly the same height, and attaching them in an even looking manner.

With a circular punch & die set, I create several plasticard discs from Then with sandpaper, I level all of the instrument bodies so

Evergreen sheet. These simulate the rear cover on each of the instrument

that they are the same height.

bodies.

With a mini drill, I make holes in the center of each of the instruments. Using tin wire of a representative diameter, in this case, from Plusmodel, I add all of the wiring to the instruments, leaving the wires in an upright position for better handling.

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

The wires are now formed into a wiring loom,

so far.

Now I attach the colour photo-etch parts. This consists of a lower plate which contains just the instrument paces, followed by the actual instrument fascia. This creates a beautifully 3D appearance

To add even more volume to the piece, the raised edges of the dials are enhanced with a lighter gray, and I add some small buttons.

which looks very realistic.

Finished instrument panel from the front.

At the rear, I enhance

*

all the instrument bodies with a dark gray, and their rear cover plates with a light gray. Using a medium gray, I paint the wires. Other small stencil detail is also

Fully finished instrument panel.

applied.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

123

I apply a green base coat, in this case with XF-58 Olive Green from Tamiya, and I mix this with a little sand yellow, very diluted, and apply with an Cabin primed and ready

airbrush into the

to paint. Notice that I have added

center of each panel,

some wiring, using pieces of tin wire that

to create highlights.

mold perfectly around the surface detail.

With black and brown paint, I detail the flight instruments and the map pocket. Moreover, with the green base, mixed

With a light

with a little white,

gray, I enhance the

I can enhance the

cockpit wiring.

interior equipment further, creating more visual volume.

With a dark gray, I outline all flight instruments which I painted in black

124

RCRAFT FAQ

With a fine brush. I add small stencils to the cockpit.

Again with the green base colour, now mixed with a

apply a layer of gloss varnish to seal everything. I apply o ik of different ochre and browns shades..

higher proportion of white, I add chipping to the areas which would see the most wear from the pilot.

... to several areas within the cockpit. At the top, I use ochre tones, and at the bottom the brown tones. I blur and merge the oils together, recreating an appearance of use and dirt, and I then seal everything with a layer of matte varnish.

Final appearance of the fully finished cockpit.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 125

I apply a layer of British interior green, i

With an HB hardness pencil, I outline the interior

this case, XF-76 from Tamiya.

framework contours.

With the pencil at hand, I add

Mixing the green base colour with a little white from

some chips and scratches in

Vallejo. I use a brush to enhance the most distinct details within the cockpit.

areas of greater usage.

After applying a layer of

126

With different colours, applied with

gloss varnish, I apply a dark

a brush, I detail the cockpit flight instruments.

brown wash to create more volume.

I seal everything with a layer of matte varnish.

Appearance of the finished cockpit sides.

Overview of the finished cockpit. eady for final assembly.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 127

r>. in t e r io r s 5.3 COCKPITS 5.3. WOULD WAR TWO 5.3.1.3 Japanese cockpit D u rin g th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar. Ja p a n e se c o c k p its w e re u su a lly p a in te d g re e n , b u t e a ch m a n u fa c tu re r h a d its o w n to n e , a n d in so m e ca se s, a s w ith th e K i-6 1 H ie n , th e c o c k p it w a s a c t u a lly p a in te d in a s a n d b ro w n . F o r th is e x a m p le I w ill p a in t a c o c k p it fro m a 1/32 K i- 4 4 S h o k i, fro m H a se g a w a .

Cockpit prepared for the painting ohase.

3ddIv

With the green base colour applied, I mix it with some white paint from Vallejo, and apply to the raised relief areas, using a brush

With a light gray, I enhance the various wires on the cockpit sidewalls

With Vallejo acrylics applied with a fine brush, I detail the various cockpit flight controls

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

I apply a layer

I

of gloss varnish

I

to seal all

I

everything.

I

Finally, I detail the rest of the cockpit with a dark brown wash to

I seal the entire work with a layer of matte varnish

further enhance the raised detail, as well as add ochre and brown oils to the center of the panels, to emphasize the effects of weathering

v\ AIRCRAFT FAQ / 129

n e u t r a l

With a neutral gray. I add some paint chips and scratches within

With black paint. I detail

the cockpit.

the flight instruments on the cockpit consoles.

Some instruments are additionally treated ^

with white paint.

FIELD 0>

With a beige colour. I paint the harnesses and

With silver enamel

I seal the

paint. I detail the

paintwork with

buckles.

a coat of gloss

seat cushion.

varnish.

Finally, I bring out the details with a dark brown wash. Once the excess wash is removed, I apply a layer of matte varnish.

130

IRCRAFT FAQ

The finished cockpit.

5. NTE 0 s 5.3 COCK ' TS 5.3.2 T E J E T A E 5.3.2.1 U.S. cockpit T h e c o c k p its o f U S. je t a ircra ft a re u su a lly a lw a y s o f th e sa m e style , m a k e h e a v y u se o f ve ry lig h t g r a y s fo r th e co n so le s, a n d b la c k fo r th e in stru m e n t p a n e ls. Fo r th is e x a m p le I w ill u se a B la c k B o x resin c o c k p it fro m o n e of th e m o st p o p u la r U S a ircra ft; a 1/32 F - 4 C P h a n to m II.

As the cockpit is made from resin, I have to ensure that the paint reaches fully into all of the various crevices

I apply a coat of U.S. interior light gray for cockpits

With an HB hardness pencil outline all of the contours within the cockpit.

Mow. with black acrylic from Vallejo, I paint the instrument consoles and the upper rear cockpit deck, using a paintbrush

With a flat brush. I add graphite powder from the pencil, creating extra shadow.

Mixing the base colour with a little white from Vallejo, I lighten the various raised detail within the cockpit, including the padding on the rear bulkhead.

Appearance of the cabin at this

With black paint which has been heavily diluted

stage.

with water, I highlight raised wiring d eta il...

... creating a cockpit with more volume and depth,

With other colours, such as this metallic tone for example, I detail the remaining elements of the cockpit.

With black, again applied with

With the same base gray colour as w as used

a fine brush. I outline the raised

inside the cockpit, diluted heavily, I mark the

wiring detail.

tines between the consoles.

General appearance of the cockpit with its two crew positions.

Detail of the sidewall panels

Parts of the cockpit ready for final assembly.

applying the above steps.

Forward view of the instrument panel, completed using the previous techniques

Small cockpit details, now completed and ready for final assembly.

133

» *

>

' 3 [ H r

Parts cleaned and

A medium bluish-gray base coat is

I m ix the base colour with a little white, and apply the

ready for the painting

applied to all parts of the cockpit.

resulting colour onto the raised detail, and also on the

process.

central areas of the flat surfaces.

I use Vallejo black, applied with a brush, and paint the side consoles.

With a little lighter gray, I paint the cockpit wiring, enhancing its volume.

Using actual reference photos, I apply paint to the various buttons and controls.

With the gray base colour used in the cabin, mixed with a little white from Vallejo. I add small chips and scratches to the cockpit, using a fine brush.

Parts of the finished cockpit.

Finally, I apply gloss varnish to the cockpit, and using a dark brown wash. I outline all of the raised detail on the various parts. Once dry, the excess is removed and I apply a layer of matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 135

f>. INTEnlOhS

5.4 PILOTS 5.4.1 WOULD WAD TWO 5.4.1.1 British pilot British p ilo ts w e re ce rta in ly the m o st co lo u rfu l o f th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar, d u e to th e ir b lu e o ffice r's fly in g u n ifo rm , a n d its co n tra st w ith the y e llo w life ja ck e t Inse rte d into a co ck p it w h ich is p ain te d in British interior g re e n , th e result p ro vid e s m uch visu al interest. For th is article. I w ill u se a fig u re fro m th e W in g s C o c k p it F igu re s range , in 1/32, a n d sat in the c o c k p it o f a H a w ke r T em p e st, fro m P a cific C o a s t M odels.^

I apply a base layer of place the figure on the seat, and add the harnesses that attach it to

As this ensemble is made of different

British interior green to

materials, such as resin, photo etch, and plastic. I apply a layer

the whole assembly. ^

of gray primer. This will

the seat.

enable the paint to gain a good grip on each area.

70.951*

»070 9 9 * £ j

.1 r I the consoles

m black

950

IP

I now paint various buttons and levers on the control consoles in white.

With a dark gray, I outline the comers of the consoles and paint the raised detail

I finish the consoles by applying different colours according to the reference I have of the real

With an HB hardness pencil. I add small scratches and chips.

CO':-p :

\ \ R V O r

With a light beige paint, I detail the shin

Now I begin to paint the pilot's uniform. In this case. I use blue Mixing that same blue with a little black. I add the shadows into the various creases. Adding white to the base colour, I now add highlights to the raised fabric areas.

136

IRCRAFT FAQ

06V

vu | u u

3oots

A tr detail

Now with black, the boots them selves...

I highlight using a matte yellow paint.

With several flesh

seat harnesses

life jacket

whose relief

... and gloves.

Using brown, I paint the

dark flesh colour

colour tones, I paint

I return to black paint for the face oxygen mask

the face of the pilot.

I apply a coat of gloss varnish to seal

Finally, I detail the flight helmet

my work.

3

tp 9

With a dark brown wash, I outline the raised and recessed detail

and I finish the figure by applying a layer of matte varnish

AIRCRAFT FAQ

137

1 Figure fitted and sitting in the

I apply a gray primer.

cockpit.

I now give the whole ensemble a base coat of XF-63 "German Gray’ , from Tamiya.

With a slightly lighter gray, I enhance all the raised detail within the cockpit, creating more volume.

Mixing some white with the base colour, using a fine brush, I add small scuffs and scratches within the cockpit.

138

IRCRAFT FAQ

I start the figure by painting the head, detailing the flight helmet, the face and flight mask.

I apply black to the flight suit

With the dry-brush technique, I enhance the uniform wrinkles, using a brown leather paint

With an ochre or buff colour, I paint the seat harnesses and the pedals straps. I use silver for the buckles. Now, the final details, such as the patch on the uniform sleeve, are painted.

The finished figure.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

139

5. INTERIORS 5.4 PILOTS 5.4. W OHL) WA TWO 5.4.1.3 Japanese pilot T h e Ja p a n e se W W 2 p ilo ts h a v e a s tro n g c h ro m a tic rich n e ss in th e ir a p p e a ra n c e , w ith v a rio u s sh a d e s o f b ro w n a n d se p ia co lo r. T h is p ro v id e s a ve ry in te re stin g co n tra st w ith th e lig h t g re e n in te rio rs o f W W 2 Ja p a n e se co c k p its. A s an e xa m p le , I w ill u se a p la stic fig u r e in c lu d e d in 1/32 J2 M 3 R a id e n kit, fro m H a s e g a w a

:

-

The pilot figure is of excellent quality, but improved with a harness made from tin foil and photo-etched buckles A piece of tin foil is also used to reproduce the pocket on the sleeve.

add shadows with a darker brown colour.

A base coat of interior cockpit

Now I begin painting the figure

colour is airbrushed. In this case. I

by applying Tamiya XF-52 Flat Earth as the uniform base colour.

use Tamiya XF-71.

With a mixture of the uniform base colour and Tamiya XF-59 Desert Yellow, I add some highlights

With a dark green, I paint the life jacket.

to the flight suit

Now I mix the red brown with With a silver colour, I detail

I use Tamiya XF-64 Red Brown for

a little beige, and I apply some highlights

the buckles of the life jacket.

the gloves and boots.

to the boots and gloves. I also add shadows with a very dark olive green.

140

IRCRAFT FAQ

With a medium brown, I detail

With a light beige, I paint the edges of the seat

the tube of the oxygen mask.

harnesses. At this stage, I also apply a flesh coloured base layer to the face of the pilot

Next. I focus on the flight cap. Once the brown base layer is dry,

I then paint the headrest with a leather brown colour...

I enhance the seams and creases with a very dark olive green, and detail the glasses with a metallic colour.

A coat of gloss varnish is applied to p ro tea the paintwork. Next, I bring out the details with AK045 Dark Brown Wash, and add a decal with the pilot's rank to his and apply highlights to its highest areas

uniform sleeve.

to create greater visual volume.

The finished ^

figure.

I finish the whole process' with a layer of matte varnish.

JRCRAFT FAQ

141

I place the figure

I apply a layer

With X F-5 8

on the seat, and

of gray primer.

Olive Green from

using acetate strips

Tamiya, I apply a

with photo-etched

base coat to the

buckles, I create the

whole ensemble.

seat harness.

I now paint the face of the pilot. For me, this is probably the hardest task

\

of all. The pilot's face in detail.

Mixing a little XF-4 Green Yellow with the XF-5 8 Olive Green base, and applied with an airbrush, I start adding highlights to the cockpit.

With a khaki colour, I paint the uniform, and with brown, the flight hat. I now use a yellow-orange colour for the lifejacket.

Mixing the khaki colour with a little brown, I outline the shadows within the folds of the flying suit, and

%

then mixing the khaki with a touch of white, I add the highlights to the raised

Jg *

folds of the uniform's fabric.

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

Using light gray,

With a pencil, in the center of each of

I paint the seat

the harness straps, I

harnesses, and then

outline the seams.

apply brown paint to the gloves and boots.

A m

A

For the cabin floor, I mix the base green I then apply

I finish by outlining the

with a little white, and a very fine

black to the mask and

seams of the flight cap with dark olive green,

brush, I add scratches and chips,

oxygen tube.

and do the same

and seat. These will be

with the goggles.



in the vicinity of the pilot’s feet

Jm }

the ones most

m

weathered during use.

With a gray colour,

With several earth

I detail the raised

tone pigments, I

detail on the floor,

add "dirt" to the

and also the wiring.

cockpit floor...

... and this is how it looks once the pigments are dry.

^

I seal the entire assembly with a coat of gloss varnish and leave it to thoroughly dry before outlining the detail with a dark brown wash.

With several ochre and brown oils, I add highlights to the upper areas of the cockpit floor.

Figure completely finished with a layer of matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

143

Once I place the head inside the helmet, I improve it a little with some two-part epoxy putty, and add a mustache. I also add a chin strap to the helmet.

I fit the pilot's head

Before painting the figure, and after

to the body, and play

finding its correct sitting position,

with the position and

you should attach it to the seat

inclination of the head.

with its harnesses. I make these with strips of tin metal foil, as this is perfect for this task. Photo-etched buckles enhance things further.

Starting figure painting

M l

phase. I apply a base coat of

With a slightly lighter green

XF-58 Olive Green, from Tamiya.

I highlight the seat s raised details

With an ochre or buff colour I add small scratches to the seat

With a medium gray. I outline the wiring of the seat

Mow with a matte silver colour, I enhance the

The headrest has a

metal parts, such as

base of matte black

armrests

with some highlights in dark gray.

I start painting the pilot, and use a

In all the folds of the flying suit, I apply a

gray-green colour as

slightly darker greenish

its base

gray to create shadows

I mix the gray-green base colour with a little white, and apply the



colour to raised details, such as the folds and creases of the clothes, enhancing the figure and giving greater visual volume

tee»4

With white, outline

With the same white, I

With a dark yellow, I

some detail on the

outline the maps in the

outline and paint the

trouser pocket

lifejacket

shoulder pads.This will serve as a base colour for subsequent painting.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

145

With matt black, I paint

apply beige for the seat

With a lighter beige, I apply highlights to the

the oxygen mask.

harnesses.

highest areas of the seat harnesses.

With silver, I detail the seat

With a very dark gray, I add

Now with a slightly

buckles.

highlights to the oxygen tube.

lighter gray, I enhance the raised details on the oxygen mask.

Now back to the head, onto which I apply a coat of With the same pen I fill in the drawing

matte white paint, and once dry, use an HB pencil with a thickness between 0.3mm and 0.5mm, to outline the relief details.

On the back of the helmet, I use a pencil draw the decoration and with a 0.2mm fountain pen, I then outline the drawing

A view of the helmet with the finished motif. Be careful with pen ink. because if it's not completely The helmet visor is

smudged, and this

painted with a very

will ruin your work.

146 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

With the visor

dry. it can easily be

dark brown p ain t

frame outlined in silver, I draw and paint the face of the pilot.

//

return to the body, and give it a coat of gloss tram sh

I outline the raised detail on the s e ^ ^ With an ochre oil, I add the

with a very fine brush and very diluted black oil paint.

highlights to the seat. These are then blended in.

