Cdi 6 - Drug Education And Vice Control

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

LESSON 1 DRUG EDUCATION AND VICE CONTROL (NARCOTICS INVESTIGATION) Learning Objectives: 1. Familiarization of definition of Terms and Jargons 2. Discuss what is drugs 3. Understanding of prescriptive drugs

INTRODUCTION Definition of Terms    

  

Drug – is a chemical substance used as medicine or in the making of medicines, which affects the body and mind and have potential for abuse. Chemical – is any substance taken into the body that alters the way and the mind and the body work. Chemical Abuse – is an instance when the use of chemical has produced negative or harmful consequences. Narcotic Drug – refers to illegally used drugs or dangerous drugs, which are either prohibited or regulated drugs. It also refers to drugs that produces sleep or stupor and relieves pain due to its depressant effect on the CNS. The term Narcotic comes from the Greek word “narcotikos”. It is sometimes known as “opiates”. Drug Abuse – is the illegal, wrongful or improper use of any drug. Drug Addiction – refers to the state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug. Drug Dependence – refers to the state of psychic or physical dependence or both on dangerous drugs following the administration or use of that drug. WHO defines it as the periodic, continuous, repeated administration of a drug. Physical Dependence – an adaptive state caused by repeated drug use that reveals it self by development of intense physical symptoms when the drug is stopped (withdrawal syndrome). Psychological Dependence – an attachment to drug use that arises from a drug ability to satisfy some emotional or personality needs of an individual. Tolerance – is the increasing dosage of drugs

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC to maintain the same effect in the body.  Pusher – any person who sell, administer, deliver or give away to another, distribute, transport any dangerous drug.  Use - the act of injecting, consuming, any dangerous drugs. The means of introducing the dangerous drug into the physiological system of the body.  Administer – the act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person with or without his knowledge.  Manufacture – the production, preparation, compounding or processing a dangerous drug either directly or indirectly or by extraction from substances of natural origin or by chemical synthesis.  Drug Experimenter – one who illegally, wrongfully, or improperly uses any narcotic substances for reasons of curiosity, peer pressure, or other similar reasons.  Drug Syndicate – It is a network of illegal drug operations operated and manned carefully by groups of criminals who knowingly traffic through nefarious trade for personal or group profit. Drug Abuse Jargons              

“Opiate” - Narcotic “On-the-Nod/ “Nodding” - the state produced by opiates like being suspended on the edge of sleep. “Mainline’/ “to shoot” - injecting a drug into the vein “A Hit” - the street slang for injection of drugs “Work” - an apparatus for injecting a drug “A Fix” - one injection of opiate “Juni” - heroin “Junkie” - an opiate addict “Skin popping” - to inject a drug under the skin “A Bag” - a pocket of drug “Cold Turkey” - the withdrawal effect that occurs after a repeated opiate use “Track” - scars on the skin left from the repeated injection of opiate “Overdose” - death occurs because the part of the brain that controls breathing becomes paralyzed. “Speed” - amphetamines

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC  “Speed Freaks” - amphetamine addicts  “Uppers” - street slang for amphetamines  “Rush” - the beginning of a high  “High” - under the influence of drugs  “Coke” - street slang for cocaine  “Flashback” - user can be thrown back into the drug experience months after the original use of drug.  “Acid” - slang term for LSD  “Acid Head” - LSD user  “Drop” - taking drug orally  “Joint” - an MJ Cigar  “Roach” - butt end of a joint  “Stoned” - the intoxicating effect of a drug  “Trip” - the name for the reaction that is caused by drugs  “Head” - drug user  “Downer” - street slang for depressant WHAT ARE DRUGS? A drug, as defined, is a chemical substance used as a medicine or in making medicines, which affects the body and mind and have potential for abuse. Without an advice or prescription from a physician, drugs can be harmful. Hundreds of pure chemicals have been developed plants and put into pills, capsules or liquid medicines. There are also two forms of drugs, natural and synthetic/artificial. The natural drugs include natural plant leaves, flowering tops, resin, hashish, opium, and marijuana, while the synthetic drugs are produced by clandestine laboratories which include those drugs that are controlled by law because they are used in the medical practice. Physicians prescribe them and are purchased in the legitimate outlets like drugstores. Drugs also help a person’s body and mind function better during an illness. But drugs have to be taken correctly in order to do these things. The wrong drug or the wrong amount of the right one can make an illness, worse, destroy blood cells, damage the body and many cause death. For this reason, most drugs can be legally purchased only with doctor’s written order called prescription. Only a medical doctor can prescribe medicinal drugs. These drugs could be dangerous and must be used with care, according to the doctor’s prescription. He gives direction on how much medicine to take and how often. The practice of taking drugs without proper medicinal supervision is called the non-medical use of Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 drugs or drug abuse.

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

A. THE PRESCRIPTIVE DRUGS These are drugs requiring written authorization from a doctor to allow a purchase. They are prescribed according to the individual’s age, weight and height and should not be taken by anyone else. It is a personal requirement and self-medication that should be strictly avoided. The pharmacist should never allow the consumer to request them knowingly without first consulting a doctor. Once again strict emphasis of following directions needs to be stated. In addition to dosage, the physician indicates both when and for how long the medicine should be taken. Theses directions are intended to safeguard the patient from needlessly treating himself after his illness has been brought under control or from prematurely stopping a drug because he thinks he is well. Since the chemistry of the body is subtle and variable, only a physician should have the responsibility of prescribing and directing the use of drugs in the treatment of illnesses. B. THE OVER - THE COUNTER - DRUGS (OTC) These are non-prescription medicines, which may be purchased from any pharmacy or drugstore without written authorization from a doctor. They are use to treat minor and short term illnesses and any persistent condition should be immediately referred to a physician. It should be strongly emphasized that “directions” be closely followed and all precautions necessarily taken to avoid complications. OTC drugs are used for the prevention and symptomatic relief of minor ailments. The precautions that must be observed when dispensing OTCs are the following: 1. the correct drug with the correct drug content is given to the correct patient in the correct dosage form; 2. the pharmacist must counsel the patient to make sure that he/she takes the drugs correctly; and 3. the pharmacist must be aware of and know about the possible toxicity’s possessed by the OTC drugs to avoid food/drug incompatibilities and overdoses. OTCs must be used discriminately:

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 1. To avoid the dispensing of OTC to known identified habitual drug users. 2. To avoid complications, this is done by inquiring from the buyer of the drugs as to the identity of the patient, the patient’s age and other information such as pregnancy, hypertension, etc. 3. Counseling the patient so as to avoid the “selfmedication” syndrome by inquiring about the buyer’s source of information about the drug. C. The “Self-Medication Syndrome” The “self-medication” syndrome is found in users and would be users of drugs whose sources of information are people or literature other than doctors, pharmacists and health workers. These could be members of the family, relatives, and/or neighbors, all of whom may have previously used the drug for their specific disease or disorder. Self-medication may work against the good of the user because it can lead to intoxication and other adverse reactions. Possible outcomes of self-medication are: 1. Adverse reaction towards the drug, such as allergies that may be mild or severe. 2. Possible non-response of the patient to the drug effectively due to incorrect drug usage. 3. Possible drug toxicities, through over dosage which may lead to severe reactions such as nausea, vomiting, rashes, etc. 4. Possible habit-forming characteristics due to periodic use of the drugs even when such are no longer needed. HOW DRUGS WORK? Most drugs act within a cell, rather than on the surface of a cell or in the extracellular fluids of the body. Similar to normal body chemicals, a drug enters a cell and participates in a few steps of the normal sequence of a cellular process. Thus, drugs may later, interfere with or replace chemicals of normal cellular life, hopefully for the betterment of the person. The actual action of a particular drug depends on its chemical make-up. When two drugs are taken together or within a few hours of each other they may interact with unexpected results. This is one reason a physician should always Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC know the names of all drugs one is using. A dose of a drug is the amount taken at one time. The doses taken become an extremely important part of drug abuse. The amount of drug in a dose can be described as: 1. Minimal dose – amount needed to treat or heal, that is, the smallest amount of a drug that will produce a therapeutic effect. 2. Maximal dose – largest amount of a drug that will produce a desired therapeutic effect, without any accompanying symptoms of toxicity. 3. Toxic dose – amount of d rug that produces untoward effects or symptoms of poisoning 4. Abusive dose – amount needed to produce the side effects and action desired by an individual who improperly uses it 5. Lethal dose – amount of drug that will cause death HOW DRUGS ARE ADMINISTERED? The common following: 1.