I apply a layer of matte varnish over both the figure and seat

The last thing is to apply several layers of clear brown onto the visor, or as in my case, X-19 Smoke from Tamiya, to create a crystalline appearance to the lens

The finished pilot.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

147

r> intehiohs 5.4 PILOTS 5.4.3 MODIFIED AIRCRAFT CHEW - T h e re a re m a n y tim e s th a t w e m ig h t b u ild a n a ircra ft m o d e l fo r w h ic h th e re are n o s p e c ific fig u re s th a t w ill p e rfe c tly fit th e c o c k p it o r in te rio r o f th e m o d e l. T h is m e a n s th a t w e w ill n e e d to m a k e so m e p ro fo u n d c h a n g e to th e p o sitio n o f a c r e w fig u re , to a llo w u s to a d a p t th e m p e rfe c tly to o u r sp e c ific m o d e l. A s a n e x a m p le o f a n U S N a ir cre w , w e w ill lo o k at th e 1/48 set fro m V e rlin d e n , a n d m a k e it fit in s id e a T B M A v e n g e r fro m A c c u ra te M in ia tu re s

V iu tu iV n i

\

Vv v

A General view of figure parts supplied in this Verlinden set

With a permanent pen, I mark the joints of both arms and legs

I carefully cut these apart at those marked joints As copper is a malleable material I can adjust the position of each limb until I find the one that is suitable.

I number each of the parts so as not to confuse their orientation, ready to reassemble

I drill small holes in each of the sections, and insert a

them as a figure

piece of copper wire. The figure can now be reassembled

Once I achieve the final pose, I need to set it so that it won t move.

M

To do this, I apply instant

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IRCRAFT FAQ

cyanoacrylate adhesive to all of

With tw o-parrepoxy putty, I fill all

the joints.

the gaps

*-

milliput. S TA N D A R D

.............

...............

.



Y E L L O W -G R E Y

-

... .

\ ■

----— --------.

I apply a primer c o a t... With the putty still fresh, I can manipulate the putty so that it blends into the rest of the figure, simulating folds

With the putty now dry, all joints can be sanded

and creases etc. Dental tools are perfect for this.

Figure 1

and paint the figures, leaving them

completed.

ready to install within the cockpit

Figure 2 completed

Figures placed inside the model

AIRCRAFT FAQ

149

The general dimension of the seat should be determined on the basis of the reference material. Once this is done. I scratch build the seat from pieces of Evergreen plastic, and create the upholstery using Milliput two-part epoxy putty. In this case, the scratch built seat (on the right) is a big improvement over the part from the kit (on the left).

To "spice up" the kit, we may add some rarely seen features, ie. install the inner door in an open position. In the case of a passenger transport model, we may even replicate a toilet.

150 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

I follow the same procedure for all the seats.

Once the parts are finished, it is very important to check their alignment, as well as to ensure that they can be mounted within the fuselage without problems.

Different views of all the parts placed within the fuselage after their alignment has beer

sa # \ \ «K3

Even the smallest details require our full attention during the painting process, because they will bring life to the interior once the work is finished.

Parts of the interior ready for final assembly.

The whole interior finished and ready for closing the fuselage

151

EXTERIORDETAILS 6. »B0 ‘ELLERSANDSPINNERS

3-.fi.

K.1.1 FIRST WOULD WAN - T h e p ro p e lle rs o f th e First W o r ld W a r w e re a s c h a r m in g a s th e m a c h in e s th e m se lv e s. b u t th e p ro p e lle rs w e re p a rticu la r a ttra ctiv e b e c a u se th e y w e re m a d e o f v isib le w o o d e n la m in a tio n s. T h is fe a tu re p ro v id e s a h ig h e r d e g re e o f b e a u ty o v e r th e c o m p le te d m o d e l, th a n a n a ircra ft fro m W W 2 T h e e x a m p le I u se to illu stra te th is, is a G e rm a n p ro p elle r fro m W in g n u ts W in g s , in 1/32 sca le

Propeller is already prepared for the painting process.

The propellers were composed of two types of wood, laid alternately, so we have to use two timber colours as a base for our work. I start with the lightest colour, which is beige.

To simulate different wood laminates. I mask the propeller with various strips of tape, in a width appropriate to the scale model I now apply the darker colour. In this case, dark brown.

Appearance of the propeller after removing the tape m asks

Paint is removed from the tips of the propeller, which will be painted to simulate brass plate With a brown watercolor pencil, I add small speckles to the surface, with a density which simulates ■■ e nd /idual graining of the The appearance of the propeller, after the aforementioned stages are complete

.\OOd

Withii a mix i mia u ofi udear c a i yellow, ycn u vv, and a u u just jum

a few ic w drops u iu p a of u i clear u c a i orange, u ia u I apply several passes irh varnish uamich appearance annoaunro 0f these earty propellers with my airbrush, simulating the rich

I finally apply the final details, such as the silver colour to the central hub of the propeller, and gilt brass tips.

Our completed propeller after applying a dark brown wash to various raised details. Decals are added, and then sealed into place with glossy varnish. That concludes my tutorial on how to produce a realistic looking antique propeller.

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IRCRAFT FAQ

6. EXTER 01 DETAILS 6.1 V0»ELLERSANDSPINNERS G.l. F ST WORLD WAR 6.1.1.1 German propellers P ro p e lle rs u se d to b e d is tin g u is h e d b y th e w o o d u se d a n d th e w a y o f w o r k in g it. N o w w e w ill se e h o w to re p re se n t th e ty p ic a l G e r m a n p ro p e lle rs in tw o c o lo u r s in v a r io u s e x a m p le s.

* w* 5 wo -

j

Masking in curve shape for part of the propeller.

Acrylic base with Tamiya XF-19.

Second colour with Tamiya XF-9.

Over those two colours we will apply the wooden technique we have already described.

Final result and propeller m place in a LVG C.VI in 1/32.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 155

Another way, which is slightly simpler: base colour XF-59 and straight masking on a propeller

I apply a coat of Tamiya

without reinforcements

X-26 varnish and make

on its ends.

shadows on the edges with medium grey to simulate its wearing

We apply the second colour X F-9 and remove the masks.

We finish the worn out effects by giving the spanner some touches with fine grit sand paper in order to imitate scratches

The same process applied to a four-blade propeller.

In this case, the centers of the bolts and propeller tips are painted in silver.

6. EXTERIORDETAILS 6.1 PROPELLERSANDSPINNERS ( i l l F 1ST WOULD WAII 6.1.1.2 British propeller Basically the wood can be painted in the same way, or similar. Here, we will see another variant of oil paint on propellers of a different shape and fabrication process to the German ones

Over a Desert Yellow base some portions of different shades

Ne>!

We make some streak

brush or a piece of sponge

more clear with a very fine brush.

I extend these colours, following the direction of the streak

of oil brown are applied

We define the details of the spinner and make some strains in the frontal part of the propeller, with a We paint the spinner in Aluminum colour.

wash of A K084 Engine Oil

Another example of the British propeller with small wood streaks done with a fine brush. After the varnish, the result is very realistic.

Example of British propeller in one plain colour, painted with the same technique as the wood was done Same process as in the previous picture, but now, the ends of the propellers are painted in a Light Grey and we imitate scratches with fine sandpaper.

Spinner prepared and ready for the various painting processes.

I first apply a layer of matte white paint. It is advisable to always start with the lightest colour.

A very characteristic style of many Bf 109 spinners was to have them painted with a third of it in another colour. To do this, I mask the white third using tape.

I apply successive, thin coats of blackened green to the remainder of the spinner, applying a little extra black

Appearance after removing the masks, exposing the two

With a very fine pencil. I add chipping and scratches to the

colours of the hub.

white third. For the green areas, I do the same, but with a lighter green paint, applied with a very fine brush.

to the top of the spinner, creating richness in tonal contrast and a more pleasing 3D appearance.

To further accentuate the weathering, I use earth tone pigments, and always draw these backwards, in the direction o f airflow. I make small strokes to simulate the loss of fluid from within, and finally stump the pigment with a brush so that it doesn't look too prescribed.

I seal the various processes with a layer of gloss varnish and accentuate the panel line and rivets/ fasteners of the spinner, with a dark brown wash.

158 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

The result, after sealing the spinner and the various processes, with a matte varnish layer.

Our complete spinner.

The propeller blades are ready for the painting process.

With a cutter knife, I very carefully scrape the greenblack paint away, revealing the silver enamel underneath I apply a base layer of X-11 Chrome Silver

I use a green-black mixture to paint each of the

enamel, from Tamiya.

propeller blades, and when dry, I lighten the tips with an airbrush. These areas are where the blades will exhibit most wear.

Propeller, hub and spinner parts before their

Our assembled propeller

final assembly.

and hub.

Propeller and spinner completely finished.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 159

I apply the typical RAF greenish

With an HB hardness pencil, I mark the

gray, as the base colour.

dividing panel line between the forward

Using the same pencil, I add small chips and scratches to the spinner, and always try to add them in the direction of airflow.

and rear main spinner parts.

To give more colour richness to the work. I mask the forward cone of the spinner with tape, and then, with a little pastel which is applied at the junction of the

Remove the mask and observe the difference in the

two halves of the spinner, I drag the pastel rearwards,

subtle shades of the RAF greenish gray.

I now apply a layer of gloss varnish.

in the direction of airflow. This is then stumped with a brush so as to give a more naturally dirty appearance. Spinner completely finished.

Once the varnish is dry, I add a pin wash in dark brown, highlighting the separation line between both halve. Once dry, I stump the wash with a flat brush in order to break up the uniform effect it had

160

-RCRAFT FAQ

I seal the various processes with a layer of matt . J'MISh

I now paint the propeller in matte black.

The tips of the blades are painted

With the airbrush loaded with some dark gray paint, heavily diluted

in yellow.

with alcohol of 96°, I degrade the solid black colour on each of the propeller blades, always working from the leading edge.

This propeller is made of wood, therefore,

so I use a dark gray watercolor pencil to create the specific type

should not be chipped as metal one would.

of weathering we would see here.

The assembled and finished propeller and spinner.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 161

^

— rw T v —

The propeller blades are painted using the techniques explained before Advantage is taken of

To increase the

the glossy varnish, as

weathering effect, I apply

decals and stencils are

medium or neutral gray oil

now applied.

paint to the leading edge of each of the blades.

The process is repeated again, but now with a little brown oil to simulate dust and dirt.

I apply the oil in small dots, using a fine brush. Using a synthetic, flat brush, the oils are dragged backwards with the direction of airflow, and blended together.

Appearance of the propeller after all applied

Final result (left) compared to the original and unpainted parts (right).

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 163

' *_

«

(>. EXTEMIOh DETAILS (>.1l’ilOI’ELLEItSANDSPINNENS <>. .2 WOHLD VA TWO 6.1.2.4 Japanese propeller Ja p a n e se p ro p e lle rs, w h a te v e r ty p e , a n d b e lo n g in g to w h ic h e v e r a ircra ft, a re m o stly b ro w n in co lo ur, a n d th is m o stly a p p lie s to th e sp in n e r too. In th e c a se o f th e e x a m p le th a t I s h o w h ere. I w ill u se th e p ro p elle r o f a J2 M 3 R a id e n fro m a 1/32 H a s e g a w a kit F o r va rie ty, th e sp in n e r o n th is a ircra ft w a s p a in te d g re e n

put the propeller blade clamp make M ri

d

apply a layer of silver

arr-i.

enamel which will form the

yellow propeller

Dlade

basis of the first stage of weathering,

I then apply the

With a piece of tape, I mask the yellow stripe

typical reddish brown

on the propeller blade.

colour to each of the four propeller blades

With

ruler

ITl.lf I

extent of the yellow - ich blade equally

I mix the base colour, reddish brown, with a light beige, and the resulting mixture is then diluted in alcohol to slightly lighten

With the same mixture, I now add a little more beige, and this is quickly airbrushed from the the leading edge of the propeller blades backwards towards the

the tip of each propeller

trailing edge. The effect spreads

b ade. where most wear

out towards the trailing edge, and is narrower at the leading

to the paint, would be experienced

0 ///r>

edge. Using a cutter in these same areas, I scrape the paint away until the silver colour is exposed.

For more subtle peeling, I add chips with a watercolor pencil, to the tip of each blade of the propeller.

164

AIRCRÄ

'^

I carefully remove

The yellow band also

the masking tape

needs to be weathered

from the yellow

Using a pencil, I add small chips

I md

to that area

seal everything with a

and add the propeller

I end the process

layer of gloss varnish ...

brand decal.

with a layer of matte

yarn sti

The finished propeller and spinner.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

165

Wheels and rims in plastic and resin. Some minor modification will

I remove the excess resin from the wheel.

be required to enable these to fit together.

A s a base layer, I apply matte black.

I fit the rims to the wheels and apply a layer of silver enamel paint over the hub.

With a dark gray, I paint the raised tread detail in order to create volume, and also the appearance of being well-used.

To reduce the contrast, I apply several layers of matte black paint, heavily diluted with alcohol of 96°, in a ratio of 9 0 % alcohol and 10% paint. I add as many coats as necessary in order to attain the tone I want.

The pigments are barely noticeable whilst they are wet, so you have to let them dry well to check their final appearance.

With a light sand colour paint, highly diluted with alcohol, the outer zone of the tire is airbrushed to create the effect of dust that is integrated with the earth effects we have just applied.

166

AIRCRAFT FAQ

I mask the rim with a disc of masking tape.

The finished wheels.

I apply various pigments to the spaces between the raised tread.

Comparison between the resin wheel and the kit parts.

I apply matte black as base, or NATO Black, which is a little more authentic.

With a heavily diluted earth

Now, with a sand colour paint,

colour paint, almost transparent

also very dilute, apply in thin

in appearance, several layers are

coats to the circumference face

airbrushed onto the tread.

of the tire. This creates the dust

With a dark gray paint, I highlight

I enhance the bolts with a lighter gray

the relief under the rim, creating

paint.

more volume.

effects to the tire, whilst leaving the tread mostly as black.

To add an original touch, I

Finally I apply a several earth tone

think it looks good when

pigments.

a number is painted onto the rim.

The finished wheels.

*PW c: r

base

Ti.ive ,V iiV

With a very sharp pencil, I add some relief around and within the hub area, and then I add some scratches with the same pencil. It is important to ensure you keep the pencil sharp for this.

Where I have marked the pencil relief around the inner edge of the hub, I add graphite into this area, and brush inwards, blending it into the white area. This creates the effect of shadows. You can see the difference here between the un-shaded wheel on the left, and the shaded wheel on the right.

Again with white paint relief to detail such as screws etc. This is applied to the top of this detail, creating volume on the piece.

168

'RCRAFT FAQ

Many wheels don t have any scribed tread on the tire area, and therefore with very thin strips of tape, we can mask the tire tread.

I carefully remove the masks, revealing the tire tread. I apply a dark gray to the wheel tread if the

|

aircraft operates from an aircraft carrier, or earth tones if operating from a land-based airfield.

The finished wheels.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 169

Landing gear, hubs and wheels ready for painting. I have also

Due to the use of metallic paint, it is convenient to coat

added tin wire for hydraulic lines.

everything in gray primer.

With light gray, I paint the

I outline these

landing gear and let this dry.

raised areas with a

Again, I use this gray mixed with

graphite pencil of HB

a little white, and apply this to

hardness. This will

the raised detail on the legs of

create more volume

the landing gear, giving greater

by accentuating the

visual volume.

areas we have just painted.

Now. with a fine brush, I apply a dark brown wash to the areas I had previously marked with a pencil. What this does is to leave a As graphite is very dirty, I seal this process with a layer of gloss varnish

170

iRCRAFT FAQ

patina to this area, complementing the pencil demarcation.

With the landing gear now finished, I focus on the wheels. The rims

I mix the green with some white in order to lighten

are painted with medium green paint, as the base colour.

it, and then I enhance the raised detail, giving more volume to the parts.

I apply silver enamel to the shock actuators, finishing the landing gear and wheels.

With a very diluted black paint, I outline raised relief, and again with the green base colour, mixed with white, I add minor scratches and chipping to the hubs.

For white landing gear, we will follow the same steps, though using different colours. Here we can see the result on a A-4E Skyhawk front landing gear.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 171

6. EXTEN DI ETA LS

0.2 WHEELS AN) LAN Nl EA (>.2.5 M ETALLIC LANDING CEAII ' M a n y W o rld W a r II la n d in g g e a rs, a n d a lso th o se fro m m a n y p o stw a r/m o d e rn fig h te r a ircra ft, w e re / a re g iv e n a m e ta llic fin ish . A s an e x a m p le o f h o w to a p p ly su ch a fin ish , I'll illustra te th e la n d in g ge a r fro m a 1/32 P -4 0 , fro m H a se g a w a

C

C

w

Landing gear,

I apply a layer of silver enamel,

finished with

and when dry, I paint the brake

detailing wire

cable in black.

and ready for the painting phase

This is the undercarriage after applying the dark With a dark brown wash, I enhance the areas

brown wash.

of the undercarriage which are stepped and contain detail. With a fine brush, I apply small amounts of AK-Interactive 'Shafts & Bearings Grease wash

to .sr

mis

detail areas of the landing gear

With a little reddish brown wash, I accentuate the detail on the flexible joints of the undercarriage.

AIRCRAFT F A ?

The finished landing gear.

To finish gray landing gear, we will follow the same steps, though we will have to mask off the silver areas before applying the gray paint. These landing gear struts came from a 1/32 3 M 0 9 G -6

AIRCRAFT FAQ

173

lr

1 Jf i \rei j1fer It...i I 1 Ip"*: 1 tE ffl jd J I apply a layer of matt white as the base colour.

With a very thin pencil, I outline the edges of the raised detail, and add scratches and scuffs. I then seal the parts with a layer of gloss varnish.

Finally, with a dark brown wash, I highlight the edges of the raised detail again. I then remove the excess fluid, leaving a patina of dirt which is typical of these parts. It is very typical of USN aircraft to have the gear doors trimmed in red.

The finished parts.

(>. EXTE HONDETAILS 0.3 LANDINGDEANDOORS 6.3.2 CHEEK LAKDIKC EA

1)00118

M a n y a ircra ft m a n u fa c tu re rs, d u rin g W o rld W a r II, p a in te d th e in sid e o f th e co v e rs o f la n d in g ge a r, in a g r a y -g r e e n co lo u r. A n e x a m p le o f th is a re th e a ircra ft u se d b y th e G e rm a n Lu ftw a ffe , u sin g R LM 0 2 . T h e British co m m o n ly u se d th e ir interior g re en p a in t in th is are a. F o r o u r e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e g e a r d o o rs fro m a 1/32 H a w ke r T e m p e st, a lso a d d in g d u st e ffe c ts in th e a re a s clo se st to th e g r o u n d

I apply a layer of interior green as the base colour

With the interior green, mixed with a little white, I enhance the volume of the interior raised structures

After applying a coat of gloss varnish, I highlight the ridges of the raised detail, using a dark brown wash This creates a dirty appearance

Finally, with a very diluted earth colour. (8 0 % 96° alcohol for 2 0% paint), I airbrush along the lower edges of the gear doors, simulating dust and dirt

The finished oar.s

AIRCRAFT FAQ

175

Here, I have prepared the parts ready for paint, including some tin wire for detailing.

I mix the sky blue with a little white paint, and enhance all raised relief, creating more visual volume.

With a sky blue colour, I apply the base layer.

Using my reference photos, I detail paint the wiring looms within the wells, using several different colour paints.

l seal the entire work with a layer of matte varnish and the pieces are now finished.

0000

The left-hand part was treated with the p enal and dark brown wash, whilst the one on the right is untreated, showing the

r a r

GOOC

For a metal finish, follow the same steps as with the light blue paint

The finished metallic parts.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 177

1

I take a piece of sponge or foam, dipped in olive drab paint, and with a paper towel, I remove most of the paint. This sponge is then used to apply a mottled effect to the bomb body, simulating the deterioration of the bomb's paint finish which is caused by being stored outside.

| mix the olive drab with a little yellow, and then airbrush the mixture in the center of the bomb's body, in order to create more volume.

178

IRCRAFT FAQ

Here is the resulting appearance when the mottle is dry. You can see the first effects I applied, which create the initial volume.

With a senes of earth tone

With watercolor pencils, I add finer dots,

pigments which add dust effects, I further emphasize the effect of bomb wear and tear.

mottle and various scratches to the bomb casing. Such damage to the finish would occur when the bomb is manhandled by armourers.

Appearance after applying the

With an HB hardness pencil I add

techniques discussed above.

chipping and scratches to the yellow oands.

Here we see the completed weathenng of the main body of the bombs

I detail the wiring

I finish the process

of the percussion rods with

by applying Tamiya X - il Chrome

Tamiya X -l 1 Chrome Silver enamel

Silver enamel to the fuses, and matte black paint on the extended percussion rod

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 179

*(>. EXTERIOR DETAILS i . m WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS 6.4.1IIOMIIS 6.4.1.2 WW2 U.S. bombs .

’ B o m b s ca rrie d by a ircra ft d u r in g th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar, a lw a y s a d d so m u ch life a n d in te re st to th e fin ish e d su b je ct, a n d re q u ire m u c h m o re w o rk to fin ish th a n yo u m ig h t im a g in e . A s a n e xa m p le , I h a v e c h o s e n a n A m e ric a n b o m b in 1/32 sca le , a n d w ill s h o w yo u to im p ro ve th e kit p arts, p a in t it, a n d a lso a d d w e a th e rin g

Once I had cut out the new fins, they were fitted to the bomb, just above the mark left by the cut on the injected plastic, just in case w e had any error creep in with

I apply a base coat of olive

traced parts. Of course, you need to make sure that the fin

green over the whole bomb.

installation is equal, and all fins are perpendicular to each other.

It’s very common for kits to provide

Wider strips of tape are

stripes and bands for bombs, in

applied to the outside area

decal form. I recommend painting

of the stripes, to prevent any

them as follows, masking the base coat in preparation for

overspray from ruining the

the next colour

180

base coat

Now with an old, stiff bristled brush,

Again with tape, I mask the bomb body and with a

slightly moistened in water, I remove the

heavily diluted black (9 0 % alcohol of 9 6° and 10%

paint that I have just applied leaving a

paint), I airbrush the tail section, the lower body of

kind of chipping effect which gives the

the bomb, and the base of each of the fins, creating a

appearance of wear/scuffing

shadow/volume effect.

on the bomb.

With a sand or beige colour, I add small chips or scratches with a fine Appearance of the bombs after the previous

brush, in the area where the lower body secured to the main body

s lic e ;

AIRCRAFT FAO

181

I apply black paint to the bomb fuse wiring, and then a dark silver to the fuse itself.

er airbrushinq gloss varnish onto the bomb, I apply numerous, random dots to its surface, using various oil paints with earth-related tones

Here we see the result of that oil blending. With a flat, synthetic brush, I blur and blend the different oil colours together.

this time with an ocher colour oil paint.

182

IRCRAFT FAQ

Here you see the result.

apply a layer of matte varnish to seal all the processes so far undertaken

I finish the bombs by adding silver paint along the wiring and bomb fuses, adding another volume effect

The finished bombs

AIRCRAFT FAQ

183

I remove the masks carefully.

...and apply a dark green colour After applying matte white, I now apply matte yellow. A s this is sprayed over a white base colour, the resulting finish is a more vibrant yellow colour. Time to mask again

The m asks are removed, revealing the results of the previous masking and painting stages.

Now with tape, I mask the heads of the missiles,

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 185

I apply matte black to the rest of the missile body.

I apply a layer of matt white which will act as a

Now I carefully mask the bodies leaving only the missile fins exposed.

such as orange on the large fins

basecoat for the more vivid colours I will now useI

I carefully remove the masks, avoiding any dam aging to the missile fins.

Finished missiles, ready to be installed on the plane. These are sealed with a layer of gloss varnish.

186

IRCRAFT FAQ

M is sile s a re c o m m o n ly p a in te d in e ith e r w h ite o r g r a y c o lo u rs. A s a n e x a m p le fo r th is k in d o f fin ish , I w ill u se a c o u p le o f 1/48 A IM -7 S p a r r o w s , ty p ic a lly u se d o n A m e ric a n n a v a l fig h te rs.

area with a strip of tape of the same width as the yellow band will be.

(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS 6.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS 6 .4 .1 F U E L TANKS Fu e l ta n k s are th o se p a rts o f a m o d e l, w h ic h a lth o u g h sm all, ca n co n trib u te m u c h to th e o verall a p p e a ra n c e o f a m o d e l, b y th e d e g r e e a n d style o f w e a th e r in g e ffe c ts th a t ca n b e a p p lie d T h e re fore. I u se a s e x a m p le fo r th is se ctio n , th e fu e l ta n k o f a 1/32 P -4 0 N , fro m H a s e g a w a

V

With the fuel tank assembled, I apply a

With an HB or ’B' hardness pencil, I add chipping and

base coat of neutral gray.

scratching, especially at the front, and in the area

I apply a layer of gloss varnish.

around the fuel filler cap.

?n ; After a few minutes, when the wash has dried a little but not completely, Over the gloss varnish I apply a dark brown

with a flat-tipped synthetic brush, I

wash to the edges of raised detail, creating

blur and blend the wash away from

more volume.

the area, creating a shadow effect. Now with an AK-Interactive weathering set for engines, I will add wear to the fuel tank, giving it the appearance of having been used countless times.

Notice the difference between the lines of both fluids, oil more dense downwards, and the kerosen lost while flying backwards in the Firstly, I apply the oil effects...

... I then supplement this with the kerosene effect w a sh ...

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IRCRAFT FAQ

opossite direction of the plane, because it is something more liquid.

I must also now add wear to the rest of the fuel tank,

then a darker gray on the underside.

With brown oil paint, I add small detail

so I start with oil paints; lighter for the top of the fuel tank ....

spots of rust and dirt.

On the underside, I apply several earthy Next, I use very diluted black oil to create a pin wash around raised detail.

coloured oils, creating the appearance of dirt and dust. This is important due to the

I use red to paint the filler cap of the fuel tank, and then seal everything with a

proximity of this area to the ground.

coat of gloss varnish.

The finished fuel tank, sealed with a layer of matte varnish.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 189

(>. EXTEHIOHDETAILS 6.4 WEAPONSANDFUELTANKS .4.4

INS

. G u n s are u su a lly h id d e n w ith in a ircra ft fu se la g e s a n d w in g s , w ith th e o n ly visib le a re a s b e in g a p artia l b arre l o r m u z zle . S o m e tim e s , w e d o n 't e ven se e th a t. For th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a c o u p le o f 1/32 G e rm a n a n tita n k g u n s w h ic h are m o u n te d o n to th e u n d e rsid e o f a Ju 8 7 S tu k a w in g s

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Here, the weapons finished and ready for the painting process. Whenever possible, I recommend using cannon and machine guns made of metal These generally offer better detail and fine, open muzzles

To create the hot metal effect on the cannon barrel I use transparent orange, applied in several thin coats, to the center area of the barrel

I apply a gun metal paint to the barrels and muzzles, acting as a primer.

Now, with transparent blue at both sides of the orange, I apply several thin coats, again giving the appearance of hot metal.

apply a layer of gloss varnish to seal the effects, and create a shiny surface on the gun barrel

Finally, with matte black (highly diluted in 96° alcohol, in a ratio of 9 0 % alcohol and 10% paint), I darken the muzzle area

190

(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS i.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS (i.4.5 ’ YLOfiS 6.4.5.1 White pylons T h e re a re m a n y a cce sso rie s th a t fit to a ircra ft p ylo n s, su ch a s b o m b ra ck s th a t in c re a se th e ca p a c ity o f b o m b s th a t c a n b e lo a d e d to e a ch p ylo n . In th is e x a m p le I w ill u se an A m e ric a n M .E .R , w ith a c a p a c ity to c a rry u p to six b o m b s o n a s in g le p ylo n . T h is p a rticu la r o n e b e lo n g s to a n A - 4 E S k y h a w k in 1/32 sca le

*

The M.E.R. are very basic and can be improved with extra wiring detail, and addition of missing screws. Here we have prepared the pylon, ready for the painting phase

I apply a primer coat, in this case, matte white.

Using an HB hardness pencil, I draw around the edges of raised detail, and add some scratches and chips to the M.E.R..

Fully outlined parts

With a dark brown wash, I outline again all edges I marked with a pencil, especially screws and bomb retaining clips. Once dry, I remove the excess, blending the wash into the paint, leaving a

Li

trail of realistic wear. Finished parts with a layer of matte varnish, and ready to place on the model as soon as fitted with its bomb load

192

>. EXTE 110» DETAILS 6.4 WEAPONS AND FUEL TANKS (>.4.5 PYLONS 6.4.5.2 Grey pylons P ylo n s are o n e o f th e fo rg o tte n p ie c e s o f a ircra ft h a rd w a re th a t o n c e p la c e d , a d d rich n e ss to a m o d e l. It is o n e o f th e m o st u sed p a rts o n a p la n e , a n d b e c a u se its g r o u n d h a n d lin g a n d co m b a t u se, sh o u ld w e w e a th e re d in a m o re su ita b le w a y . A s a n e x a m p le I w ill u se a p ylo n fro m a 1/32 F -1 0 0 S u p e r S a b re

With an HB hardness pencil. I mark the pane lines and rivets. Using a flat I apply a base

brush with short bristles, I

layer of camouflage gray same as used on the underside of the plane

m w ifm

blend the graphite into the

With the same pencil, I mark around the

surrounding area, around

screws for the guns, also adding chipping and

the pylon screws

scratches caused by armourer handling and tools

-7t Finally. I paint the stencils with their appropriate colours

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fuffyfinnhpdpylarr^Thescrew heads were detailed with silver

m

With an orange-brown paint. Exhausts ready for painting.

ap. diluted ya'Hi --

.

I apply a reddish-brown base coat colour.

I add small chips to the exhausts.

■ id

whole surface I cut a piece of paper

exhausts

... and I place manifold opening of each of the exhaust stubs directly over the paper, protecting the other stubs, and airbrush a very diluted matte black (9 0 % alcohol + 10% paint). The final result of this simple technique.

I apply a base layer of AK048 Pigment Fixer over the whole surface of the exhaust.

Base layer colour of Tamiya XF-8 4 Dark Iron.

With A K2042 Dark Rust pigment, I add highlights and weathering, creating a burnt metal effect.

The finished pieces with a layer of AK183 Ultra Matt Varnish.

Exhaust Stains Weathering Set from AK-Interactive.

(>. EXTE 0 DETAILS 8.5 EXHAUSTS AND NOZZLES (>.5.3 N O Z Z L E V T

A ).l 8TA L E ’ E T A LS

N o z zle s w h ic h e m p lo y a d ju sta b le p eta ls, a re ty p ic a l o f a ircra ft w ith su p e rso n ic c a p a city . T h e re a re e n d le ss e ffe c ts th a t m o d e lle rs ca n cre a te fo r th e se ke y a re as. A s e x a m p le s. I w ill first s h o w th e n o z zle s fo r a 1/32 F - 4 C fro m *

T am iya. F o r th is, I u se d th e resin n o z z le s fro m A ire s. In a d d itio n to th is, I w ill a p p ly th e sa m e te c h n iq u e s to th e n o z zle s o f a 1/48 M iG -2 9 fro m G re a t W a ll H o b b y

* « The Aires resin nozzle for a 1/32

A s a base coat, I apply a dark silver colour

Tamiya F-4C/D, ready for the painting phase.

over the whole piece.

With an enamel "smoke" colour, such as X-19 from

I apply a transparent orange over

Tamiya, I darken the petals of the nozzle. I later apply

the rear ring of the nozzle. This is

a much diluted black from Vallejo to highlight all edges

the type of colour used for painting

around raised detail. I use water for this dilution.

vehicle headlamps, but here it helps to create the appearance of metal which has been heated to a high temperature.

Now. I repeat the same procedure with transparent blue, over the orange applied previously, and only in the area closest to the petals, and if we

... but if we want to give the look of much usage, we can airbrush the whole piece with a few thin coats of heavily diluted matte black.

wish to portray a nozzle which hasn't seen too much use, then we leave things here... The finished nozzle. Another example using the same techniques, re the nozzles of a 1/48 MiG29 from Great Wall Hobby.

196

IRCRAFT FAQ

Then with smoke colour enamel, in this case Tamiya X-19,1 apply a few strokes in order to darken the silver

I remove the tape strips.

With the smoke colour again, I apply more passes as I need, until I find the contrast between the internal elements and burned metal effect of the nozzle.

On the nozzle extremity only, I apply a few thin coats of smoke, darkening this specific area a little more than the rest of the nozzle.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 197

-

- 6.6.1 WALKWAY. EX A M P LE 1 * * W a lk w a y s a re u su a lly c o ve re d w ith n o n -s lip sa fe ty p a in ts . A s ’

* ' "w

th e y are a re a s w ith h e a v y f o o t tra ffic , w e n e e d to re p ro d u ce all e ff e c ts c a u se d b y th is b y a p p ro p ria te p a in tin g a n d w e a th e rin g p ro ce ss. F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a 1/32 A - 4 E S k y h a w k , fro m

J*

H a se g a w a .

I mask around the area where I will create the walkway protecting the surrounding paintwork as much as possible from overspray accidents.

To avoid dam aging any decals due to overspray, I put a piece of paper in front of them first. This will protect the work when it comes to the next phase.

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IRCRAFT FAQ

I spray the entire w alkway area with matte black.

With a neutral gray,

to the center

of each of the panels of the walkway area

funffy the overall effect b y airbrushlna

avery dilute earthy-brown colour

over the walkway. This also helps to create the illusion

I carefully remove the masking tape to reveal the end result

Finally, with a fine brush I apply small chips using the gray

of the technique that has been applied.

camouflage scheme colour. This gives an even greater effect of wear in this area. You could also use watercolor pencils for this purpose.

c .)