4. 5.






Oral – this is the safest most convenient and economical route whenever possible. There are however, drugs, which cannot be administered this way because they are readily destroyed by the digestive juices or because they irritate the mucous lining of the gastro-intestinal tract and induce vomiting. Injection – this form of drug administration offers a faster response than the oral method. It makes use of a needle or other device to deliver the drugs directly into the body tissue and blood circulation. Inhalation – this route makes use of gaseous and volatile drugs, which are inhaled and absorbed rapidly through the mucous of the respiratory tract. Topical – this refers to the application of drugs directly to a body site such as the skin and the mucous membrane. Iontophoresis – the introduction of drugs into the deeper layers of the skin by the use of special type of electric current for local effect.


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1. What is Drugs? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

2. What is the essence of studying drug education? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

LESSON 2 TOXICOLOGY Learning Objectives: 1. Discuss the concept of toxicology 2. Discuss the history of drugs 3. Understanding of influence of drug abuse

THE CONCEPT OF TOXICOLOGY A drug following: 1. 2.


4. 5.









Overdose – when too much of a drug in taken, there may be an over extension of its effects. Allergy – some drugs cause the release of histamine giving rise to allergic symptoms such as dermatitis, swelling, fall in blood pressure, suffocation and death. Idiosyncrasy – for unexplained reasons, morphine, which sedates all men, stimulates and renders some women some maniacal. Perhaps the phrase “catty woman” has pharmacological basis since most mammals are sedated by morphine but some cats become extremely excited by it. General Protoplasmic Poison Property – drugs are chemicals and some of them have the property of being general protoplasmic poisons. Side Effects – some drugs are not receptors for one organ but receptors of other organs as well. The effect in the other organ may constitute a side effect, which is unwanted.

THE MEDICAL USE OF DRUGS The best use of medicine depends upon the physician, the user or patient, and lastly, the pharmacist. This idea was subscribed to by both Metro Manila Physicians (PNC Health Education Survey, 1983) and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturer’s Association of Washington, D.C. (U.P., MEC, DDB 1979). Their common agreements on the intelligent use of drugs are presented below. 1. Take medicines on doctor’s advice. In prescribing medicine, the doctor considers factors like age and weight, prevalent signs and symptoms, severity of the disease, results of laboratory examinations, route of Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC administration tolerated by patient, and presence of impairment in the organ or system. The physician has always a reason for his orders. 2. When taking prescribed medicines, remember carefully the dosage, manner of administration, frequency and time when to take it. Patient must not trust his memory when taking medicine. The label of the medicine should be read three times – once when medicine id remove from cabinet, again before medicine is taken and a third time after it is taken. Medicine should not be taken in the dark even if patient knows its location. 3. If patient goes to more than one doctor, each one of them must know about all the drugs being taken. 4. Avoid self-medication. Patient should not try to guess what is wrong with him or to select his own medicines even if his symptoms seem to be familiar to those of his neighbor. 5. Report any untoward effects of medicine to the physician. After taking medicine, tell the doctor if any symptoms develop. 6. Patient should not take additional drugs without asking his physician. 7. See whether the medicine has expired or not. 8. Be sure that the label stays on a prescription container until all is used. 9. Store medicine in a safe, cool and dry place and out of reach of children. 10. Some people just purchase and use common drugs without knowing their functions and contradictions. Thus, instead of being relieved of some symptoms, their conditions are aggravated. Physicians share the same opinion that the following drugs are better used under medical supervision to avoid harmful consequences and habit formation. 11. Analgesics relieve pain. However, they may produce the opposite effects on somebody who suffers form peptic ulcer or gastric irritation. 12. Antibiotics combat or control infectious organisms. Ingesting the same antibiotics for a long time can result in allergic reactions and cause resistance to the drug. 13. Antipyretics can lower body temperature or fever due to infection. 14. Antihistamines control or combat allergic reactions. People who on antihistamine therapy must not operate or drive vehicles since these drugs can cause drowsiness. 15. Contraceptives prevent the meeting of the egg cell and sperm cell or prevent the ovary from releasing egg cells. Pregnant women must not take birth control Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC pills to avoid congenital abnormalities. This advice also applies to women suffering from heart disease, varicose veins, breast limps, goiter and anemia. The effectiveness of oral contraceptives may be reduced when taken with antibiotic. 16. Decongestants relieve congestion of the nasal passages. Prolonged used of these decongestants might include nasal congestion upon withdrawal. 17. Expectorants ease the expulsion of mucus and phlegm from the lungs and the throat. They are not drugs of choice for the newborn that does not know to cough the phlegm out. 18. Laxatives stimulate defecation and encourage bowel movement. They should not be given to pregnant women and those suffering from intestinal obstruction. Taking purgatives (stronger than laxatives) unnecessarily might result in rupture of the intestines or appendix if there is an obstruction. Constant use might make the intestines sluggish. 19. Sedatives and tranquilizers calm and quiet the nerves and relieve anxiety without causing depression and clouding of the mind. Precautions must be taken in the use of tranquilizers since they can cause impairment of judgement and dexterity. 20. Vitamins are food substances necessary for normal growth and development and proper functioning of he body. A person who eats a balanced diet does not need supplements. If they are found necessary, vitamin preparations should be taken with meals. Vitamins should be treated as drugs since the body does not manufacture them. Excessive dosage of vitamins A and D can be dangerous and harmful to health. Excess of vitamin D can lead to nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss, calcification and heart and kidney troubles. Too much vitamin A might result in symptoms of a disease of the liver. HISTORY OF DRUG ABUSE The Holy Bible is a very reliable source in tracing the early use and abuse of narcotics. The Book of Judges of the Old Testament revealed that the mighty Samson was put to sleep by Delilah by means of a drug-laced wine before cutting his hair, the source of his strength, and subsequently gouged his eyes before the feasting Philistines already “high spirited” with narcotics mixed with intoxicants. There are also many allusions of drug abuse in the old cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, which might have led to the widespread adultery, bestiality and incest (Sotto, 1994).

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CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Ancient Greek and Roman literature likewise are replete with stories alluding to drug abuse, as in the lamentable and tragic romance of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. Cleopatra, in desperation over her disprized love drank a narcotic-laden wine before allowing her self to be bitten to death by a poisonous asp from the River Nile. Even in the practice of oracles and black magic during the Roman ancient times were believed to be accomplished by “narcotics”(Sotto, 1994). Historians credited that marijuana (Cannabis Sativa) is the world’s oldest cultivated plant started by the Incas of Peru. Peruvian and Mexican Incas have also the common practice to use the coca leaves during religious offering ceremonies. It was also known that marijuana was a “sacred tree” in the belief of the Assyrians being used during religious rituals – some 9,000 years B.C. The use of marijuana is also deeply ingrained in the cultures of many countries such as India, Jamaica, Morocco, Nepal, Mexico and Peru (Sotto, 1994). The first reference of introduction was in Northern Iran as an intoxicant. And from there it spread throughout India by the Hindus used for religious rituals in the belief that it is a source of happiness and “laughter provoker”. The word “hashis” (resin) of the Marijuana plant was derived from the name Hasan or Hashasin, the Muslim cult leader who fed his disciples a preparation made from the resin of the female hemp plant as a reward for their successful activities in assassinations. American Indians too are believed to use not only the stimulant tobacco but also opium in their peace pipes in order to “narcotize” an oppositionist to their common objectives (Sotto, 1994). Knowledge on the opium poppy plant (Papaver Somniferum) goes back about 7000 years B.C cultivated and prepared by the Summerians. Even the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, prescribed the juice of the white poppy plant as early as 5,000 B.C in the belief that it can cure many illnesses both in the internal and external use. The plant was first harvested in Mesopotamia and its use spread through out the neighboring Mediterranean areas, then to Asia. From there, it was introduced to Persia, India and China by the Arab came caravans (Dungo, 1988). Opium use in became widespread the plant was Afghanistan. Five

China was stemmed out from India and in the 19th Century. From Middle East, cultivated in India, Pakistan and centuries later, An Opium trade between

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC China and Portuguese merchants became a lucrative business. The British took over the trade from the Portuguese and established the Opium Trade Monopoly through the British East Indies Company. In an Attempt to stop the extremely high rate of opium addiction in China, Emperor Yung Chen prohibited the smoking of opium and attempted to close ports for its importation. This triggered the “opium war” of 1840 which induced China to accept the British sponsored opium trade and forced to sign a treaty permitting the importation of opium intro China after her defeat. It was in 1806 that a German pharmacist in the name of Friedrich W. Serturner discovered Morphine, the first derivative of opium. He called this new drug as “Morphium” and later changed to Morphine after the Greek god of dream, Morpheus. This was the first attempt to cure opium addiction. But morphine addictive properties came to prominence during the American Civil War vast numbers of American soldiers became addicted to the drug – so much so that morphine addiction became known as “soldiers disease”. The second attempt of treating opium and morphine addiction started in 1896 when Heroin (Diacetylmorphine), synthesized from the drug morphine, was discovered by a British chemist in the name of Alder Wright. It was called the “miracle drug” because it is believed that it can cure both opium and morphine addiction. It was named after the word “hero” due to its impressive power. So physicians began to use heroin but it became a substitution of one addiction to another. It turns out later that heroin is the most addictive of all drugs. Meanwhile, codeine, the third derivative of opium was discovered in France while in the process of discovering other drugs that could cure opium, morphine and heroin addiction but it also ended in the same tragic result. Today, it is widely used as an ingredient in most cough syrup. There are of course other historical events that would reveal drug abuse in the history of man, the greatest influence of the modern medical practice today. In fact, physicians all over the world still consider narcotics as the most effective pain reliever (Sotto, 1994). HISTORY OF DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTION IN THE PHILIPPINES Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

Very little known about drugs in the Philippines during the pre- Spanish era. The intoxicants and stimulants used by the early Filipinos were fermented alcoholic beverages and the masticatory preparations known as “nga-nga” in vernacular. Narcotics, including marijuana, were not in the list of vices in the country at that time. The opium poppy plant and the coca bush were absent in the Philippine vegetation prior to 1521. During the Spanish era, drug control laws prohibited the use of opium by the native Filipinos and other people except the Chinese. Chinese residents in the Philippines particularly in Manila and of the more distant Chinese pariahs (ghettos) started smoking opium in 1780. As a vice, it was not widespread and was particularly accepted and tolerated by the authorities. In 1844, The Spanish colonial government laid down an opium monopoly, which entitled the importation by the Spanish government and its sale to Chinese users. At this period, opium smoking became widespread among Chinese as its use was forbidden to Indians, Mestizos and the Filipinos. This compromise policy lasted up to 1896, a period of revolt and insurrection. The Americans took over the rule of the country, and after establishing a civil government in 1901, a systematic survey was conducted and it was found out that there were 190 joints where the Chinese smoke opium. It was observed that the habit had not yet gained foothold among Filipinos. In 1906, partial legislation allowed Chinese addicts to obtain a license to use opium in their homes for a fee of P5.00. The opium sale was under the government control and the quality was limited. In 1908, the total ban of opium was effected. The campaign continued until the Japanese occupation in 1946, at which point all supplies of opium were cut of from the country and during that period the number of opium addicts was probably the lowest in Asia. In 1953, Republic Act No. 953 was enacted which provided for the registration of collection, and the imposition of fixed and special taxes upon all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal-in, dispense, sell, distribute, or give away opium, marijuana, opium poppies, or coca leaves or any synthetic drugs which may declared as habit forming. The law also declared as a matter of national policy, the prohibition of the cultivation of marijuana and opium poppy. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

Some time in 1955, the marijuana plant was introduced in Pasay City by foreigners for purpose of producing “reefers”. These were sold in taverns in Pasay City and introduced into elite schools in the same area. The PC Criminal Investigation on January 8, 1959 conducted the first marijuana raid in Pasay City when several potted marijuana plants were seized. The Philippines has been relatively heroin-free until the early 60’s when small heroin laboratories opened in Manila. In 1963, new trends appear. There was a waning of opium addiction among the Chinese but a concurrent increase among the Filipinos, just the latter contributed 63 percent of the total arrests from drug offenses. Recognizing the deleterious effect of drug abuse on the health and well-being of the Filipino youth and the threat that it poses to national security, then President Ferdinand Marcos signed into law Republic Act No. 6425 known as the “Dangerous Drug Act of 1972” on March 30, 1972. This law which was amended by Presidential Decree No. 44, dated November 9, 1972 placed under control not only narcotics by also psychotropic substances. On November 14, 1972, the Dangerous Drug Board was organized to provide leadership, direction and coordination in the effective implementation of R.A. 6425. By early 1974, addiction to opiates and barbiturates had almost disappeared among the native population. During the period 1975-1980 the cultivation of marijuana increased and became geographically widespread, thus the pattern of drug taking involved marijuana, abuse of pharmaceutical products (especially cough syrup) and the inhalation of solvents. There was very little trafficking of heroin, cocaine and LSD and the nonavailability of narcotic drugs made the prices sour beyond the reach of Filipino drug abusers. THE INFLUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE Concept of Drug Abuse The term Drug Abuse most often refers to the use of a drug with such frequency that it causes physical or mental harm to the user or impairs social functioning. Although the term seems to imply that users abuse the drugs they take, in fact, it is themselves or others they abuse by using drugs.

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CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Traditionally, the term drug abuse referred to the use of any drug prohibited by law, regardless of whether it was actually harmful or not. This meant that any use of Marijuana, for example, even if it occurred only once in a while, would constitute abuse, while the same level of alcohol consumption would not. The term drug is commonly associated with substances that may be purchased legally with prescription for medical use. Other substances that may be purchased legally without prescription and are commonly abused include alcohol and the nicotine contained in tobacco cigarettes (Groiler, 1995). Concept of Drug Dependence Drug abuse must be distinguished from drug dependence. Drug dependence, which is sometimes called drug addiction, is defined by basic three characteristics (Groiler, 1995). The users continue to take a drug over an extended period of time. Just the long this period is dependent on the drug and the user. The users find it difficult to stop using the drug. They seem powerless to quit the drug use. Users take extraordinary and often harmful measures to continue using the drug. They will drop out of school, steal, leave their families, go to jail and lose their job to keep using drug. The users stop taking their drug – only if their supply of the drug is cut off, or if they are forced to quit for any reason – they will undergo painful physical or mental distress. The experience of withdrawal distress, called the withdrawal syndrome, is a sure sign that a drug is dependency-producing and that the user is dependent on the drug. Drug dependence may lead to drug abuse – especially the illegal drugs Concept of Drug Addiction Drug addiction is a state of mind in which a person has lost the power of self-control in respect of a drug. He consumes the drug repeatedly leaving aside all values of life. In other words a drug addict will resort to crime even, to satisfy his repeated craving for the drug. The effects of addiction are mainly deteriorative personality Changes. They include insomnia, instability, lack of self-confidence especially when not under the Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC influence of drug. The addict can not concentrate on any work. He avoids social contacts. Slowly, mentally, physically, and morally he becomes from bad to worse and a burden to the society. One or more of the following attributes characterizes drug addiction: 1. Compulsion/ Uncontrollable Craving – the addict feels a compulsive craving to take drug repeatedly and tries to procure the same by any means. 2. Tolerance – it is the tendency to increase the dose of the drug to produce the same effect as to that of the original effect. 3. Addiction – the addict is powerless to quit drug use. 4. Physical Dependence – the addict’s physiological functioning is altered. The body becomes sick, inactive and incapable of carrying out useful activity in the absence of the drug. The withdrawal syndromes will occur once the drug use is stopped. 5. Psychological Dependence – Emotional and mental discomfort exist to the individual. The drug addict feels he can not do without the drug, consequently if he does not take the drug his mental processes are affected. He can not carryout his work efficiently. 6. Withdrawal Syndrome – The addict becomes nervous and restless when he does not get the drug. After about 12 hours, he starts sweating. His nose and eyes becomes watery and continue doing so increasingly for another twelve hours. It is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite and sleep. Respiration, blood pressure and body temperature also rises. This will continue up to three days. After which, the trouble starts subsiding and most of it is gone in about a week’s time. Complete recovery takes place in three to six months.