AIRCRAFT FAQ

199

C hm ncm V a u g h t F 7 U C u tla s s

ra rt

2

Before I begin, I cut out the walkway decal from the decal sheet.

20 0

AIRCRAFT FAQ

so that it doesn't move.

With matte black highly diluted in 96° alcohol (9 0 % ALCOHOL + 10% PAINT) I unify all the gray that I have just applied. and then with a medium or neutral gray I lighten the panels centres of the walkway area.

With a toothpick, I scratch the black paint, producing small chips which

Final view of the whole process. How much you wish to

would result from aircrew and ground crew w alking over this area. You

weather this depends on the modeler s own taste and whether

can also use a fine brush and silver paint, or a watercolor pencil of the

the aircraft was well-used or relatively new to service.

same tone

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 201

With a piece of masking tape placed over one side of the canopy, I press the tape into the recess using my fingers, and once in position, I outline with a fine, sharp pencil.

Parts already assembled and ready for the painting phase.

I trace along the pencil marks with a fresh knife blade, and remove the excess tape.

I apply the camouflage paint pattern.

I finish the canopy using the same painting processes as employed on the rest of the plane. The masks are then carefully removed, obtaining this result.

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

The first thing to do is source the low-tack

A s reference. I mark the slope of the leading edge of

adhesive film which is used to cover books.

the tail fin, marking it on the paper. This will guide

When drawing the letter, I have to do this as if I was looking in a mirror, creating a reverse image. Once

me when I create the sloping letters which share the

drawn, I shade them with a pencil so as not to make

This has a backing paper which is divided into squares. I secure this to my work top using tape.

Letters cut out on the templates

same angle as the leading edge.

any mistakes while cutting them out.

When the paper backing is removed from the

I place the mask onto the surface of the model and

film, and the film orientated for application to the

apply the colour for the letters, which in this case is the

model, the letters will be the correct way round

black. A s a note here, you will achieve better results

and not reversed

if the masks are applied to a gloss surface, as this will minimize the risk of paint bleeding under the mask

I remove the masks

Here you see the letters perfectly

carefully

positioned and finished

(>. EXTEUIOUS 6.7 MAKINGANDUSINGPAINTMASKS i).iJ IUHINDELS AND UNES - M a s k s fo r circu la r m a r k in g s are e a s y to m a ke a n d use, b u t th e d iffic u lt y is to a p p ly th e circle s in e x a c tly th e p o sitio n re q u ire d . For this, I c u t th re e p e rfe c tly s q u a re p ie c e s o f ta p e , d ra w a "X * th a t g o e s fro m c o rn e r to co rn e r, fo rm in g a cro ss o f S t A n d re w , a n d th e n cu t o u t th e circle u s in g th e 'X ' a s th e cen ter. F o r th is, I u se a c o m p a ss cu tte r. T h is is re p e a te d fo r e a ch o f th e circle d ia m e te rs th a t w ill m a k e u p o u r ro u n d e l N o w , th e trick is to p u t e a ch o f th e th re e m a sk s o n to p o f o n e a n o th e r so th a t th e co rn e rs e x a c tly m a tch e a ch oth er. T h is w a y , th e circle s a lw a y s c o m e o u t ce n te red

I place the first of the masks

I apply the first colour

in the correct position.

in tms case. red.

Now I place the second mask on top of the first, matching the corners as I nave m entioned

I apply the second colour. In this case yellow

Now I put the third mask on top of the second, again matching the four corners at the perimeter

204

Now

apply the

third colour, which t again, red.

CE>

The next step is for the Cross of St. Andrew. This

Finally, and very carefully, I remove the masks, revealing the

technique can of course be used for other markings

roundels which are perfectly centered.

which contain lines. First, I apply the base colour, in this case, black.

and with concentric rings.

O/

I apply the second colour over the I mask with strips of tape of the proper scale width

remainder of the rudder. In this case, white.

The process is concluded by removing the masks revealing the result

205

6. EXTEIilOllS 6.7 MAKINGANDUSINGI’AINT MASKS <>.7.4 GERMAN GROSSES - T h e re are tim e s w h e n w e c o m e to u se kit d e c a ls, th a t w e re a lize th e y are d a m a g e d , to o th ic k o r h ave c o lo u rs th a t a re n 't in register. A lth o u g h th e re are m a sk s w h ic h a re a v a ila b le o n th e m a rke t, w h ic h w ill so lv e th is p ro b le m , w ith a little p a tie n ce , y o u c a n m a k e th e m y o u rse lf In th is ca se , 1*11 m a k e G e rm a n L u ft w a ffe c ro sse s fo r a 1/48 Bf 1 09 E -4 , fro m T am iya

The first thing I do is use a sheet of adhesive film of the type used to cover books. This is divided into equal squares which helps with producing the shapes we need.

Once I have the crosses marked on the paper, with a

With a very sharp cutter, I carefully cut out

pencil. I shade the area that I have to cut out. This helps

each and every one of the crosses.

reduce mistakes when having to cut so many lines.

I mark the outline of the crosses, using the squares as reference, and of course the size and proportions of the kit decals.

Some Germ r crosses wore a black edging. To mask for this,

I now place the m asks in

I apply the first colour, in this case

the correct positions, and

white. It is always a good idea to start

protect the surroundings areas with

with the lightest colour

I use two strips of tape of equal width, and mask off the center of the cross, leaving an equal band exposed around the edge.

pieces of masking tape

3 ^ > i<

Now, I apply matte black to the cross.

now remove all

206

IRCRAFT FAQ

masking material, leaving

with a ruler, I mark the center

the white crosses edged in black

of each leg of the cross, and mask out

Engine block already assembled and ready to be painted. I will apply a base coat of steel colour.

I replicate the Spark plugs already

piping of the wires

fitted to the engine

with a length

and painted in black. The engine itself was

of 0.8mm tube, painted in red

given an aluminium

brown.

colour.

I add the cooler tube painted with A ldad Copper.

A wire goes out from every spark plug to

I cover the supply tubes with Tamiya

the conduction tube.

masking tape.

I reproduce the wires running from the spark plug to the

I place the springs and the lifters from the Taurus improvement set

distributors.

To simulate the

Engine ready to

front sensor I use

be fixed n tt n

copper wire

me airfran e

209

Once the engine is mounted within the airframe. I add the oil tank painted with A ldad Copper use Sienna Earth Oil to apply a general wash over the whole engine. I also recreate streaks with the same oil, i.e. on the oil deposit cover

210

AIRCRAFT FAQ

I add the Spandau guns painted with Tamiya Gun Metal.

I place the cooler tube, painted with steel colour. This goes to the radiator placed in the middle part of the upper wing. The exhaust tube is painted with Tamiya X F-9 Red Brown I airbrush orange onto the gas exit of the exhaust tube and finish this with a bit of black also applied with an airbrush. Next, I slightly highlight the welds with graphite

211

*• % • 6.8.1.2 Radial engine A s w ith th e in lin e e n g in e s, th e ra d ia l e n g in e s a re a lso ve ry v isib le e le m e n ts o f th e a ircra ftu se d d u r in g W o r ld W a r O n e . F o r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se a 1/32 in je cte d p la s tic G n o m e M o n o s o u ­ p a p e e n g in e , fro m W in g n u t W in g s ’ A M C D H -2 .

Parts of the engine.

Aluminium Base. Tamiya X-23 Clear Blue is airbrushed around the base of each cylinder.

I assemble the central part and cylinders.

Both center and upper cylinder

I replace some pushrods with

.and washed with sienna

areas are painted with X-24 Clear

earth oil.

Yellow from Tam iya...

I attach the pushrods, now painted aluminum and gold, and then apply the same wash as to the rest of the engine.

I recreate the spark plug wires with 0.2mm aluminium wire.

I fix the ignition wires with a drop of C. A. adhesive, and paint the ignition cable insulators in red.

Several views of the engine before the final weathering process.

212 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

> s The first task is to assemble the various rings which comprise this engine.

Then I drill a hole into the front of each of the cylinders...

... and also at the top of each of the cylinder heads.

With tin wire of the appropriate scale, I start to add the engine wiring.

Each cylinder is double wired, so I recommend adding the first row of cables, and then the next row, securing them into their final positions. I

I add the second row of cables, repeating the same procedure as before...

214 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

.then the third series of cables.

I finish the wiring with the fourth

Engine completely wired.

and final series of cables.

Several component of this radial engine.

I apply a dark brown wash to the engine.

Here, the gearbox and other engine parts finished with a silver base layer, and a wash in

With the dry-brushing technique, I apply silver paint, enhancing the raised detail on the engine.

dark brown.

We will shortly look at creating an exhaust Overview of the engine after all processes are applied.

system with multiple pipework sections, displaying a burnt metal effect.

First stage of painting and engine assembly are complete.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 215

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With an orange-brown, I apply a highlight to the upper

Now with dark brown, I paint each of the wires from the cylinders

edge of each cable, creating a more 3D, voluminous

appearance

All wiring is now completed Now we look at the second and final phase of engine assembly and painting

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Only the exhausts now remain to be completed. For this task, I apply a layer of dark aluminum paint, such as XF-56 Metallic Grey from Tamiya.

216

IRCRAFT FAQ

Around all of the relief detail, I apply Tamiya X-19 Smoke.

In the center of each of the

I complete the process with a very

exhaust pipes, I apply several

dilute matte black application over

smooth layers of very diluted

the gas exit of the exhaust pipes

Tamiya X-26 Clear Orange

The third and final phase of engine assembly and painting

The finished engine

AIRCRAFT FAQ

217

Before assembly, I apply a coat of Japanese Interior

With black acrylic paint from Vallejo, I brush paint

Gray onto the crankcase and cylinders of the

all the cylinders.

engne

With the dry-brushing technique, I highlight the cooling fins of each cylinder, using a medium gray paint. It is important that very little paint remains on your brush before

The result after the dry-brushing process. The

you undertake this. Also, never use silver paint, as it simply isn t suitable or correct.

cylinder cooling fins can now be seen clearly

218

AIRCRAFT FAQ

I now assemble the engine, applying wear to the front

... and then connect them into their correct position at the point where the spark p lu j^

reduction gear housing, using the same techniques as we use on the exterior of the aircraft The process of engine wiring now begins, with each cylinder

diameter suitable for the scale of the engine,

being fitted with a single wire. I place the first cable...

I attach the second batch of cables

is fitted. To do this, I use of tin wire o fa (front ring)

£

With narrow, thin strips of tin metal foil, I make the clamps that hold

... and again insert

the wires in pairs; one

them into the spark

wire to the front ring, and

plug (rear ring)

another to the rear.

For each cable, I apply light gray paint, and for each

I continue detailing the e ^ in e , this time adding a few

I finish the whole process by adding the little stiffeners

damp, an even lighter gray, outlining the contours in

strips of copper wire. Always use photographs of the

between the heads of the cylinders. I make these from

black, to enhance the effect of volume.

real engine for reference.

plastic strips of a corresponding scale.

With a brush, I paint

Engine interior finished

all the details added

and placed within its

so far

frame

I add the parts of the engine cowl.

I mask the cowl opening and the rear face.

Many Japanese cowls were black, but never completely black. I use

Now with a very dilute matte black I shade

a slightly lighter black, XF-6 9 NATO Black, from Tamiya.

all the cowl panel lines.

On Japanese engine cowls, paint tended to flake off quite badly. To

... with which I add all both chipping and

recreate this, I use a silver, watercolor pencil...

also superficial scratches.

I apply a layer of gloss varnish over the whole cowl.

With oils, I apply small quantities onto the various panels and blend them into the cowl, concentrating

220

IRCRAFT FAQ

on ensuring that the lighter areas are along the top edge and forward edge of each panel

For this engine, I have used a resin upgrade for the reduction dear housing, and this is of a far higher quality than the injected plastic kit part.

Then I apply a general wash in a very dark brown, with

The rear of the engine, already fully wired. You can see the complex exhaust system fitted to each

I apply a base coat of silver to the whole engine.

engine cylinder.

Rear of the engine after the dark brown wash.

the dual purpose of both highlighting all the relief, whilst

I apply neutral black and gray to the front gear box.

also producing a grimy and used appearance.

Using the same base colour, but this time mixed with a little white, I hand-brush various raised details.

With a pencil of HB hardness, I add chips and scratches to the gray gear box, and seal the entire engine with a coat of gloss varnish.

222 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

I apply a dark brown wash to all engine wiring, and in the recesses into where those wires are bent, enhancing things with an orange-brown paint, creating a greater visual volume.

I apply again a

With an even lighter

wash to the gear box,

gray than before, I paint

highlighting all relief, and then I place

the heads of gearbox screws

the decals.

The finished engine.

1CRAFT FAQ

223

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In this ch a p te r, w e w ill se e in m o re d eta il th e p a in tin g p ro ce sse s for th e m o st im p o rta n t a re a s o f a n a ircra ft, a s w e ll a s th e n e c e ss a ry ste p s ^ a n d te c h n iq u e s to re cre ate a n y ty p e o f c a m o u fla g e sch e m e . O f co u rse , w e ca n 't fo rg e t a b o u t th e w e a th e rin g s t a g e s th a t w ill b rin g o u r m o d e l to life. F o r th is, a n d in a c c o rd a n c e w ith th e style o f th is m a n u a l, w e w ill u se e x a m p le s in w h ic h w e w ill s h o w yo u . ste p b y step , h o w to a p p ly th e se te c h n iq u e s , a s w e ll a s so m e o f th e tr ic k s a n d re so u rce s re q u ired

-

T h e m o st a ttra ctiv e a irc ra ft a re th e o n e s w h ic h h a v e th e m o st re m a rk a b le d e sig n lines, b u t a lso th e o n e s th a t w e a r th e m o st sp e c ta c u la r c a m o u fla g e sc h e m e s a n d m a rk in g s. In m o d e l-m a k in g , w e a th e r in g is a re lative ly n e w te c h n iq u e It is stra n g e to th in k a b o u t an a ircra ft w h ic h is a sse m b le d o u t o f th e b o x a n d p a in te d in a b asic w ay. w ith o u t a n y e xtra e ffe c ts th a t w ill m a k e it u n iq u e H a v in g c o n tro l o ve r th e se te c h n iq u e s w ill a llo w us to c o n sid e ra b ly e n jo y th e p a in tin g a n d w e a th e rin g p ro ce sse s

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colour to blend a l effects, and shade a little with an earthy colour, in the region of the root of the wing and leading edge of the

ith the pencil, but this time on the underside of the wing. These minor

wing. This gives the appearance of dirt.

scratches will be barely

Finally, with a light yellow pencil, I add

visible, but will add subtlety to

minor scratches to the wings.

the fabric texture.

fit

For fabric surfaces finished in different colours, the painting technique is essentially the same, though you need to adjust the range of used colours to the chosen paint scheme.

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING 7. VO L VA ONE 7.1.2 PAINTING WOO U A N E F F E C T USING (I LS D u r in g W o rld W a r I, w o o d a n d va rn is h e d fa b ric w e re th e t w o m a in m a te ria ls u se d fo r a ircra ft c o n stru c tio n . In m a n y c a se s, th e se m a te ria ls w e re le ft u n p a in te d . In th e fo llo w in g se c tio n s w e w ill lo o k a t s o m e te c h n iq u e s o f cre a tin g re a listic w o o d g ra in e ffe c t th a t m a y b e u se d in a n y m o d e l

We apply yellow ochre oil generally and directly from the jar We can imitate wood, obtaining a very realistic effect, in just four easy steps

We softly remove the oil with a sponge until we

Dbta ' the de red

Then, we use Toasted Earth Sienna oil

To finish this process, we apply Tamiya X-26 Clear

orange

streak. We can repeat this process as many times as we ■ .van!

The previous process is the base of the technique. From this base, we can obtain other kinds of wood tones. We just need to change the base colour, the oils and the final varnish.

228

IRCRAFT FAQ

Wood finished with Tamiya Clear Red imitating cherry tree KWMd

* ^

-

j* I"

In th is o th e r e x a m p le w e w ill s h o w yo u a n e w te c h n iq u e to re p lica te w o o d .

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHE NG 7.1 WOULD WAD ONE me dc a l s n

7.1.' iis in c woo ii;

- N o w a d a y s, th e re a re se ve ra l b ra n d s in th e m a rk e t th a t o ffe r u s th e w o o d stre a k a s tra n sp a re n t d e c a ls. T h e se d e c a ls re p re se n t th e cle a re st a n d m o st ch a ra c te ristic w o o d stre a k s. If w e c o m b in e th e m w ith p re v io u s a irb ru sh in g a n d p o ste rio r o il p a in tin g w e w ill o b ta in a ve ry re a listic fin ish . In th is ca se , w e u se th e e x ce lle n t d e c a ls fro m U sch i V a n d e r R o ste n



c

o

% -'

«

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This case is very special because the fuselage is built based on overlapping wooden slats instead of flat sheets of plywood

The work begins with the airbrush using Desert Bellow with slight variations in each slat. I wait until it dries completely and varnish it

1*550»

I place the decal

Finally I apply a burnt umber color

I varnish it

And I apply a first ocher oil colour

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEIIING liWOilLI) WAII O N E.................................................. 7.1.5 FAINTING WOODCItAIN E F F E C T USING MASKS «

-

J* ■*

A n e w e r w a y to im ita te th e w o o d is th r o u g h sm a ll p h o to e tc h e d p la te s a c t in g a s m a sk s sim u la tin g th e veins. It is a ve ry co m fo rta b le a re u sa b le m e th o d .

When lifting the template we see that the veins are marked very clearly, later they are softened.

Plates from the brand "RB" which simulate the wood veins and Tamiya tape are the material needed.

I paint a base layer over the surface with a light colour.

I stick the plate to the surface with tape. And airbrush the brown colour of the veins.

With the base colours adding another

I mask all the

sandy colour subtly diluted,

Detail of the veins

airbrush to partially blur the streaks.

already blended

With the sponge technique, I

Mam elements

apply light silver on the surface.

of the wing painted.

With pigments I start to dirt the wooden surfaces and with a brush enhance th nail lines. We have to keep in mind that wood gets dirty when handled and the resulting finsh is matte. Later it w ill depend on the kind of wood to give it its exact tone

r

I Varnish with

wood areas and paint

AK183 Ultra Matte Varnish.

in dark silver the metallic zones.

7. CAMOUFLAGE FAINTING AND WEATHERING 7.1 WOULD WAI1 ONE 7.1.G LO ZEN G E CAM OUFLAGE - D u r in g W o rld W a r I, th e G e r m a n s d e v e lo p e d th e lo z e n g e c a m o u fla g e .

n o v e r C l.II, fro m W in g n u t W in g s . T h is p a r t ic u la r a ir c r a ft fe a tu re d th e

m a d e u p o f r e p e a tin g p a t te r n s o f ir re g u la rly s h a p e d fo u r-, f iv e - o r six-

lo z e n g e p a tte rn , n o t o n ly o n th e p re -p a m te d fa b ric -c o v e re d w in g s ,

sid e d p o ly g o n s . F ro m la te 1 91 6 , m a n y a ir c r a ft o f th e C e n tra l P o w e rs w e re

b u t a lso o n th e fu s e la g e . A s th e k it d o e s n 't in c lu d e lo z e n g e d e c a ls

p a in te d in th is p a tte rn , o r co v e re d w it h fa b ric th a t h a d th e p a tte rn p rin te d

fo r th e la tte r. T o m e k w ill s h o w h o w to c o m p le te th e s c h e m e u sin g

o n F o r th is e x a m p le , T o m e k W a jn k a im w ill u se th e e x ce lle n t 1/32 H a n -

h o m e m a d e m a sk s

To avoid any mistake while painting the lozenge pattern

Next, I airbrush the undersides with the brightest

on the fuselage

colour, Tamiya X F-4 Yellow Green

adjust the kit's paint scheme, from

I then take a part of a clear plastic CD case, and temporarily glue a piece of clear

the instruction manual, to 1/32 scale, and print it

Oramask foil sheet onto it

Now I can place the case on the printed paint

The polygon-shaped pieces of foil are carefully cut

scheme and draw the pattern on the masking

out from the sheet with a scalpel blade.

foil sheet with a marker pen.

Once the Yellow Green polygons are masked. I spray XF-21 Sky onto the areas where the blotches of this colour have to appear

.V

The gray colour is a mixture of XF-76

X17 Pink and XF-23 Light Blue are

Gray-Green with a little X F-8 Flat Blue

mixed in the ratio of 1:1 to get a subtle violet

The underside is almost complete

The painted areas are masked off with Tamiya masking tape

Modellers w ho are used to the dull camouflage schemes of World War 2 aircraft may be surprised with the vividness of lozenge colours. In this case. pink is composed of 6 parts of X-17 Pink and 1 of X F-9 Hull Red

Now it is time for painting the upper and side surfaces of the fuselage, wing root and the centre part of the upper wing s top surface. I begin by airbrushing a layer of X F -6 0 Dark Yellow

A dark violet is composed of 2 parts of XF-

Hour by hour, the pattern gradually builds up. Dark

52 Flat Earth and 1 part of X-16 Purple.

green blotches are painted with XF-70 UN Green 2.

The paintwork is secured with a

To apply the lozenge decals, I also

layer of Mr.Color clear gloss coat.

have to varnish the unpainted

The last colour to apply is X F -8 Flat Blue.

The decals nicely conform to the kit's surface,

surfaces of the wings.

Decals are secured with a water-based clear

The next stage features some

matt varnish, because a lacquer-based liquid

careful brush painting.

may turn out to be too aggressive.

I then mask the ribs with thin stripes of AIZU tape, and subtly spray the w ings with almost transparent layer of a heavily diluted mixture of XF-10 Flat Brown and XF-1 Flat Black.

Weathering is mainly focused on the undersurfaces, undercarriage and fuselage area near the cockpit sides. Working little by little on small areas, I apply tiny amounts of AK-Interactive's AK081 Dark Earth and AK042 European Earth pigments, and squeeze out a few drops of A K04 8 Pigment Fixer onto them, using a dropper. When the fixer spreads, it partially dissolves the pigments. The resulting effect is convincing, and usually doesn't require any retouching. I also add some very fine paint scratches with watercolor pencils. Now I only have to attach the upper wing and add the riggin g ...

I mount some of the various subassemblies which have been safely left off the model for the painting stage, and apply an oil wash.

The final appearance of the basic, finished camouflage. We must ensure that we have a fairly strong definition between the colours when airbrushing freehand, without masks. The edge shouldn’t be too soft/ feathered.

I mix the green with a darker green, and shade the panel lines within the areas of green camouflage.

I repeat the same operation

Now, I highlight

in the areas where I applied the earth brown, mixing it

each of the green panels by mixing the green with a little

with a slightly darker brown.

yellow or white and applying it from the center of the panel, outwards.

’’’-a*

Mixtures of colours in their

Appearance of the model once

proportions, using

all previous stages have been

Tamiya acrylics.

completed.

I repeat the same process, but this time with a mix of earth brown and a desert yellow colour.

vV f

silver waterco

pencil

the wing

du

pa r \ ch ps

I

where accesses

cockp' and also '.'id . engine cowl

and I apply a medium sea gray colour I make the masks for fuselage code letters

Once all the paint is thoroughly dry, I remove

using book covering film of low adhesiveness.

the masks to reveal the fuselage codes

Mixing a little yellow with the green camouflage colour, and using a very fine brush, I add small chips and scratches. I do exactly the same with the brown colour, mixed with sand yellow paint

I seal the processes with a layer of gloss varnish, and once dry,I apply the decals with markings and stencils to the model

I add shading using oils

With a very dark

on various areas of the

brown wash, I flood

aircraft, such as on the

the panel lines and riveting

wing roots. I use earth tone colours, lightly applied as a glaze

...and once dry, I carefully

I seal the entire work

remove any wash excess, leaving well-defined panel

with a layer of matt

lines and rivets.

236

IRCRAFT FAQ

tarnish

...and with a darker earth paint, I deepen the colour at the centre of the streak. For adding the exhaust stains, I first airbrush a very light colour sand paint in a streak, backwards from the exhaust, in a taper...

I finish the exhaust stain with pigments; applying the darker colour to the outside, and the lighter pigment towards the center. Detail of the exhaust stain, once completed.

On the lower surfaces the dirt and smoke effects are created by using various brown and gray colours, Now it’s the time to completely remove all

always airbrushed in the direction of airflow, and with a ratio of 9 0 % alcohol to 10% paint

masking.

AIRCRAFT)

237

7. CAMOUFLAGEPAINTINGANDWEATHERING 7.2 WORLDWADTWO 7.2.

T S I$

EM ES

7.2.1.2 Day Fighter scheme T h e m o st c o m m o n B ritish c a m o u f la g e u se d d u r in g W o r ld W a r II, w a s th e g r e e n a n d g ra y ty p e . T h is re m a in e d in u se a lm o s t th r o u g h o u t th e w a r, a n d c o n tin u e d to b e e m p lo y e d w e ll in to th e 1 9 8 0 s. For th is e xa m p le , I

u se a T a m iy a 1/48 S p itfire M k .V b . T h is is th e p e rfe c t su b je ct fo r s h o w in g th is p a rticu la r

c a m o u fla g e

I always start by applying

mask the clear parts

the lighter camouflage

and model s canopy

colour: in this case, the lower surface "medium sea gray

To create more colour richness, I now mix the base colour with some white, and highlight panels and access ports.

After applying black to the canopy framework. I also apply a layer of silver With Humbrol Maskol I mask out the portion of the plane on which III recreate a chipped area.

to the wing root area

Once the Maskol is dry, I apply the first of the upper camouflage colours: in this case ocean gray

I mix the ocean gray with Then I apply the green colour

a darker gray, to increase its intensity, and I shade the panel lines in areas that are within the gray camouflage.

L

Now with a little darker green, mixed with the green camouflage color, I shade the panel lines in the areas of green camouflage. Remember to keep to these areas, and not stray from them

With a sponge General view of the

I very carefully remove the Maskol

model at the end of the first stages of painting

that I previously applied, revealing the meta ic colour underneath

\.

The Maskol chipping is very large and prescribed

Appearance after all

looking, so I add extra small chips and scratches in

processes so far

that area, using a watercolor pencil.

begin to start the masking process. In this case, with the yellow bands along the leading edge of the wings.

I apply the matte yellow paint, taking

I mask the machine guns ports and

care not to cause any overspray.

apply a matte red paint

I remove all the masking tape revealing the result.

AIRCRAFT FA:

23

...and apply the sky colour band, being

Then again, I mask the fuselage band with

careful not to overspray the rest of the model.

masking tape...

and then carefully remove the tape, revealing the fuselage band

..so that I can

arc. when

apply the colour for

the paint is fully dry

the letters of the fuselage code..,

revealing the result

When you have no decals for a specific aircraft that you wish to model, you can use homemade masks. In this case, using low tack gripdear film for book covering. Being dear, it allows us to place the mask onto the exaa area

With the basic camouflage gray, mixed with a little white, I add small chips and scratches to the gray camouflaged area. I do the same with the green area, but mixing the gray

I apply a coat of gloss varnish to the whole moael. and when dry, I apply the decals and stencils.

with a little yellow paint

v u g

After another coat of gloss varnish has been applied, and dried, I apply a very dark brown wash into the the panel lines over the entire model s surface

Once the wash is dry, I remove the excess, revealing all the rivets and panel lines

240

IRCRAFT FAQ

remove the mask

With various oils of earthy tones, I wear the wing root areas, giving them a dusty and faded appearance

I seal the entire work with a coat of matt varnish.

v o

with a darker earth colour, mixed in the same

With a very light sand colour, heavily diluted in a ratio of 8 0 % of alcohol and 2 0% of

proportions as before, I apply a new exhaust stain

paint, I add the contours for the exhaust stains

over the central portion of the the trail I have previously painted

With various pigments, I apply the finishing touches to the engine s exhaust stains using the darker pigments on the outside of the trail, and the lighter in the central area,

Here we can see fuel leakage etc I now seal all the work with a new c o a tw matte varnish

» » I mask the transparent areas of the cockpit.

I apply interior green over the outside of the clear canopy. This colour is the one that will be seen from the inside, and should represent the colour of that area.

Now, with the olive green, heavily diluted in a At the wing root, I apply a layer of silver enamel, in this case TamiyaX-11

proportion of 8 5% alcohol (or the proprietory

apply the first of the camouflage

solvent for your paint), plus 15% paint, I apply light

colours. In this case, neutral gray

coats to the metallized area

on the lower surfaces

The result of applying the while over the rest of the plane, I apply the olive green in a more opaque manner

242

IRCRAFT FAQ

differing depths of paint.

NowI start toapply some highlights onto specific

...along with a very dark green, mixed with the olive green

...and then I apply more olive green in places

panels, using olive green mixed with desert yellow

base colour. Here, I darken numerous panels, especially on

where I feel the highlighting effects are perhaps a

the wings...

little heavy...

Our model's appearance after the first weathering effects are applied.

.ending the process by applying an even darker green, to simulate staining This is especially applied on panel lines areas, and in a random manner to avoid overall symmetry

Now I jump to lower surfaces; I apply a mix of base colour plus a little white, and begin to highlight panel areas, starting from the center and working outwards

...and I end with a slightly darker gray in the panel line areas

With a watercolour pencil, I make small chipping and scratches.

View of the model after

a

all weathering sequences, so far applied

AIRCRAFT FAQ /

I apply a coat of gloss varnish to seal the various processes.

With a fine brush and khaki paint, I add chips and scratches in a random manner. For the sake of realism, keep these small.

...and with a khaki paint, I add chipping to the decals which are applied in the olive green areas.

With a fine brush and a light gray paint, I add chipping to the national markings...

Now with oils, I simulate the weathering on the engine cowls and wingroot areas. These are areas which are the places where these aircraft appeared to be

I apply a dark brown wash to the

most worn.I

panel lines and rivet areas all over the aircraft, including the decals. This helps to integrate them with the same finish as the remainder of the aircraft.

I apply a coat of gloss varnish to seal the work so far.

244

IRCRAFT FAQ

I add the oil leak streaks to the fuselage, and

General appearance of the model.

apply a coat o f matt varnish.

Detail of the nose of the aircraft.

Detail of the aircraft

Wing detail.

fuselage.

I apply a dark brown wash to the undersides, in the

...and after about 20 minutes, I remove

same manner as I did for the upper

the excess in the direction of airflow.

surfaces...

The finished model.

With a desert yellow paint, heavily diluted with alcohol, I airbrush the dust trails behind the landing gear

AIRCRAFT

I lighten every panel from

I start making panel lines in the Intermediate Blue with Dark Blue.

the centre to the external part.

Then, I work on the panel lines throughout

I repeat the same process on the wings,

the rest of the fuselage.

starting first by o ne...

I use the airbrush and a very diluted ...a n d then the other one, always

paint to make small oil leaks from the engine.

taking care of no messing up the

Then, I apply almost clear layers of paint in Sepia

model during this process.

tones over the panel lines.

I tinge the

Finally, I integrate and

exhausts and the

tinge all the effects with

panel lines with brown

a small layer of very

light sh a d o w s.

diluted paint, almost transparent. We can also use a filter to achieve the integration of the the tones.

247

I mask with tape the squadron

I apply white and I carefully remove

markings on the plane.

the masks.

Over the markings that I have painted in white, I create

The white colour of the lower surface

the same effects that for the rest of the plane.

will receive the same treatments that the one used for the upper surfaces.

I apply glossy varnish only on the area where I am going to place the decals (observe the change of tone between

I place the decals in their

the varnished area and the unvarnished one).

corresponding places.

We integrate the decals with their effects, just like in the rest of the plane.

Subsequently, I apply matte varnish on the decals.

248

I paint the last details such as the gun's gas exit, the walkways, the w ing roost or the engine gas exit.

Plane ready for the final assembly

249

I airbrush a first light coat of Tamiya XF-11 UN Green, highly diluted with alcohol. This allows us to still see the metallic colour below the newly applied green layer

I apply more coats of heavily diluted green paint Now I mask off the undersides of the

to create more depth in some chosen areas, whilst

fuselage and tailplane with masking tape, in order to

other surfaces are purposely covered with a semi

protect these surfaces from overspray accidents.

transparent layer of paint.

With a sponge. I remove the Mas ko I revealing the metallic colour below the green paint.

I add highlights to the panels with a mixture of base green colour and X F-4 Yellow-Green

The anti-glare panel between Now it’s time to improve the overall effect by adding small chips with a metallic watercolor :e r :

the propeller and the windshield is painted

Some oversized paint chips are retouched with

with matte black. Next, I apply highlights to this

the green base colour, applied with a brush

area with Tamiya XF-6 3 German Gray, highly diluted with alcohol

and add some chipping to the anti-glare panel area, in With a metallic watercolor pencil, I detail the rivet lines

order to unify its appearance with the surrounding surfaces

AIRCR,

W atercolour pencils of various

For adding the

metallic and light

hm om arus, I

grey colours, used to create small

first cut the circles from masking tape

paint chips.

pieces, using a compass cutter

I then apply white paint, and once dry, it s time to place a narrow width circular mask into the white area, of the same diameter as the white circle. This will leave the majority of this area of white paint still exposed.

I end the process by airbrushing the red colour

Overall view with the masks removed. The red. when applied over the white colour, looks more intense and lively Although the chipping created so far is perfectly suitable for many Japanese aircraft, in this case, I have to cover this here and there with several light coats of the green base colour, heavily diluted with alcohol, in order to simulate the appearance of wear on the paint.