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC


3. What is Toxicology? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

4. Distinguish the difference between drug addiction, drug dependence and drug abuse. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

LESSON 3 INFLUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE Learning Objectives: 1. Discuss the causes of drug abuse 2. Discuss the classification of drugs abusers 3. Learning how drug is acquired

UNDELYING CAUSES/INFLUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE The drug addict or abuser is generally an emotionally unstable person before he acquires the habit. He can not face painful situations without help, he has less will power and self control. He has not adjusted himself to his emotional reaction. Due to this, drug addicts have low capacities for dealing with frustrations, anxieties and stress. Drug abuse is a multi-faceted problem exits in our locality and countryside, there is usually more than one reason why this problem exists. Any of the following factors may influence people to abuse drugs. A. Biological Factors There are some reasons or pre-existing induced biological abnormalities of chemicals, physiological or structural in nature that induced a person to take drugs. The following are some to consider: 1.

Individual ‘s general health – there are several diseases that easily make a person become a drug abuser. Examples are fatigue, chronic cough, insomnia, and discomfort. 2. It is believe that drug has the special power to prevent or to increase sexual capacity. 3. One specific genetic theory proposes that there is an inherited defect in the production of endorphin, similar to morphine. A deficiency of the substance leads to bodily discomfort. With the use of the morphine, this feeling is induced. According to theory, a person who uses morphine has the physiological abnormality where endorphin production is less. The drugs when we use the body cells work actively. B. Common Causation of Drug Abuse Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 1. Children of broken home easily join peer groups as substitutes to their lost family solidarity. 2. To strike and over protectiveness of parents. 3. For curiosity – eagerness to know what they have not experienced. 4. To assert their independence. 5. To rebel from parental authority. 6. To prove their guts. 7. To escape problems. 8. Peer pressure and for the sake of PAKIKISAMA. 9. They believe that drug can give deeper insights. 10. The belief that medicines can magically solve problems. 11. The easy access to drug or various sort in an affluent society. 12. The enjoyment of euphoria or excitement induced by drugs. 13. The search for sharpened perception and high perception and creativity, which some people believe they obtained from drugs. 14. The beliefs that they are just taking it like alcohol. 15. The dissatisfaction or disillusion of lost of faith in the prevailing system. 16. The tendency of persons with psychological problems to seed easily solution with chemicals. 17. The statement of proselytizers who proclaim the goodness of drugs. 18. Slum condition - the most critical is that the slum dweller are often deprived of emotional support. C. Factors in Youthful Drug Abuse (Psychological, mental health, family conditions) 1. Motives and Attitudes Psychologically speaking, in terms of motives and function of drug use, some of which may not be recognized by users themselves. The more a drug is used, the more it tends to satisfy more than one motive or need. Recent surveys of college drug use have induces the students reasons for drug use. In one study smaller or larger groups mentioned all of the following motives; 1. 2. 3. to God. 4. 5.

To feel more courageous. To find out more about oneself. To have a religious experience to come close To satisfy a strong craving or compulsion. To increase or reduce appetite.

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 6. To feel less dull or sluggish, improve sex. 7. To reduce sexual desire and keep from being panicked or crazy. 8. To improve intelligence or learning, prepare stress. 9. To feel less depress of sad, relieve tension or nervousness 10.To make good moral mood last longer, relieve anger or irritation 2. Personality and Pathology This psychology has been described as follows: 1. Chronic, low-grade depression. 2. Smoldering, tense and restlessness. 3. A sense of not being taken seriously. 4. Narcissism or egocentricity. 5. Preoccupation with issues or identity, autonomy, and freedom of expression. 6. Repeated dwelling on drug taking and its effects. 7. Difficulty in interpersonal relations. 3. Family Background

The kinds of personality disturbances found in some young addicts and heads cannot, in the current state of knowledge, be identified as brain damage or schizophrenia. It is more in the manner of character disorder. And the behavior may be the result of inadequate socialization, condition of child rearing and family interaction. The few available facts about families of young abuser lend credence to this idea. In one broad study of New York’s high addiction areas, the families of adolescent narcotics users showed the following characteristics: 1. Absent or weak father 2. Overprotective, overindulgent and domineering mother 3. Inconsistent standards of behavior, lack of definition of limits 4. Hostility or conflict between parents 5. Unrealistic aspiration for children D. The Psycho-Social Factors 1.




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is 29


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa manifestation of an underlying character of disorder. Thus majority of the drug fundamentally immature, emotionally childish, are suffering from problems of adolescence.

M. Diso, RC personality users are insecure or

2. Social Disorder - A sign or symptom of family problem involving parent – child relationship, peer pressures, unethical values. Drugs use does not also occur in isolation of other environmental factors but rather, is greatly influenced by these factors. Some of the sociological factors also influenced drug use is as high toll. a. Availability of over-the counter and prescription drugs variety of drugs available for different ailments. b. Influence of media-advertisement message that all aliment can be cured through the use of chemical substances toward messages and help to create the acceptance of drugs. c. Impact of affluent lifestyle or of high employment. d. Effect of increased travel and exposure to different culture and social values e. Modeling, if parents or key influence are drug users, young persons often tend to model the behavior they are at home. f. Social pressures exerted by peers g. Collapse of religious values h. Alienation and enemies feeling of powerless i. Lower value on academic achievement E. Other Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. violent

Ignorance, curiosity Laxity of government and other authorities Mass media influence Nature of society resulting in the increased behavior for youth.

F. The 7 Deadly Sins - Primary Causes of Drug Abuse 1. Pride – excessive feeling of self-worth or selfesteem, sense of self-importance. 2. Anger - unexpressed, deep-seated anger against himself, his family, his friends or the society in general. 3. Lust – burning sexual desire can distort the human mind to drug abuse. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 4. Gluttony – “food trip” in the lingo of junkies 5. Greed – wealth, fame, recognition as exemplified by people under pressure in their work of art, such as musicians, actors, athletes who indulge in drug abuse. 6. Envy – to get attention from someone: as a sign of protest envy is a major cause of drug abuse. 7. Laziness –“ I can’t syndrome”, incapacity to achieve – the breeding ground of drug abuse. Boredom coupled with poor self-image. How Addiction is acquired? People have generally different motivation in life. The young ones are very much adventurous and some of them have strong attraction in Drug-taking, because these “Space are era belongs to them so to speak, thus, the “IN” thing these days are drugs. To see drug abusers around seemed to be of a common sight. The drug habit is acquired in three ways: 1. Association 2. Experimentation 3. Inexperienced doctors Likewise, addiction may be acquired through: 1.

Habituation – closely related to euphoric effect, and the relief of pain or emotional discomfort. 2. Toleration – the necessity to increase the dose to obtain an effect equivalent to the original dose. 3. Dependence – the altered physiological state brought about by the repeated administration of the drug, which necessitates the continued use of the drug to avoid withdrawal syndrome. What are the Group Classifications of Drug Abusers? 1. Situational Users – those who use drugs to keep them awake or for additional energy to perform an important work. Such individual may or may not exhibit psychological dependence. 2. Spree Users – school age users who take drugs for “kicks’, an adventurous daring experience, or as a means of fun. There may be some degree of psychological dependence but little physical dependence due to the mixed pattern of use. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

3. Hard Core Addicts – those, whose activities revolve almost entirely around the drug experience and securing supplies. They show strong psychological dependence on the drug. 4. Hippies – those who are addicted to believing that drug is an integral part of life.

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5. Give one factor that may influence people to abuse drugs? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

6. What is Psycho-Social Factor? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

LESSON 4 DETECTION Learning Objectives: 1. Understanding the different identification of drug abuser 2. Familiarizing process of detecting drug abuser 3. Familiarizing the general profile of a Filipino drug abuser

DETECTION OF DRUG ABUSERS Detecting a drug user is not an easy task. The signs and symptoms of drug abuse, especially in the beginning stages can be identical to those produced by conditions having nothing whatsoever to do with drugs. It is always necessary to exercise certain prudence before drawing conclusions. Some judgments may only hurt the individual; if he is innocent and one may lose his love and trust. Only after observing calmly and patiently his behavior, appearance and associations, may one pass judgment and act. To detect following:







1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


neglect of personal appearance diminished drive, lack of ambition reduced attention span poor quality of school work impaired communication skills less care for the feeling of others, lessening of accustomed family warmth 7. pale face, red eyes, dilation or constricted pupils, wearing sunglasses at wrong places 8. change from active to passive and withdrawn behavior 9. secretive about money, disappearance of money and other valuables from the house 10. friends refusing to identify themselves or hang up when you answer the phone 11. overreaction to mild conditions 12. smell of marijuana, sweetish odor, like a burned rope in the clothes or room, etc. 13. symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, muscular aches, insomnia and convulsions, etc. 14. presence of : Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

butt from marijuana joint holders (i.e. pipe clips) for the joint presence of leaves, seeds in pockets or lining rolling paper, pipes, “bong” in closet or pocket cough syrup bottles, capsules, syringes, etc. visines or Eye-Mo bottles to treat red eyes devices for hiding drugs like trash cans, soft drinks bottles presence of other pills like valium, artane, other tranquilizers presence of physician’s prescription pad in blank form

IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG ABUSER The following markers can help in identifying them: 1. Change in interest – they lose interest in their studies and in their work. They fail in school, shift from one course to another, transfer of school of lower standard until eventually drop out. 2. Frequent shifting of mood – they are euphoric, elated and sometimes even ecstatic when under the influence of drugs. They would be indifferent, irritable and even hostile when the effect of drug is waning from the system. 3. Changes in behavior – they usually spend a lot. They are usually in the company of known drug users in the community. They come home late; they become disrespectful and would sell personal or family valuables. 4. Changes in physical appearance – if they can be seen while still under the influence of drugs the following can be noted: The following abusers.







a. They know the lingo of the abusers, i.e. OMAD. Chongki, Bitin, etc. b. Presence of linear scar in the arms, forearms and abdomen. c. Lobule of left ear punctured and some of the males even wear earrings. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

PROCESS OF DETECTING DRUG ABUSERS The detection of drug abuse involves five processes namely: a. b. c. d. e.

Observation History taking Laboratory examination Psychological examination Psychiatric evaluation

1. OBSERVATION Observations of the signs and symptoms of drug abuse may take relatively a long period of time. Good sensory equipment and a high degree of objectivity are two requirements for a good observer. To be an effective observer, the observer should not let his own personal judgements and reactions affect his observations. He should exercise care in his observation such that the suspected drug abuser is not made aware of being observed. 2. HISTORY TAKING A. Collateral Information (Interview with information) The best information is from the patient himself, but collateral information is necessary. Ideally, a parent or close relative or a close friend should be present to furnish useful details as to the different changes observed in the patient that made them suspect the subject is abusing drugs. These changes may be in his appearance, behavior, mood, or interest. Added information 1. If subject’s “barkadas” are also known drug abusers in the community. 2. He knows the language of drug dependents. 3. Seeing in his room, books or in his belongings or in his possession empty bottles of cough syrups, empty medicine foils, MJ sticks or rolling paper. B. Interview with patient Inquire regarding the drugs being abused, onset of his drug taking activity, reason for abusing drugs, how Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 he supports his vice, etc.

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

3. LABORATORY EXAMINATION Accurate laboratory examinations cannot be performed by any ordinary chemist since detection of dangerous drugs requires sophisticated equipment and apparatus, special chemical reagents and most of all, the specialized technical know-how. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION This phase of drug detection requires the expertise of trained psychologists. Teachers therefore are not in a position to administer psychological examinations among their students. Psychological examination findings will correspond to the general findings of a drug prone individual: - drowsy or lethargic appearance accompanied by scratching and without alcoholic breath, tendency to giggle excessively at things which others don’t consider funny, and over-active and over talkative 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS a. Intelligence Test – the test is designed to cover a wide variety of mental functions with special emphasis on adjustment comprehension and reasoning. b. Personality Test – this type of test is used to evaluate the character and personality traits of an individual such as his emotional adjustment, interpersonal relation, motivation and attitude. c. Aptitude Test – this test is to measure the readiness with which the individual increases his knowledge and improves skills when given the necessary opportunity and training. d. Interest Test – this is designed to reveal the field of interest that a client will be interested in. e. Psychiatric Evaluation – it is a process whereby a team of professionals composed of psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers conduct an examination to determine whether or not a patient is suffering from psychiatric disorder. Practical Ways of Recognizing the Drug Addict A drug abuser will do everything possible to conceal his habit. To be able to recognize the outward signs and Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC symptoms, it is equally important to realize that the drug problems are so complex. Even expert advice not to judge abruptly an individual taking narcotics drug as it could lead to falsely accusing an innocent person. It should also be remembered that a person might have a legitimate reason for possessing a tablets, syringe and needle (may be a diabetic) having capsules (they may prescribe by doctor). Having the sniffles and running eyes may due to head cold or an allergy. Unusual or add behavior may not be connected in any way with drug use. Based on the lecture of U.S experts doctor of medicine, Forensic chemist at the London International Police academy usually detect drugs abusers without too much trouble by means of the following: 1. Presence of drug on the person – which he may try to conceal. 2. Presence of equipment for smoking, drinking or injection of drugs. 3. Presence of hypodermic needle marks or tracks on arms and on various parts of the body. 4. Drug test on blood and Urinalysis 5. Drug intoxication in the absence of alcoholic smell. It is indicated by: a. dilation or contraction of the pupils b. unsteady gait and incoherent speech c. loose mental processes, drowsiness and itching d. tendency to laugh at trivial e. Withdrawal symptoms 6. Nalline test indicates an opiate addict. - A small dose (3 mg.) of nalline is injected into the body of the suspect. The size of the pupil of the suspect is measured before and after the injection. An addict will show appreciable dilation of the pupil. The drug has practically no effect on non-addicts. The General Profile of Drug Abusers The data may help one in understanding drug abusers in the Philippines. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 As to:

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC The Profile


Mean age of 26 years (since 1996), 27 yrs (1999) Sex Ratio of male to female remained 12: 1 Civil Status Single (55.78%) Married (32.58%) Separated (4.43%) Family Size Three to four siblings in the family Occupation Workers/Employees (42.51%) Unemployed (21.75%) Self-Employed (12.58%) Students (12.16%) Out-of-School Youth (3.68%) Educational High school level (27.77%) Attainment College level (27.07%) High School Graduate (22.77%) Economic Status Average monthly income of P5,290 Place of Urban Residence Duration of Drug More than two years Taking I.Q Average Nature of Drug Monodrug use Taking Drugs of Abuse Shabu; Marijuana Actual Outward Physical Signs/ Symptoms of Drug Abusers: The actual profile of an abuser of narcotic drugs may show some of the following manifestations. 1. Admission of the addict himself. 2. Consistently wear long-sleeved shirt or blouses, dark eye-classes unlikely times to hide dilated or constricted pupils of eyes. 3. Blood spots around elbow areas of blouses shirt or pajamas. 4. Walk, talk and act as if under alcoholic influence. 5. Prolonged period of sleep or lethargy, abnormal sleepless, nervous, jumpy and talkative. 6. School works deteriorates (grades and home works) 7. Work habits, become slip-shod, too many emotional Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC explosions, loss body weight., abnormal bowel habits, blood-shot eyes. 8. Sloppy in dress and careless in bodily hygiene, inordinate desire for consumption of sweets. Unusual odor in the house or room (marijuana, hash, or incense) 9. Develop defiant or contemptuous attitudes towards authority (Parents, Teachers, Police, Etc.) constant demand for ever-increasing amount of money. 10. Takes money from everyone and fails to repay, steel and sells all possible items of value from home or elsewhere when opportunity comes. 11. Receives or makes numerous phone calls to people who are unknown in the house. Associates only with people who have the reputation for playing with using drugs. 12. Persistently lies when asked to explain in expected knock on the door. 13. Unrealistic attitudes, having difficult of concentration. The Personality Profile of a Filipino Drug Abuser 1. They are of average or above average intelligence 2. They are witty and manipulative 3. They have negative attitude, they demonstrate hostile feelings to the world or to anybody who does not want to conform to what they want. 4. They are emotionally immature, selfish and demanding. 5. They want immediate gratification of needs and desires. 6. They have low frustration tolerance. 7. Their interest and aptitude are on dramatics, persuasive and musical field in that order. 2. They are depressed and excessively dependent. 3. They are rebellious and have impulsive behavior. 4. They are pleasure seeker and pathologically liars 5. They like to join anti social groups/ delinquent groups. 6. They have difficulty in solving problems. 7.