Now I add masks for the yellow bands on the w ing leading edges and fuselage

I remove the masking tape carefully, revealing the yellow To ensure that the surrounding areas suffer no overspray, I mask them with large pieces of tape, and T.en apply a matte yellow colour

252

-IRCRAFT FAQ

bands

Once the paint is dry

I start to

I apply a coat of gloss varnish,

emphasize panel

and then add the decals. These

lines and rivets with

Detail view of the nose of the

are sealed with another layer of

AK-Interactive AK045 Dark

after all weathering sequences, so far applied

gloss varnish

Brown W ash-

And when the excess wash is removed with a soft, flat brush dampened with thinners, wiping in the direction of airflow, we are left with a subtle brown shadow in the panel lines and around rivet lines and joints Here you can see the final effect.

after this process General view of the model and weathering, so far applied

For increased wear in various areas, I apply oil paint spots (ochre yellow in this case) on top of several panels. Please note the same position that this is applied to. on these panels. This will create a harmonious, yet distressed effect which is pleasing to the eye

With a synthetic hair brush, I streak the oil paint in a

And with a flat brush, also synthetic, the oil paint is

downwards motion

completely blurred and blended

The same operation is applied on each of the areas

I spread the oil paint on each area

that remain between the lines of rivets. Again, see how this is applied to the same place on each panel

between rivet lines

And this is the final appearance, giving us the visual mpression of stressed skin.

253

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEItlNG 7.2 WOHLD WAN TWO 7.2.3 JA P A N ES E SCHEM ES 7.2.3.2 Natural metal finish M a n y Ja p a n e se a ircra ft th a t se rve d in th e S e c o n d W o rld W ar. w e re le ft in a n atural m e tal fin ish , a lth o u g h it w a s m o re c o m m o n to se e th e m c a m o u fla g e d in e ith er g re e n o r b ro w n co lo u rs. To illustrate a N M F sch e m e . I w ill p a in t a 1/32 " S h o k i" o r *Tojo"; th e K i- 4 4 fro m H a se g a w a . T h is w ill re qu ire a lo n g and te d io u s p ro ce ss o f m a n u a l m a sk in g , b u t o n c e it's co m p le te d , th e e ffo rt w ill b e w o rth it.

1

I mask the

transparent windshield and the engine compartment.

1

I airbrush black over

the windshield and the landing light, simulating the colour of the interior k framework.

I apply a base coat using



silver enamel paint. I use enamel paint because of its resistance to the masking processes.

I mask various panels

The result after

on the wings and

removing the masks.

fuselage.

The subtle variation in k

metallic tones can really be

^

appreciated here.

With the airbrush, and using a mix of base

^ ^

colour with a little brown or transparent 'smoke* paint, I shade along some panel lines, and also some panel areas themselves.

Now I add masks for the yellow bands of the wing leading I also use metallic pigments, applied with a brush. These are

I apply matte ^ yellow paint, taking

then buffed to a shine.

care not to overspray the

edges.

metalic coloured areas.

Again, I remove the masking tape, being

Now I mask the ailerons and tail elevators...

careful not to damage the metallic paint.

...and with a light gray colour, I airbrush the fabric elevators and ailerons.

Carefully, slowly and patiently, I mask the red fuselage stripe with masking tape. To ensure that the model suffers no overspray in the silver areas, I use pieces of paper as supplementary masking.

Again, I carefully remove the masks.

I carefully remove the masking, trying not to damage me metallic paint

Once again. I mask the gun area along the leading edge of the vVir.q

...and apply matte red paint

I remove the masking tape with care.

Now, I carefully mask for the lightning strike on the fin. ... and again, I paint this with matt red.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 255

I again mask the model, to paint the anti-glare area, using matte black as the base colour, and a Now. I cut circles into sections

dark gray for the

of wide masking tape, to create the hinomarus .

highlights

A

With a red-orange paint, and using a After carefully

removing all masks,

I . !,■ vc-

very fine brush, I add small chips and scratches to the red

masking process

I highlight the raised detail on the anti-reflective black area, using dark gray paint

Detail view of cowl area with chips applied to the anti-glare panel. These are created using a silver watercolor pencil pencil.

I apply a coat of gloss varnish over the whole model. Next, I highlight all lines of rivets and panel lines, using a dark brown wash...

...and after leaving to dry for about 20 minutes, I remove the excess wash from all rivet ind ;mi ••! nes

I perform the same operation on the wings

After painting the last details, such as the exhaust pipes, the model is fully completed and ready for final assembly

...and again, after another 20 minutes, I further remove the remainder of the wash, streaking the direction of airflow

256

IRCRAFT FAQ

7. CAMOUFLAGE 1‘AINTINli AND WEATHERING 7.2 WORLD WAR TWO 7.2.4 HERMAN SCHEMES 7.2.4.1 Desert scheme T h e G e rm a n d e se rt sch e m e is ve ry a p p e a lin g to th e eye, a n d o ffe rs m a n y p o ssib ilitie s fo r w e a th e rin g Ea ch p la n e h ad its o w n ch a ra c te ristic w e a r a n d tear, a n d in th is c a se I w ill p a in t a 1/48 M e sse rsch m itt Bf 1 09 E -4 fro m T am iya To a d d a cu rio u s n ote, o n e w in g o f this a ircra ft w a s p a in te d in a sta n d a rd E u ro p e a n sch e m e

mask the transparent parts

I apply German RLM 02

of the canopy, as well as the engine, radiators and oil

Gray-Green to the outside of the cockpit canopy

I always begin with the lightest colour. In this case, it s RLM 65 Blue-Gray.

cooler intake. I mix the blue-gray colour with a little white, in a proportion of 8 0 % of blue-gray and 2 0% white. With this mixture, I highlight the center of each of the panels.

Now I start to paint the upper surfaces, and again, I start with the lighter colour. In this case, the RLM 02 which will be displayed on the nondesert wing Using a mixture of RLM 02 with a little white. I airbrush highlights within the center of each of the panels

Now I apply the dark colour, in this case, RLM 71 Green

With masking tape, I mark the edges of the splinter camouflage pattern

AIRCRAFT F/

257

I now apply the last camouflage colour to the upper surfaces. In this case, RLM 79 Sand Brown

With a mixture of RLM 79, and a little white, I add the highlights to the center of each of the panels and, after dry, I remove the wing mask

The appearance of the lower surfaces, where you can see the difference between the RLM 65 of the "European" wing, and the desert RLM 78 colour

Now. I mask the around the lower engine cowl, in preparation for the next step

I now apply yellow to this area

I airbrush a mixture of yellow with a touch of white, creating the appearance of subtle wear on the engine cowl.

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IRCRAFT FAQ

After masking, I apply white to the fuselage tail band, wing tips, and spinner.

I seal the work so far, with a layer of gloss varnish, and then I airbrush the Luftwaffe crosses, using a series of masks.

Again, I apply a coat of gloss varnish, and add a number of decals.

Next. I seal the work with a layer of matte lacquer.

Again I mask off the “European" wing, and with

I mix 8 0 % RLM 79

RLM 79 mixed with a little

with 2 0 % reddish-

reddish brown (9 0 % RLM

brown paint, and

79 + 10% reddish brown), I

apply the mixture in

darken the engine cowl and

thin coats over the

wing root panel lines.

engine cowl and wing roots.

Using Tamiya X-19 "Smoke", I simulate the exhaust stains and accumulated wing root dirt. After removing all masks. I apply a final coat of matte varnish. With an HB hardness pencil, I mark the engine panels lines, weapons bay covers, and also the rest of the panel lines. I then emphasize those lines with a dark brown wash.

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259

I apply the lighter colour of the upper

...followed by the

camouflage. In this case, it is RLM75...

Darker Grey RLM74, which is applied at the end.

To start the winter scheme,

^

After having done

I first cut the German crosses in the upper

several tests on some old

surface of the w ings and then fasten them to

models' plastic pieces, I use

The spotted paint on the sides

the surface with a bit of Blue-tack o with air

matte white to apply, freehand,

of the plane is a mixture of the

masks to demarcate the White edge of the

a tiger scheme over the standard

colours RLM74 and RLM75.

camouflage.

camouflage.

I remove the masks made of tape from the w ing crosses, leaving some space to place after the crosses. In this case, I have also made the masks for the crosses.

Finally, I paint in matte red the engine band and the number. Once the marks have already been painted, I go over some parts of the tiger white camouflage before carrying on.

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261

I draw the panel lines of the

I start spotting the winter camouflage around the

I use darker Grey and a very fine

plane with a pencil.

covers and registers of the plane using the sponge

brush to make bigger scratches on

Detail of the area treated with all the effects we

technique (the sponge is previously damp in

the more worn out areas.

have seen up until now.

Medium Grey) and carefully removing the excess paint.

Once we reach this point we should consider the intensity of the wearing on the scratches...

General aspect after all the processes.

I seal all the process with a coat of glossy varnish. ...just in case we need to intensify these effects on some places. If we do, we must be very careful, as we do not want to overdo the model.

use Siena and Earth tones to simulate dust and dirt. I use oils. Brown and Sepia, to wear away and dirty the wing roots and in the areas of the covers and registers.

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7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING 7.2 VO L VA TWO 7.2.4 GERMAN SCHEM ES 7.2.4

Mottle and waves

T ry in g to g a th e r all th e G e rm a n c a m o u fla g e s in ju s t o n e

a n d fin e w a v y lines. In th is ca se , w e w ill m a k e a Trum p ete r

b o o k w o u ld b e a s h ard a s cre a tin g a la n g u a g e e n c y c lo p e -

Bf 1 09 G - 6 in 1/32 fo r n ig h t fig h tin g , in w h ic h w e ca n see b oth e ffe c ts w h ic h ca n later b e u sed o n o th e r aircraft

dia, th eir va ria tio n s a re e n d le ss W e w ill fo c u s o u r a tte n tio n on so m e o f th e m o st in te re stin g o n e s, su ch a s th e m o ttle

I get the plane ready for the painting process. I cover the transparent parts of the cabin and the landing gear bays

paint the cabin structure as usual. The colour we have used is Tamiya German

Grey XF-63.

Before the camouflage scheme. I have to make the mixtures of RLM colours with Tamiya acrylics

Like m all the camouflage schemes, I start by painting

I mask the direction rudder tha

the lighter colour, in this

has previously been painted in

case, yellow

Yellow

I mask the RLM75 and start to add the darker grey, RLM74. The scheme edges Now it is the turn of the light grey on the

Then, I apply freehand Light Grey from the upper

lower surfaces and the sides. Grey RLM76

camouflage scheme RLM75

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IRCRAFT FAQ

are hard, therefore we will stick the mask to the fuselage

I apply the RLM74 carefully trying not to dirty the RLM76 on the sides. If you do

I remove the masks

Using very diluted paint and the compressor at a pressure between 0.5

achieving this result

and 0.8 atm I airbrush freehand RLM74 and

not feel confident, or do not have total

RLM75 to mottle the sides

control over the airbrush, I recommend you to m ask them.

In the market there are various brands that make m asks for planes'

I apply matte

markings. On this occasion

White on the upper and side

I have used the ones from the Polish manufacturer Montex

Luftwaffe crosses.

X Carefully and after several tests, I proceed to airbrush the lines on the upper surfaces of the plane n th RLM76

One of the lower We have to take good care of the pressure and the adequate dilution to avoid dirtying

wings is black, but I use a slightly lighter colour (OTAN black) as we

the upper crosses of the Luftwaffe

have seen before.

After making the panel lines

.. the next step is the chipping. I will use Light Grey to do this

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265

For the chipping, I use a very fine brush. We must work especially over those areas

We now have to carry on the tedious task of

I apply matte red

of intensive use, like covers,

working with the walkway broken line. I first

in the walkway

registers, hoods, etc. {Never use Silver colour for this)

mark the perimeter and then I use little bits of

lines

tape and a ruler to make the broken line

Now, I use a wash

I seal all the process made up until now with a layer of

..that will work as a

with Dark Brown to

glossy varnish.

base for the decals.

mark all the fuselage lines and wings of the planes. We must let it dry for about ten minutes.

I paint the exhaust tubes of the engine in dark brown.

Look of the camouflage after

For the smoke, I use a dark colour

removing the excess of wash with a

in the centre of the trail

brush dipped in White spirit.

I use different shades of pigments to obtain more chromatic richness.

Painting phase finished The model is ready for the final assembly

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATHERING 7.3 THE JET AGE iJ.\

1.8. JET A

) AFT

7.3.1.1 S.E.A. scheme O n e o f th e m o st strik in g a n d a ttra ctiv e sc h e m e s th a t w a s ca rrie d by U S A F a ircra ft, w a s th e ca m o u fla g e for th e S o u th E ast A sia n (S E A ) th eatre. T h is sc h e m e w a s w id e ly u sed in th e late 1 9 6 0 s a n d e a rly 1 97 0 s, a n d w a s ty p ic a lly th e sta n d a rd sc h e m e d u rin g th e V ie tn a m W ar. To s h o w yo u h o w to a p p ly th is sch e m e , I w ill u se th e w o n d e rfu l F-1 0 2 fro m M e n g , a n d co m p le te it a s a n a ircra ft w h ic h ’ x v a s'a s sig n e d to b e a n aeriaT ta fge T. F o r m is're a so n , if w ill W eaf hf^ ht/isro ility o ranrge'stripes: O

Ü

mask the clear parts of the windscreen, the air intakes, the engine exhausts and the landing gear wells

I mix Tamiya Enamels (X-11 8 0 % X-10 20% ), to create metal with a more used appearance

Detail of metalized areas of the engine.

I apply black to the windshield, as this is the colour you will see from r e r : de

As a base for the bright red colour, I first apply matte white

A few small areas which I need to keep in the white colour, are now masked off

AIRCRAFT F

267

I apply the high

KJM T -m i

visibility orange over the white.

I remove the

I emphasize

masks, revealing the

panel lines in orange areas

Cr s the pa nt

white stripe on the tail.

mark

C ;nel lines with pé"-: : : r . gloss varnish painted ,!•■ r. and then

T-v ' :• : colour uppt • side

place

Tamiya

the code d ecas

made from Kd

*

After the light sand colour, I apply then a light green Once the red areas are masked. I start with the SEA

In this case, XF-67, which is somewhat pale

camouflage, in this case, a gray for the underside area

m colour

mixing 6 0 % of XF-19 with 4 0 % of XF-2 from Tamiya. /. -

.....

green *In' next colour : olive •"IV such Tamiya camouflage pattern

complete

Now, over the light sand colour I apply the German W W 2 colour, RLM 79, which in my opinion, is almost the exact tone of the SEA scheme tan colour (XF-59: 3

X F -7 9 :1).

I go over the bright green areas with Tamiya X F-58 Olive Green

268

IRCRAFT FAQ

•n.i'.l

flf 1 cor

sppfy matte bad

Mixing the base colours of each On the upper side of the

A view of the overall pattern

nose cone, I apply a little XF-63

of the completed camouflage

German Gray, in order to create a little more contrast and volume

scheme -

of the tones with a little white. I apply a subtle shading to the center of each of the panels This lightens the panels, creating more volume to the model, and also a subtle fading effect

With an HB hardness pencil, I mark the panel lines in areas painted in the tan camouflage colour. Everything is now sealed with a layer of gloss varnish, also

I now apply all of the decals and stencils for

serving as the base

this particular scheme.

finish for the addition of the decals

For adding small chips, I use a very fine 000 brush and a very light gray paint

TO another coat of gloss varnish, and then I apply a dark brown wash to panel lines. This is sealed with a layer of matte varnish

The masks are removed, and

«b

A

the contrast between the high visibility orange and the worn, matte camouflage is easily seen.

Model completed and ready for final assembly

-iRCRAFT FAQ

269

t in I prepare the model for the painting phase,

Before starting the painting phase, I apply

For all camouflage schemes, as a

masking the areas that are not a part of the

black paint to the masked windshield area,

rule, I start with the lightest colour.

paint scheme.

you can see that colour from

In this case, it is white.

the inside.

I '

^

I apply white to all the lower surfaces.

I then mask the areas around the exterior of the

I also apply red to the slat areas. A s I has already painted a white layer which lies underneath this, the red looks more vivid and striking.

Next, I apply matte red.

.and remove the masks.

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

a

mix gray and white together, in order to achieve the correct shade of gray paint, and apply this to the upper surfaces

I project those red areas with masking tape, in preparation for the next colour I will apply

Before applying the black, with a neutral gray, I airbrush Again, I apply masking tape, but this time around the anti-glare panel in front

the antenna which is in that area

of the windshield

I mask the antenna I now apply black matte onto the anti glare panel

I then mask the red air intakes of the engine.

Before applying the red, I apply matte white so that the red will look more vivid and striking

With the masks removed.

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271

A s the model is of an Argentine Navy aircraft, I have to paint the flag of that country onto the rudder of the

I then apply the light blue of the Argentine flag.

Once the m asks are removed, the finished flag is revealed.

plane, utilizing some careful masking.

I apply matte black on the walkways, and once dry, with a neutral gray which has been heavily diluted with alcohol, I add highlights I now have to make use of more

I remove all the masks

to these areas.

from the w alkway area.

masking tape. In this case, for the wing root walkways.

Here we see the model with all the panel lines marked.

With an HB hardness pencil, I mark all aircraft panel lines.

With the same gray, mixed with I perform the same technique on the underside of the model.

a darker gray, and again heavily diluted with alcohol, I shade some of the panels, especially those which contain access panels and ports.

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

I seal everything with a layer of gloss varnish. In some cases, there can be areas where the sheen does not look good. Keep applying varnish until the model looks like a mirror. I place all decals and stencils. Some stencils sit on top of the aircraft’s main markings and insignia.

Now I apply another coat of gloss varnish to seal all the decals.

With a dark brown wash, I additionally emphasize the panel lines.

With the washing process finished, I leave the product to dry for around ten minutes. I then remove all excess wash from the panel lines.

I seal the whole model again, but this time with a layer of matte varnish. With all m asks removed, the painting process is now ^

finished.

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 273

7. CAMOUFLAGEPAINTINGANDWEATHERING 7.3 THE JET AGE 7.3. II S. J E T A

C A FT

7.3.1.3 Natural metal finish T h o s e a irp la n e s w ith a n a tu ra l m e ta l fin ish re q u ire e x tra w o r k w h e n it c o m e s to u sin g m a sk s. T h e sc h e m e s a lso re q u ire d iffe re n t w e a th e r in g te c h n iq u e s th a n th o se a p p lie d to c a m o u fla g e d a ircra ft F o r o u r e xa m p le , I w ill p a in t a 1/48 F7 U C u tla ss. fro m H o b b y c ra ft

After masking the model, I airbrush matte black over the canopy framing.

Now, using X-11 Chrome Silver enamel from Tamiya, I apply a general coat as a base layer

I use this paint, applied with airbrush, and diluted 4 0 % with its specific solvent (blue cap thinner). This paint is very tough, and resistant to the following procedures.

Using masking tape, I outline specific panels on the model

Now with XF-16 Flat Aluminum enamel, also from Tamiya, I airbrush these panels.

when removing the masks, you will see a very subtle variation between the tones, avoiding high cI " - ; . ’

274

IRCRAFT FAQ

again mask other panels with masking

9

Notice again the subtle tonal changes between the various panels.

w in g detail, showing different metallic tones.

I now use a flat brush with short bristles, and slightly dampen in graphite powder. This can

Then, to create the effect of heat on the metal of

be obtained from a pencil sharpener. I now

the exhaust nozzles, I use clear orange in some

burnish the surface of the model, and add the

areas around the rear of the fuselage.

burning effect to the inner structure of the exhaust area.

With a soft graphite pencil of approximately 2B hardness, I mark all the rivet lines and panel lines.

You can also simulate very faint rusting effects, and to do this. I apply clear orange on some areas of the wings, but in very subtle manner.

Appearance of the model after paneling with a pencil.

J

The moving surfaces, such as air brakes and control surfaces, are

Vivid red is applied to the slat areas.

outlined in black, using a fountain pen filled with black ink.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

275

With a silver paint, I paint the slat actuators, and also shade the red area with shadows and highlights which are based on slightly lightening and darkening

I seal the whole model with gloss varnish.

the red base colour.

This helps to lock in the graphite which can otherwise cause smudging on the model, through poor handling.

I now apply all decals to the mocei

Now I have to integrate the decals with the finished model...

C

... with which, after re-varnishing the model

Removing the mask carefully so as not

in gloss varnish, I mask one of the panels and

to damage the decals, and you will

apply a very faint brown transparent paint

notice the subtle difference in tone between the panel and the rest of the model, including the portion of the decal that is inside this area.

Now, as the model has a glossy finish over the whole surface, I must mask the panels as I did earlier, and apply matte varnish.

Here, we can see the effect achieved, with differing reflective surfaces

With a dark brown enamel paint, mixed with X-19 Smoke from Tamiya, I apply several thin applications to the area of the fuselage through which the rear exhaust pipes pass. This will create the

276

IRCRAFT FAQ

overall effect of heat in this area.

With masks, I paint the walkways, and weather them as shown in another chapter in this book.

On the undersides, in the area where the exhaust pipes pass through, I place tape onto a panel line, and with the airbrush loaded with very diluted black paint, with a drop very dark brown added to it, I create the effect of fluid seepage...

General appearance of the lower area. I now airbrush several areas with Tamiya X-19 Smoke, around the area ...always airbrush this in the direction of airflow, and after dry, remove the masks.

Model completed and ready for final assembly.

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277

7. CAMOUFLAGE PAINTINGANDWEATHERING 7.3 THE JET AGE 7.3.2 SOVIET JET A

AFT

7.3.2.1 Desert scheme. Example 1 So vie t a n d R u ssia n p la n e s a p p e a r ve ry rich in co lo ur, w ith th e ir sp e c ta cu la r c a m o u fla g e sc h e m e s th at cre ate a g re a t ch ro m a tic intensity. T h is e ffe c t is ve ry in te re stin g to th e m o de lle r. A m o n g th e se sch e m e s it is th e the d e se rt o n e s th a t are th e m o st a ttra ctiv e To illustra te th is, I w ill u se a 1/32 M iG -2 1 F-13 of th e E g y p tia n A ir Force, fro m C h in e se m a n u fa c tu re r, Trum p ete r

always apply, as a general rule, the lightest camouflage colour first prepare the aircraft to begin painting phase, masking the cockpit and landing gear wells.

In this case, it's the blue-gray for lower surfaces Then I apply the lighter camouflage colour; yellow sand, for the sinaces

with a neutral gray, and using my airbrush in freehand mode, I mark the wavy lines of the camouflage pattern.

I fill the gaps between the gray waves with a camouflage green colour.

I retouch the junctions between the colours in order to sharpen the camouflage pattern.

A s this is an Egyptian aircraft which operated under desert conditions. I fade the yellow sand colour by airbrushing a mixture of base colour with a little white, onto each of the panels centers, from the inside to the outside

I repeat the process over the neutral gray wavy areas...

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AIRCRAFT FAQ

..and finish the process of highlighting by fading the green colour in the same manner as the other two colours.

Now I mix the desert yellow with some brown, and I darken a number of panel lines that are painted in that colour (desert yellow)...

repeat the operation on the neutral gray wave panel lines, taking care not to encroach onto the other colours

Overview of the model with

... and ending the process with the same

applied fading and wear

effect applied to the green colour, in order to accentuate the appearance of wear over the whole airframe

I perform the same operation on the lower surfaces pf the rr odel.

For adding the Arabic numbers to plane s nose. I first mark them with a pencil, and then, with a 0.2mm fountain pen loaded

I repaint the numbers using

with black Indian

the appropriate documentation

in k ...

as reference

I seal the model with a layer of

I add a pin wash to each

gloss varnish.

and every panel and rivet line, using a dark brown wash.

a

I fade the panels using white, gray and ochre oil dots, blending them with a brush dampened with white spirit

AIRCR,

I repeat again the whole process using dark brown wash on the lower This is the appearance

surfaces...

after 20 minutes of drying time, and removal of the

... this is the general appearance after

excess wash.

removing the excess wash; with all lines clearly accentuated.

I add the decals to the model. I seal the work again with a layer of gloss varnish.

I seal the work again, but with a layer of matt varnish.

Now with pastels, I add another degree of wear and tear by applying chalk dots with a brush, in powder form, before using a dry brush to mix and blend these in the direction of airflow.

With a silver watercolor

With another watercolor pencil, this time in white or very

pencil, I add some

light gray colour, I simulate scratches on the fuselage

chipping.

I apply a coat of matte varnish to end the whole process

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281

I CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING AND WEATIIEIlING U THE JET AGE 7.3.2 SOVIET J E T A

( A FT

7.3.2.2 Desert scheme. Example 2 T h is is a n o th e r e x a m p le o f a d e s e r t s c h e m e se e n o n R u ssia n a irc ra ft. In th is ca se , a n a ir c r a ft fro m th e A fg h a n is t a n A ir Fo rce , w it h a s p e c ta c u la r f iv e -c o lo u r c a m o u fla g e , th e te c h n iq u e s a p p lie d to th is m o d e l a re p e r fe c tly a p p lic a b le to th e R u ssia n “ E u ro p e a n " s c h e m e , w h ic h is q u ite sim ila r to th is d e se rt o n e A s a n e x a m p le , I'll u se a M iG -2 1 fro m E d u a r d 's 1 /4 8 ra n g e

mask all areas that

I apply the inside cockpit colour, turquoise

will not be painted with the

blue, to the outside of the canopy. From the inside, the framework will be seen in this colour

camouflage colours, such as canopy, nose air intake, exhaust and landing gear wells

That’s how it looks after removing the

With a pencil, I mark the line separating

masking tape. You can clearly see two

the two rings, and fade the graphite away

silver colour previously applied.

tones of silver in this area.

from that line, using a flat tip brush.

A s always, I begin with the lightest colour In this case, it s the I now mask off the

blue sky for the lower

exhaust area that has With all landing gear wells, air

will of course prevent any

intakes and exhaust orifices safely

damage caused by the

masked, the plane is ready for the

colour plus a drop of white. I airbrush the

main painting process.

camouflage painting phase.

highlights onto each of the panels on the

and with a mixture of that blue sky

lower side.

AIRCRAFT FAQ

silver...

transparent enough to just slightly darken the

... and I mask off the exhaust

282

area, I first apply a base coat of

I apply a light misting of smoke paint, which is

nozzle ring with masking ta p e ..

just been finished. This

For painting the engine’s exhaust

I now work on the upper surfaces, applying the lighter The next colour is dark

colour. In this case, it s yellow sand

brown, airbrushed with freehand control.

I apply the light green colour, always taking care not to overspray the other colours...

I end this process by applying and continue by adding the

the dark green colour to

reddish brown colour

scheme.

complete the camouflage

General view of the model with the finished camouflage.

I start the fading process by adding highlights of As the whole

yellow to the sand zone, using a mixture of 8 0 % yellow

camouflage process is applied

sand colour with 2 0% white

freehand, it is appropriate to review the junctions between the colours, to be sure everything looks alright...

and the same for light green areas

I proceed with the same operation on the earth coloured zone, using a little white mixed with the earth colour...

...and I end by fading the reddish brown and dark green areas always using the proportion of 8 0 % of base colour, with 2 0 % of a lighter colour, for providing the corresponding highlights to each panel.

283

General viewafter camouflage application and fading.

With a gray watercolor pencil, I add small scratches to the fuselage. With a

With an HB hardness graphite pencil, I outline maintenance

accès coven eu

gray watercolour pencil I add small scratches to the fuselage

When the gloss varnish is dry, It s time to apply a coat of gloss varnish in and protecting the work so far

I apply the kit decals for an Afghanistan Air Force aircraft. These are then sealed under extra gloss varnish.

I put several dots of oil paints on the surface of the w ing in order to reproduce general wear...

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iRCRAFT FAQ

and with a flat brush, I blend the oil dots together, always in the direction of airflow

General appearance after the

Again, I apply a

decaling and oil paint process.

light coat of gloss varnish.

... I let the wash dry for 15 to 20 minutes...

panel lines with a dark brown

...and I then remove the excess wash with a cloth and a flat brush, wiping in the direction of airflow.

Final appearance of the model, after applying a coat of satin or matte varnish, according to the preference of the modeller.

AIRCRAFT FAC

285

». SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS

8.1 IIIIIINT AREAS - O n e o f th e m o s t c u r io u s e ff e c t s o n m a n y a irc ra ft, is t h e d e te rio ra tio n * 6 f th e p a in t o n th o s e p a rts w h e r e a lo t o f h e a t c a u s e s th e p a in t to fa d e , fla k e , o r e v e n d is a p p e a r to ta lly. A s a n e x a m p le , I w ill s h o w o n e o f th e a ir c r a ft o n w h ic h th is e ffe c t is m o re p ro n o u n c e d , th e F -1 0 0 S u p e r S a b re . In th is p a r tic u la r c a s e th e m o d e l w ill b e th e T ru m p e te r re le a se , in 1/32 sca le

After painting the entire aircraft, I prepare this area so

I apply a base layer in silver. In this

that I can start the painting phase

case, I use A ldad lacquer

With another silver colour, I apply the dark metallic

With a smoke colour, I darken the center of

areas between the panel lines and the rivets.

each of the panel lines.

Now with a darker metallic shade, I paint the rear of the fuselage

Again, using a very dilute smoke, I apply a thin coat around the front of the metallic area.

With clear orange, also very diluted, I paint the central With a very dilute clear blue, I shade some panel and

areas between the lines of rivets, creating the feel of

rivet lines around the rear of the fuselage.

"burning’ on these panels at the rear of the fuselage.

To create the effect of scorched paint. I first apply a sand or very light beige colour to most, but not all of the rivet and panel lines.

I apply the first color, following the reference marks I

I now apply the second camouflage colour,

I end the process in the same way. using the third

previously added with a marker to the m asking tape

again very diluted, allowing me to control

colour. If this is to your own taste, you can leave

covering the tail. These marks allow me to recognize

the opacity as I apply paint layers.

it here, as you will have effectively created the

where the camouflage pattern would have been. For me, however, I decided to apply a few extra layers of dilute paint.

appearance of scorched paintwork. I remove the mask to reveal the result of

I mark the rivet and panel lines with a

the techniques I have used.

pencil, or a dark brown wash.

- T h e f ir s t ru le in p a in tin g a n a ircra ft, o r p a rt o f it, in b la c k , is n e ve r to " "b ctu a lly u se b la c k . In ste a d , I a lw a y s re c o m m e n d T a m iy a X F - 6 9 N A T O '

B la c k, w h ic h is a n e xtre m e ly d a r k gra y, a n d u se it a s it w a s b la c k . T h is a c tu a lly a llo w s yo u to u se b la c k itself, fo r s h a d in g . A s a b a s ic e x a m p le o f b la c k p a in t a p p lica tio n , I w ill u se a 1/32 F -4 D P h a n to m , fro m T am iya.

I apply a base layer of NATO Black (Tamiya XF-69) over all the lower surface of the

Now, with a slightly lighter gray, I detail a number of small panels.

model.

With a heavily diluted neutral or medium gray paint, I lighten all

...then with a

panels, creating a very

very dilute black,

distinct contrast...

I reduce the overall contrast by airbrushing several coats over the whole work, until just the right contrast is obtained.

With several shades of brown applied to the rear fuselage/exhaust area, I create the appearance of lost fluid, and always in the direction of airflow.

After emphasizing the fluid leaks in the engine area, I remove the masks to reveal the overall effect.

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MRCRAFT FAQ

». SPECIAL FINISHES AN» MA UNI S 8.3 CIIECKEHI OAM) T h e c h e c k e r b o a r d in t h e p la n e s is o n e o f th e m o s t s t rik in g p a in t sc h e m e s th a t e x ist a n d it c a n se e m h a rd to d o it. It is a c tu a lly re lative ly easy, b u t te d io u s. T h e se cre t lies in th e rig h t d iv isio n o f th e ch e q u e rs, so all th e sq u a re s a re p ro p o rtio n a lly eq u a l.

I paint the piece in white and then draw the

paint the piece in white and then draw

l repeat the same process, but now

lines around the hood, where the masks will be placed.

the lines around the hood, where the

over the wide part of the hood

Same process with the horizontal bands

alternatively cover every vertical band of the checkerboard

masks will be placed

I airbrush with black

I remove the masks, allowing the first part of the checkerboard to be visible

Now, I use fine pieces of tape to

and I mask it, leaving only the squares

delimit the black squares of the first

which will painted in black, to finish the

part of the checkerboard

checkerboard

AIRCRAFT FAC

291

Example 2 Here. I w ill p a in t th e ru d d e r o f a 1/32 F -8 C ru sa d e r, fro m T ru m p ete r. A g a in in v e stin g tim e in p la n n in g th e m a s k in g s t a g e w ill sa v e a lo t tim e d u r in g th e p a in tin g p ro ce ss.