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7. Why does drug abuser conceal his habit? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 8. Does the signs and symptoms of drug abuse, especially in the beginning stages can be identical to those produced by conditions having nothing whatsoever to do with drugs? Explain. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

THE GLOBAL DRUG SITUATION Drug abuse has become not only a national issue or a problem of just a few countries but it is a clear and present global danger. Today, highly entrenched, well-organized drug syndicates are behind this menace. They employ the most advanced and most sophisticated technology coupled with unlimited financial resources at their command and disposal. Police agencies around the world, pooling their resources together are more often than not, the losers in a game of hide-and-seek with the international drug syndicates (Sotto, 1994). A. The 1st Important Drug Traffic Route Middle harvest






- preparation for distribution


- manufacture, synthesis, refine


- Marketing

B. The 2nd Major Drug Traffic Route A. Drugs that originates from the Golden Triangle Burma/Myanmar



B. Drugs that originates from the Golden Crescent -

Iran Afghanistan Pakistan India

C. World’s Drug Scene Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 1. Southeast Asia – the “Golden Triangle” approximately produced 60% of opium in the world, 90% percent of opium in the eastern part of Asia. It is also the officially acknowledged source of Southeast Asian Heroin. 2. Southwest Asia – the “Golden Crescent” is the major supplier of opium poppy, MJ and Heroin products in the western part of Asia. It produces at least 85% to 90% of all illicit heroin channeled in the drug underworld market. 3. Middle East – the Becka Valley of Lebanon is the biggest producer of cannabis in the Middle East. Lebanon is also considered as the transit country for cocaine from South America to European markets. 4. Spain – major transshipment point for international drug traffickers in Europe – known as “the paradise of drug users in Europe”. 5. South America – Columbia, Peru, Uruguay, and Panama are the sources of all cocaine supply in the world. 6. Morocco – the number one producer of cannabis in the world. (2003 to 2006) 7. Philippines – the major transshipment point for the worldwide distribution of illegal drugs such as shabu and cocaine from Taiwan and South America. The second world’s supplier of MJ and the drug paradise of drug abusers in Asia. 8. India – center of the world’s drug map, leading to rapid addiction among its people. 9. Indonesia – Northern Sumatra has traditionally been the main cannabis growing area in Indonesia. Bali Indonesia is an important transit point for drugs en route to Australia and New Zealand. 10. Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand – the most favorable sites of drug distribution from the “Golden Triangle” and other parts of Asia. 11. China – the transit route for heroin from “Golden Triangle” to H.K. 12. Hong Kong – the world’s transshipment point of all forms of heroin. 13. Japan – the major consumer of cocaine and shabu from U. S. and Europe. D. Organized Crime Groups behind the Global Drug Scene Columbian Medellin Cartel Founded during the 1980’s by Colombian drug lords in the name of Pablo Escobar Gaviria and drug bosses Jose Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha and the top aid cocaine barons Juan David and the Ochoa Brothers. The Medellin Cartel is reputedly responsible for organizing world’s drug trafficking network. The Columbian government succeeded in containing the Medellin Cartel, which resulted in the death, surrender, and arrest of the people behind the organization. This further resulted to the disbandment of the Cartel led to its downfall. Cali Cartel The downfall of the Columbian Medellin Cartel is the rise of the Cali Cartel - the newly emerged cocaine monopoly. Gilberto Rodriquez Orajuela –Don Chepe - “the chess player” heads the syndicated organization. Under him, the Cali cartel was considered the most powerful criminal organization in the world. The cartel produces over 90% of cocaine in the world. Due to this, it was called the best and the brightest of the modern underworld. “ They are professionals of the highest order, intelligent, efficient, imaginative, and nearly impenetrable” – US Drug Enforcement Agency. The Chinese Triad The Chinese Triad is also called the Chinese Mafia – the oldest and biggest criminal organization in the world. It is believed to be the controller of the “Golden Triangle”.

Drug Syndicates in the Philippines The Binondo-based Chinese syndicate has been identified as the nucleus of the Triad Society, the Bamboo gang based in Taiwan and the 14K based in Hong Kong. The Bamboo Gang is the influence of the Green Gang of the Chinese Triad while the 14K is the newest among the triads families established only in 1947. The most common “modus operandi” by the syndicates – posing as fishermen along Philippine seas, particularly, the northern provinces of Luzon such as La Union, Ilocos, and Pangasinan where they drop their loads of shabu to shoreline based members. The syndicates are famously Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC involved in marijuana cultivation and other drug smuggling including drug manufacture. THE DANGEROUS DRUGS A.

According to Effects 1. Depressants – those that depress the CNS 2. Stimulants – those that stimulate the CNS 3. Hallucinogens – those that distort perception, mind; alter moods


According to Medical Pharmacology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Depressants Narcotics Tranquilizers Stimulants Hallucinogens Solvents/Inhalants

The Depressants (Downers) These are group of drugs, which suppress vital body functions especially those of the brain or central nervous system with the resulting impairment of judgment, hearing, speech and muscular coordination. They dull the minds, slow down body reactions to such an extent that accidental deaths and/or suicides usually happen. They include the narcotics, barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol and other volatile solvents. These drugs, when taken in, generally decrease both the mental and the physical activities of the body. They cause depression, relieve pain and induce sedation or sleep and suppress cough. 1. Narcotics - are drugs, which relieve pain and produce profound sleep or stupor. Medically, they are potent painkillers, cough depressants and as an active component of anti-diarrheal preparations. Opium and it derivatives like morphine, codeine and heroin, as well as the synthetic opiates, meperidine and methadone, are classified as narcotics. 2. Opium – derived from a poppy plant – Papaver somniferum popularly known as “gum”, “gamot”, “kalamay” or “panocha”. 3. Morphine - most commonly used and best used opiate. Effective as a painkiller six times potent than opium, with a high dependence – producing potential. Morphine exerts action characterized by Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC analgesia, drowsiness, mood changes, and mental clouding. 4. Heroin – is three to five times more powerful than morphine from which it is derived and the most addicting opium derivative. With continued use, addiction occurs within 14 days. It may be sniffed on swallowed but is usually injected in the veins. 2. Codeine – a derivative of morphine, commonly available in cough preparations. These cough medicines have been widely abused by the young whenever hard narcotics are difficult to obtain. Withdrawal symptoms are less severe than other drugs. 3. Paregoric – a tincture of opium in combination with camphor. Commonly used as a household remedy for diarrhea and abdominal pain. 4. Demerol and Methadone – common synthetic drugs with morphine – like effects. Demerol is widely used as a painkiller in childbirth while methadone is the drug of choice in the withdrawal treatment of heroin dependents since it relieves the physical craving for heroin. 5. Barbiturates – are drugs used for inducing sleep in persons plagued with anxiety, mental stress, and insomnia. They are also of value in the treatment of epilepsy and hypertension. They are available in capsules, pills or tablets, and taken orally or injected. 6. Seconal – commonly used among hospitality girls. Sudden withdrawal from these drugs is even more dangerous than opiate withdrawal. The dependent develops generalized convulsions and delirium, which are frequently associated with heart and respiratory failure. 7. Tranquilizers – are drugs that calm and relax and diminish anxiety. They are used in the treatment of nervous states and some mental disorders without producing sleep. 8. Volatile Solvents – gaseous substances popularly known to abusers as “gas”, “teardrops”. Examples are plastic glues, hair spray, finger nail polish, lighter fluid, rugby, paint, thinner, acetone, turpentine gasoline, kerosene, varnishes and other aerosol products. They are inhaled by the use plastic bags, handkerchief or rags soaked in these chemicals. 9. Alcohol – the king of all drugs with potential for abuse. Most widely used, socially accepted and most extensively legalized drug throughout the

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC world. In the field of medicine, it is “valuable” as disinfectant, as an external remedy for reducing high fever among children, and as preservative and solvent for pharmaceutical preparations like elixirs, spirits and tincture.

The Stimulants (Uppers) They produce effects opposite to that of depressants. Instead of bringing about relaxation and sleep, they produce increased mental alertness, wakefulness, reduce hunger, and provide a feeling of well being. Their medical users include narcolepsy – a condition characterized by an overwhelming desire to sleep. Abrupt withdrawal of the drug from the heavy abuser can result in a deep and suicidal depression. 1. 2. 3. 2.


Amphetamines – used medically for weight reducing in obesity, relief of mild depression and treatment Cocaine – taken orally, injected or sniffed as to achieve euphoria or an intense feeling of “highness”. Caffeine – it is present in coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks, and some wake-up pills. Shabu/ “poor man’s cocaine” – chemically known as methamphetamine. It is a central nervous system stimulant and sometimes called “upper” or “speed”. It is white, colorless crystal or crystalline powder with a bitter numbing taste. It can be taken orally, inhaled (snorted), sniffed (chasing the dragon) or injected. Nicotine – an active component in tobacco, which acts as a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system. A drop of pure nicotine can easily kill a person.