Count the squares that make up the rows I mask the entire perimeter of the

With a pen, mark a half-way point on rudder

of checkers, from top to bottom, and across

I now remove alternate

both on the top and on the bottom

each of these areas, I place a strip of tape.

strips of tape.

rudder.

running the full width of the rudder



Based on the marks I made with the

apply the first colour. In this case, red

pen at the top and bottom, I place

Now, with the same strips that had been previously used, I cover the red areas that I have just applied

another piece of tape down the length of the rudder

Again I place the piece of tape which runs down the length of the rudder, using the guide marks I previously added

Rudder completely finished, with red and white checkerboard. This technique is also applicable for checkerboards with more rows of squares.

again apply the red colour. 292

IRCRAFT FAQ

1

A ir c r a ft th a t p a rticip a te d in th e D -D a y in v a sio n , fro m J u n e 1 9 4 4 o n w a rd s, w e re

IB

"p a in te d w ith b la c k a n d w h ite id e n tifica tio n strip s, a n d fo r m e. th e se p ro v id e a se rio u s a m o u n t o f eye c a n d y , a n d g iv e visu a l rich n e ss to th e m o d e l. I a b so lu te ly d e c la re m y se lf a lo ver o f th e se strip e s! A s a n e xa m p le , I w ill a p p ly th e m to a 1/32 P -5 1 B , fro m Trum p eter.

After having

.

completely painted the

I now mask the entire

I apply the first layer

plane's main scheme colour,

aircraft to avoid any overspray

of the two colours. In this

I outline the width of the of invasion

ruining the rest of model during

case I use white, which is

stripes, on both the wings and fuselage.

the next painting phase.

of course the lighter colour of the two.

I mask with tape the sections that will remain white, using the dots as my Once the paint dries, I measure the total width

With a pencil, I mark the front and rear of the wing

of the area, and divide it by five.

with a few pencil points.

reference as to where the tape will be applied. Here there are three white bands, and two of black.

Final result after removing the masks. All that remains is to blend them together with the rest of the aircraft, with the final weathering stages

I apply the matte black

293

8. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS

8.f>METAL WEATHERING „

- N o t all a ircra ft w ith a n atura l m e ta l o r m e ta llic fin ish m u s t a lw a y s b e c le a n . T h e y w "ca n a lso e x h ib it w e a th e r in g a n d d irt. Fo r th is e xa m p le , I w ill u se th e w in g o f a 1/32 F - 8 4 G , fro m H o b b y b o ss

Once the plane is

Once the wash is dry

painted and the decals applied,

I remove the excess with a cloth

I mark the panel lines and rivets with a dark brown wash.

in the direction of airflow.

Now, with a very dark brown oil, .almost black (a smoke colour, for example), I place very E M k

small quantities around some of the panel edges.

With a flat-tipped brush, I blur the oil into the surrounding paintwork. With a bigger and wider brush, I blend further, until it merges completely with the rest of the model surface.

294

IRCR AFT FAQ

And now, with thinners (in this case, WHum brol) and a very fine brush, I ^ ^ w a d d chipping to the areas in | j ^ \ w h j c h I blended the oil S A L , ^ \

' into the surrounding paintwork

». SPECIAL FINISHES ANDNANKINGS H.» FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES SHADING M a n y a irc ra ft o f th e S e c o n d W o rld W a r h ad fa b ric-co v e re d c o n tro l su rfa c e s a n d to s h o w yo u h o w t o re cre ate th ese, I h ave c h o se n a 1/32 B f 1 0 9 E -4 , fro m Edu ard

With all the aircraft being painted, and with the decals applied, I mask the fabric-covered structures of the airplane's control surfaces

I apply a layer of heavily diluted matte black (90% solvent of its own brand, or 96° alcohol, and 10% of black) over the inner structures of the control surfaces, creating depth and contrast to the regular fixed wing and fin surfaces

296

IRCRAFTFAQ

8. SPECIAL FINISHES AND MARKINGS

8.7 SHARK MOUTH 11.7.1 SHARK MOIITII OK M i l O n e o f th e m o st s trik in g d e ta ils w h ic h yo u ca n a p p ly to a n a ircra ft, is th e in fa m o u s s h a rk 's m o u th w h ic h w a s se e n o n so m e n o se s. T h e u se o f d e c a ls for th is e ffe c t is o fte n d iffic u lt b e c a u se th e c o m p o u n d c u rv e s o f th e a irp la n e s n o se , m a k in g d e c a l p la c e m e n t ve ry c o m p lic a te d . T h e a lte rn a te a n s w e r for re p ro d u c in g th is sp e c ta c u la r d e c o ra tio n is to ca re fu lly m a sk y o u r o rde r m o d e l. To s h o w y o u th is ta sk . I'll u se a Bell P -3 9 , a n d I'll ca re fu lly e xp la in e a ch o f th e ste p s w e h ave to u n d e rta k e to cre ate th e sh a rk m o u th

Before we start, we need to have all possible information at hand, so we are able to perfectly reproduce the design. I will use a large illustration of a P-39 with shark mouth on its nose. I now mark the drawing contours, using as a guide the panels lines on both the illustration and the model. This allows me to fix the perimeter of the mouth onto the model.

After gently outlining the perimeter of the mouth with a sharp pencil, I apply a couple of thin strips of masking tape (the thinner the better to adapt to the contours) to mark the boundaries of the mouth

From the contour lines outwards, I mask the nose area

I apply the base colour, which is matte

around the shark mouth

black in this case.

Now, to recreate the shape of the mouth again

mark the outlining penmeter with a very thin piece of masking tape.

Now, with the outline in place, I perform the same operation, putting a piece of tape up against the perimeter one. This will mask out what will become the black edging to the mouth.

am about to start separating

the a Durswithin the mouth For this I put a thin strip of masking tape to divide the black zone from the red one

297

«

I start with the lightest colour, red, which simulates the tongue in the mouth...

and this is the result

, and then I must fill in the gaps between the teeth, as best as I can to avoid any overspray i

The process now becomes complicated at this point. I first draw with a pencil, the outline of the teeth, and then mark this out with extra-thin strips of masking tape

other parts of the mouth

I apply the white on

I then care-

the teeth area.

fully remove the teeth masks, and we can see how the mouth looks after the work so far.

When all masking is removed, we can see how this looks

Many shark mouths had no eyes, but others, as in this case, have

against the camouflage colours.

them. For this. I have to paint them, and I now make a mask to help

me apply the eye shape. 298

IRCRAFT FAQ

I apply the white colour

I then remove the mask

and again l remove the masking:

and I complete the

I repeat the process by adding the masks for the blood drops falling from the mouth.

Now. w ith a very sharp am penci oencil. I

online the shape of the eyes iris

I now paint the blood drops with red paint.

Using the pencil line a s a guide, I outline the iris with red pamt, using a very fine brush...

I conclude the work with the final

process by painting a black dot in the center

effects, such as the comers of the lips

of the iris to simulate the

brush and a lot of patience.

^

and eyebrows, all painted with a very fine

pupil, and then outlining the blood drops in black

AIRCRAFT FA

299

». SPECIAL FINISHES AND MANKINDS a.7 SHANK MOUTH 11.7.2 S A III MOUTH ON M O A n o th e r o f th e m o st fa m o u s a irc ra ft o f W W II w a s th e C u r tis s P -4 0 . F ig h te rs o f th is ty p e w e re a lw a y s ch a ra c te rize d by a la rg e sh a rk m o u th o n th e air in ta k e o f th e e n g in e . S c a le m o d e l k its a lw a y s h a v e a d e c a l fo r th is, b u t in so m e ca se s, it is a lm o s t im p o ssib le to p ro p e rly a p p ly th is d u e to th e c u rv a ­ tu re o f th e e n g in e co w l

T

V

w -v

After marking the outline of the mouth with a pencil, I area outside of this region, to avoid overspray.

Then, using the decal as reference, I copy the teeth onto a piece of masking tape. After this. I place the teeth mask over

First of all I apply a matte white base co a t

After placing the teeth mask, I apply the matte red

Now I make the tongue contour

that simulates the tongue

mask, with its particular shape

the white zone I add black paint to the upper part of the mouth, creating depth to the mouth

> After removing all masks, the shark jaws are revealed

30 0

IRCRAFT FAQ

Again I repeat the process of masking, but this time for painting the eyes; Firstly, I draw the eye contour onto a piece of masking tape and then I cut it out, and put it on place on the model

I apply the matte white

remove the mask with care

co our

Appearance of the mouth With a fountain pen filled with black

and eye

Again, with the fountain pen, I outline the jaws with black.

Indian ink, I outline the shape of the eye and its iris. This work can also be done with a very fine brush

Final view, with everything now complete

Wf

301

I take as my base, a round piece of DM pressboard and

I trace a baseline along which to start laying

wooden strips that simulate the planking of the flight

the planks.

From the center of the base, I place the first section of the deck using white glue as my adhesive, and

deck.

from this starting point I then begin to lay the remainder of the planks.

With patience, and always trying to keep the planks

When I ve placed a number of planks, I cut them back

parallel to each other, I lay the sections and allow them

to the perimeter of the base

to overlap the edges of the board.

After marking Here, the surface is now completely

Next, I use a sheet of

finished, with all planks in place.

photo-etch parts, and

304 / AIRCRAFT FAQ

the anchor points on the surface, using a drill bit, I

place anchor points on

then drill the holes where the

the deck.

anchor points will be placed.

Slowly I fill the surface with wooden planks

I apply a layer of neutral gray, but very diluted with alcohol, so that once dry. the wood can still be seen. This gives a visual appearance of heavy use.

With German gray, I begin to shadow to the anchor points and some of the planks of the deck so as to give greater volume.

Now with the base painted, I add masking tape to the flight

and then the yellow stripes

deck, marking the positions of the white stripes

Once the paint is dry, all masking tape is removed

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 305

With a flat brush,

^

With a black watercolor

dipped in water, I proceed to

pencil, I mark all lines between the deck planks, to simulate caulking.

blur all the lines I had drawn with the watercofor pencil.

With a sponge, slightly dampened with matte black paint, I start to lightly mark the deck in a manner similar to dry-brushing.

Surface appearance after all the procedures so far applied.

Again with the black watercolor

With a light gray watercolor

pencil, I proceed to simulate the tread marks on the

pencil, I proceed to add small scratches to the surface of the flight deck.

surface of the flight deck.

With a 2000 grit sanding sponge, I will Tightly rub over the whole surface to integrate all of the effects, and apply a general weathered appearance to the whole surface.

306

AIRCRAFT FAQ

Flight deck completed

For those who wish to save some time, the Czech company Eduard offers a range of pre-painted photo-etched aircraft carrier deck bases in various scales, which are easy to use, and have a very realistic appearance

307

To create a little more volume, I add numerous small stones onto the edge of the Appearance of the ground after the processes

surface. These are stuck to the base using very dilute white glue

are applied

I finish the base with the addition of some vegetation and cans. Finally. I remove the masking tape from the edge of the base.

Small scene completely • n :-nec

AIRCRAFT FAQ

309

9. CREATINGA SCENE 9.3 concrete apron T he re are d iffe re n t co m m e rc ia l k its a va ila b le to re p re se n t th e c o n cre te h a rd sta n d s w e -so m e tim e s se e o n a irfie ld s. W e w ill m a k e o u rs fro m s a n d p a p e r a n d sm o o th p la stica rd sh ee t. T h is kin d o f te rra in c a n b e u se d to e a sily a n d e ffe c tiv e ly d isp la y a n y a ircra ft fro m W W II o r fro m a m o re m o d e rn era. W h e n w e w o rk w ith b a s e s th a t co n ta in sq u a re e le m e n ts su ch a s th e se , it is b e st to a vo id th e c o n v e n tio n o f m a k in g e v e ry th in g a p p e a r p aralle l to e a ch o th e r w h e n w e a d d v a rio u s o th e r e le m e n ts su ch a s e q u ip m e n t, a n d o f co u rse , th e aircra ft.

To reproduce the concrete pavement, I will use

I divide the styrene sheet into equal squares

Evergreen plasticard sheet and 500-grit wet sandpaper

Next, I cut the sandpaper into pieces of the same size as the styrene squares created in the previous step, and glue them together

To get rid of any possible flaws, I sand the edges of

I then lay the squares diagonally against

the squares, using a metal file.

the edges of the board, leaving small gaps

I also apply Das Pronto modelling clay into a small triangular area in the upper left comer of the board, in order to create

between them, and subsequently cut them

a basic ground texture which will spice up the base.

back to the perimeter of the base. I continue the shading process by applying a mixture which I start the painting process by spraying a base

Next. I airbrush a light gray colour in a number of

colour layer of dark gray.

random strokes, starting from the center and moving

includes a little sand colour. Again, this is sprayed in a random manner, to add variety and richness to the surface

to the edges of each square

310

\

X

_

I add a little black to the previous mixture, and use this to emphasize the joints between the pavements and simulate some subtle tire tracks.

With brown pigments, I additionally darken the joints between the pavements and create a dirty appearance

Interactive A K08 4 Engine Oil enamel.

of the areas that are adjacent to the joints.

I then focus on the small ground area in the

I also add little pieces of Woodland Scemcs grass vinyl mat into

corner. I airbrush several green tones over it, and

the joints between the pavements, in order to create some small

finish the grass with a yellow enamel paint, using

vegetation that grows there.

the dry-brush technique

I reproduce some fuel and oil stains with AK-

I finish the base with the addition of a figure and barrels.

-

9. CHEATINGASCENE 9.4 VEHICLES T h e in c lu sio n o f a v e h ic le a lw a y s h e lp s to sp ice u p a n a ircra ft d io ra m a . Eve n sm a ll a ssista n c e ve h ic le s, a lo n g w ith so m e fig u re s, w ill b rin g th e w h o le c o m b in a tio n to life. W h e n c h o o s in g th e ■ vehicle th a t w ill fe a tu re o u r sce n e , it is im p o rta n t to ta k e its size in to co n sid e ra tio n , b e c a u se if th e v e h ic le is to o b ig , it w ill d o w n p la y th e ro le o f th e a ircra ft m o d e l. I w ill illustra te th is se ctio n w ith a c o u p le o f a ircra ft c a rrie r d e c k ve h icle s, w h ic h a re fu n to p a in t a n d d irty. S in c e th e re a re n 't m a n y m o d e ls o f th e se ve h ic le s o n th e m a rke t, I w ill a lso s h o w y o u h o w to co n v e rt an a va ila b le k it w ith so m e scra tch b u ild in g

I re-shape the rear

I will use a 1/48 Jeep Willys from Hasegawa, to build an aircraft carrier deck vehicle from the 1950s

Next, I fair over the front lights

I start by cutting the vehicle into

of the vehicle, using pieces of

two parts. The rear part is redundant for this project.

plasticard, and remove the front bumper

I detail the front of the vehicle

I modify the engine hood

with plasticard and copper wire.

with pieces of styrene sheet.

The seat and other equipment which is specific for the I place the steering wheel and an additional

carrier deck vehide is also built from plasticard and

instrument panel inside the vehicle.

thin copper wire, and glued with cyano.

Although some parts will be left separate for the painting stage, I

312

AIRCRAFT FAQ

dry fit them to avoid any problems during the final assembly

The hoses are made from tin wire.

With the gray primer layer, I achieve unification of the various materials.

I apply a base coat of

I emphasize the panel lines with a wash, and add

yellow, tinted with a little

paint chips and small scratches.

orange, over all parts of the vehicle.

The finished vehicle.

A n o t h e r e x a m p le o f a ir c r a f t c a r r ie r d e c k v e h ic le , p a in t e d in g r e y .

AIRCRAFT FAQ / 313

B-25J Mitchell

AIRCRAFT FAO

323

Phantom II 342

, IRC RAFT FAQ

DEDICATED TO This book firstly like to dedicate my family, my parents Rosi and Dani, and my brothers David and Nuria. Especially my father who has always supported me, encouraged and given forces in the most difficult moments of my life and that is and always will be a landmark in my life. Last but not least, I want to dedicate this book also my good frie n d s... Sebastián Salazar Ortega Alberto Hernández Rubio Pablo Montero Tapia Ramiro Mayordomo Pinero Miguel Neff Martinez Tomás de la Fuente Maganto Javier López de Anca Josu Arévalo Many thanks to all the AK-Interactive team. Fernando, Enrique, Perico, Pedro. Jalal, Horten, Eva. Sandra. Jam es and Matthew. With my father, my grandfather and my great grandfather Paco Casimiro

Thanks to Jose Maria Martinez Fernández "Chema" for his collaboration in this book with a magnificent section of the First World War. To all of them, and all those who during all these years you have always treated me with love and affection, thanks.

384

URCRAFT FAQ

Eduard plastic kit production line is supplemented with a wide range of both Brassin and photo-etched accessories. BRASSIN ACCESSO RIES 672008 MiG-15 ejection seat 672007 MiG-15 wheels 672021 MiG-15 airbrakes 672022 MiG-15 cockpit 672020 MiG-15bis airbrakes 672024 MiG-15bis cockpit 672028 SR-55 rocket pod 672023 OFAB-100 bomb 672009 S-21 Soviet unguided rocket

PH O TO -ETCH ED ACCESSO RIES 72575 MiG-15/ MiG-15bis exterior 72574 MiG-15 landing flaps

672020

PAIN TIN G M A SK CX375 MiG-15 Weekend

1» 2 0 2 1

15.

/B 672009

672007

672028

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