The Hallucinogens (Psychedelic) Consists of a variety of mind-altering drugs, which distort reality, thinking and perceptions of time, sound, space and sensation. The user experiences hallucination (false perception), which at times can be strange. His “trips” may be exhilarating or terrifying good or bad. They may dislocate his consciousness and change his mood, thinking and concept of self. 1. Marijuana – It is the most commonly abused hallucinogen in the Philippines because it can be grown extensively in the country. Many users Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)







Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC choose to smoke marijuana for relaxation in the same way people drink beer or cocktail at the end of the day. The effects of marijuana include a feeling of grandeur. It can also produce the opposite effect, a dreamy sensation of time seeming to stretch out. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) – This drug is the most powerful of the psychedelics obtained from ergot, a fungus that attacks rye kernels. LSD is 1, 000 times more powerful than marijuana as supply, large enough for a trip can be taken from the glue on the flab of an envelope, from the paste of a postage stamp, or from the hidden areas inside one’s clothes. LSD causes perceptual changes so that the user sees colors, shapes, or objects more intensely than normal and may have hallucinations of things that are not real. To him real objects seem to change, buildings seem to be crackling open, and walls pulsating. He experiences frequent bizarre hallucinations, loss spatial perceptions, personality diffusion and changes in values. Usually, users perceive distortion of time, colors, sounds and depth. They experience “scent” music and sounds in “colors”. Peyote – Peyote is derived from the surface part of a small gray brown cactus. Peyote emits a nauseating odor and its user suffers from nausea. This drug causes no physical dependence and, therefore, no withdrawal symptoms, although in some cases psychological dependence has been noted. Mescaline – It is the alkaloid hallucinogen extracted from the peyote cactus and can also be synthesized in the laboratory. It produces less nausea than peyote and shows effects resembling those of LSD although milder in nature. One to two hours after the drug is taken in a liquid or powder form, delusions begin to occur. Optical hallucinations follow one upon another in rapid succession. These are accompanied by imperfect coordination and perception with a sensation of impeded motion, and a marked sense that time is still standing. Mescaline does not cause physical dependence. STP – It is a take-off on the motor oil additive. It is a chemical derivative of mescaline claimed to produce more violent and longer effects than mescaline dose. Its effects are similar to the nerve gas used in chemical warfare. It is less potent than LSD although its effects are similar

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC to those of psychedelics. 6. Psilocybin – This hallucinogenic alkaloid from small Mexican mushrooms are used by Mexican Indians today. These mushrooms induced nausea, muscular relaxation, mood changes with visions of bright colors and shapes, and other hallucinations. These effects may last for four to five hours and later may be followed by depressions, laziness, and complete loss of time and space perceptions. 7. Morning Glory Seeds – The black and brown seeds of the wild tropical morning glory that are used to produce hallucinations. The seeds are ground into flour, soaked in cold water, then strained though a cloth and drunk. They are sold under the names of “heavenly blues”, “flying dancers’, and “pearly gates”. The active ingredient in the seed is similar to LSD although less potent. The reactions are likened to those resulting from LSD. Prolonged psychosis is also one of its effects.

COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS Drugs that are commonly abused depending on their pharmacological effects may be classified into: 1. Sedatives – drugs which reduce anxiety and excitement such as barbiturates, non-barbiturates, tranquilizers and alcohol. 2. Stimulants – drugs which increase alertness and activity such as amphetamines, cocaine and caffeine. 3. Hallucinogens/Psychedelics – drugs which affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness and emotion. Changes in time and space perception, delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations) may be mild or overwhelming, dispensing on dose and quality of the drug. This includes LSD, mescaline and marijuana. 4. Narcotics – drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep. The opiates, which are narcotics, include opium and drugs derived from opium, such as morphine, codeine and heroin. THE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE 1. PHYSICAL EFFECTS a. Malnutrition – The life of an addict revolves around drug use. He misses even his regular meals. He losses appetite and eventually develops malnutrition. Likewise, the drug dependent who has Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC tried on his own to withdraw may suffer from severe gastrointestinal disturbance that results to severe dehydration.

b. Skin Infections and Skin Rashes - Oftentimes the drug abuser neglects his personal hygiene, uses unsterilized needles and syringes that result in skin infections or even ulceration at the sites of the needle puncture. Skin rashes may even occur as a side effect or sensitivity reaction to certain drugs of abuse. Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, viral hepatitis, sequelae of drug abuse. Marijuana smoking can produce physical conditions like chronic bronchitis and asthma. Physically ill persons, like a tuberculosis individual who has suffered so much from his illness may resort to drug taking as a temporary measure for relief. A drug abuser, because of his use of unsterilized paraphernalia, tends to develop lowered resistance and becomes susceptible to various infections, among them are viral hepatitis, and HIV infections/AIDS. An individual suffering from arthritis or terminal cancer who experiences acute, unbearable pains and insomnia is likely to become a drug dependent to opiates or sedatives. 2. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS a. Deterioration of personality with impaired emotional maturation. b. Impairment of adequate mental function. c. Loss of drive and ambition. d. Development of psychosis and depression. e. Loss of interest to study. f. Laziness, lethargy, boredom and restlessness. g. Irritability, rebellious attitude. h. Withdrawn forgetfulness. 3. SOCIAL EFFECTS a. Deterioration of interpersonal relationship and development of conflict with authority. b. Leads to crime. c. Social maladjustment; loss of desire to work, study and participate in activities or to face challenges. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

4. MENTAL EFFECTS a. Adverse effect on the central nervous system. Regular use or injection of large doses of a substance reduces the activity of the brain and depresses the central nervous system. The drug dependent then manifests changes in his mind and behavior that are undesirable by people in his environment. b. Deterioration of the mind. The dependent is a “mental invalid” in the sense that drugs can manipulate him, make him lose his power, and prod him to behave contrary to what he usually think is right. These drugs are essentially reality modifiers, which create a masked sense of well being by either dulling or distorting sensory perceptions and providing a temporary means of escape from personal difficulties, either real or imaginary. They can reduce or accelerate activity to create indifference, depressive mood, or carelessness. As a result, the abuser’s mind deteriorates gradually. In other instances, he abruptly loses interest and motivation in the pursuit of achievement and constructive goals. Instead of providing him relaxation and escape from discomfort, drug, alcohol and tranquilizers may blur his attempts to come to terms with reality. His character becomes weak and inadequate in coping with his problems. 5. ECONOMIC EFFECTS a. Inability to hold stable job. It is impossible for a drug abuser to hold a steady job since he spends all his time and money on drugs. If he does not have a regular job, he and his friends steal to raise money. If he has one, he would be unable to concentrate since he would be either overstimulated or lazy and drowsy.

b. Dependence on family resources. Instead



Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



economic 51

CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC stability of the family, a dependent becomes an economic burden. Besides depending on the family for his basic necessities, he also has to rely on the family resources to provide him money for the support of his expensive habit. c. Accidents in industry. In a state of agitation or dullness of the mind as a result of the drug he has taken, the dependent becomes careless and loses concentration on his job. Consequently, an accident may occur which may adversely affect both drug abuser and his coworkers. SYMPTOMS OF ABUSE ON THE DANGEROUS DRUGS COMMON EFFECTS/SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ABUSE Effects Changes the eyes

Downers (depressants) in Pupils constricted

Uppers (stimulants) Dilated

Psychedelics (hallucinogen s) Marijuana – no change in pupils but the conjunctivae are red because of dilation of the vessels of the eyes. Other hallucinogens – pupils are dilated. None

Locomotive changes





Underproductive, Undertalkative None



Talkative, None Loquacious with flight of ideas None Present usually in visual field Usually Sometimes encountered encountered High Usually no change

Vital i.e.

signs Low

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

1. DEPRESSANTS a. Narcotics 1. lethargy, drowsiness 2. pupils are constricted and fail to respond to light 3. inhaling heroin in powder form leaves traces of white powder around nostrils causing redness 4. injecting heroin leaves scars, usually on the inner surface of the arms and elbows although user may inject drug in the body where needle marks will not be seen readily 5. user often leaves syringes, bent spoons, bottle caps, eye droppers, cotton and needles in lockers at school or hidden at home 6. user scratches self frequently 7. loss if appetite 8. sniffles, running nose, red watery eyes, coughing which disappears when user gets a “fix” b. Barbiturates/Tranquilizers 1. symptoms of alcohol intoxication without odor or alcohol on breath 2. staggering or stumbling 3. falling asleep unexplainably 4. drowsiness, may appear disoriented 5. lack of interest in school and family activities c. Volatile Solvents 1. 2. 3. 4.

odor of substance on breath and clothes excessive nasal secretions, watering of eyes poor muscular control increased preference for being with a group rather than being alone 5. plastic or paper bags or rags, containing dry plastic cement or other solvent, found at home or in locker at school or at work Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 6. slurred speech

2. STIMULANTS a. Amphetamines/Cocaine/Speed/Bunnies/Ups 1. pupils may be dilated 2. mouth and nose dry, bad breath; licks lips frequently 3. goes long periods without eating or sleeping; nervous; has difficulty sitting still 4. chain smoking 5. if injecting drug, user may have hidden eye droppers and needles among possessions b. Shabu 1. produces elevations of mood, heightened alertness and increased energy 2. some individuals may become anxious, irritable or loquacious 3. causes decreased appetite and insomnia 3. HALLUCINOGENS a. Marijuana 1. may appear animated with rapid, loud talking and bursts of laughter 2. sleepy or stuporous 3. pupils are dilated 4. odor(similar to burnt rope) on clothing or breath 5. remnants of marijuana, either loose or in partially smoked “joints” in clothing or possessions b. LSD/STP/DMT/THC 1. user usually sits or reclines quietly in a dream or trance – like state 2. user may become fearful and experience a degree of terror which makes him attempt to escape from his group 3. senses of sight, hearing, touch, body image and time are distorted 4. mood and behavior are affected, the manner depending upon emotional and environmental condition of the user

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS OF THE DANGEROUS DRUGS 1. DEPRESSANTS a. Death due to respiratory arrest. b. In large doses can cause respiratory depression and coma, the combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effect of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks. c. Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drug and show withdrawal symptom shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems may also result. 2. STIMULANTS a. Death due to infections, high blood pressures. b. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. Shabu a. Overdosage leads to chest pains, hypertension, acute psychotic reaction, convulsions and death due to cardiac arrest b. Due to the appetite suppressing effects of shabu, pregnant mother may become malnourished. This may affect the nutritional needs of the baby. c. Babies born to shabu-using women show sever emotional disturbances. 3. HALLUCINOGENS Marijuana a. Can lead to serious mental like insanity, suicidal tendencies b. Poor impulse control. c. Damage to chromosomes, potentially the offspring. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)

changes (psychoses) and/or homicidal hence,




Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

Effects On The Body a. Brain – impairs skills for driving cars and operating machinery, interferes with memory, and intellect. b. Eyes – lowers pressure inside eye ball c. Heart – raises heart rate, potentially hazardous to heart patients d. Lungs – impairs lung functions e. Reproductive Organ – decreases sex hormones and sperm production in males f. Immune System – impairs immunity of the body against infection and cancer APPROACHES TO THE DRUG PROBLEM The present nature and extent of drug abuse and misuse among the youth constitutes one of the gravest health problems facing the nation and the world today. Public concern about drug abuse is focused not only on drugs that can be abused but also on the individual who misuses them. Today, there are many measures undertaken by both the private and the government sectors in the fight against drug abuse as a disease of society. This includes the major approaches as follows: A. B. C. D.

The The The The

Law Enforcement Approach Treatment and Rehabilitation Approach Educational Approach International Efforts Against Drug Abuse

THE LAW ENFORCEMENT APPROACH The Philippine government considers drug abuse as a multi-faceted problem that threatens the health and well being of the Filipinos across all levels of society. The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 or Republic Act No. 9165 was enacted to add more teeth on the government response to the ongoing problem on drug abuse in the country. This is the major arm of the government in its law enforcement approaches that derived from the supply and demand reduction strategies. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9165: Important Features R.A. 9165 – COMPREHENSIVE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT OF 2002 (Approved on June 7, 2002 - Effective July 4, 2002) Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

What is Dangerous Drug under this law? Includes those listed in the schedules annexed to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the schedules annexed to the 1971 Single Convention on Psychotropic Substances (Art 1, Sec. 3). Ex. MMDA – Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Tetrahydrocannabinol (MJ); Mescaline (Peyote) What are Chemicals?





(Ecstacy), Essential

Include those listed in Tables I and II of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotrophic Substances (Art 1, Sec 3) Ex. Table 1 – Acetic Anhydride, NAcetyl Anthranilic Acid, Epedrine, Ergometrine, Lysergic Acid Table 2 – Acetone, Ethyl Ether, Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, etc. NOTE: Under RA 6425 (Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972), Dangerous drugs refers to the Prohibited drugs, Regulated drugs and Volatile substances. Prohibited Drugs – ex. Opium and its derivatives, Cocaine and its derivatives, Hallucinogen drugs like MJ, LSD, and Mescaline Regulated drugs – ex. Barbiturates, Amphetamines, Tranquillizers Volatile Substances – ex. rugby, paints, thinner, glue, gasoline Table 8. What are the Unlawful Acts and Penalties? Penalty Unlawful Acts Importation of Dangerous drugs Life Imprisonment to and/or Controlled Precursors and Death and a fine Essential Chemicals (sec. 4) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million Sale, Trading, Administration, Life Imprisonment to Dispensation, Delivery, Death and a fine Distribution and transportation of ranging from P500, 000 Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled to P10 Million Precursors and Essential Chemicals Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC (sec. 5) Maintenance of a Den, Dive or Life Imprisonment to Resort where dangerous drugs are Death and a fine used or sold in any form (sec. 6) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million Being an employee or visitor of a Imprisonment ranging den, dive or resort (sec. 7) from 12 yrs and 1 day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from P100, 000 to P500, 000. Manufacture of dangerous Drugs Life Imprisonment to and/or Controlled Precursors and Death and a fine Essential Chemicals (sec. 8) ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million Illegal Chemical Diversion of Imprisonment ranging Controlled Precursors and Essential from 12 yrs and 1 day Chemicals (sec. 9) to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from P100, 000 to P500, 000. Manufacture or Delivery of Imprisonment ranging Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus from 12 yrs and 1 day and other Paraphernalia for to 20 yrs and a fine Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled ranging from P100, 000 Precursors and Essential Chemicals to P500, 000. (sec. 10) Possession of Dangerous Drugs Life Imprisonment to (sec. 11) Death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to P10 Million Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs (sec. 12)

Imprisonment ranging from 6 mos and 1 day to 4 yrs and a fine ranging from P10, 000 to P50, 000 Possession of dangerous Drugs The maximum penalties during Parties, Social Gatherings provided for Sec. 11. or Meetings (sec. 13), and Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 14) Use of Dangerous Drugs (sec. 15) Minimum 6 mos rehabilitation (1st offense), Imprisonment ranging from 6 yrs and 1 day to 12 yrs and a fine ranging from P50,000 to Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC P200, 000 (2nd Offense)

NOTE: Section 15 shall not be applicable where the person tested is also found to have in his/her possession such quantity of any dangerous drug provided in sec.11, in which case the penalty provided in sec. 11 shall apply. Cultivation of Plants classified Life Imprisonment to as dangerous drugs or are sources Death and a fine ranging thereof (sec. 16) from P500, 000 to P10 Million Failure to comply with the Imprisonment ranging maintenance and keeping of the from 1 yr and 1 day to 6 original records of transaction on yrs and a fine ranging any dangerous drugs and/or from P10, 000 to P50, controlled precursors and 000 Essential Chemicals on the part of Plus revocation of practioners, manufacturers, license to practice wholesalers, importers, profession. distributors, dealers, or retailers (sec. 17) Unnecessary Prescription of Imprisonment ranging Dangerous Drugs (sec. 18) from 12 yrs and 1 day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from P100, 000 to P500, 000. Plus revocation of license to practice profession Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Life imprisonment to Drugs (sec.19) Death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to 10 Million pesos NOTE: The Possession of Dangerous drugs in the following quantities, regardless of degree of purity: 10 grams or more of opium; morphine; heroin; cocaine; MJ resin; 10 grams or more of MMDA, LSD and similar dangerous drugs; 50 grams or more of “shabu”/ Methamphetamine Hydrochloride; 500 grams or more of Marijuana. If the quantity involved is less than the foregoing, the penalties shall be graduated as follows: 1. Life imprisonment and a fine ranging from P400, 000 to P500, 000 if “shabu” is 10 grams or more but less than Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 50 grams;

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

2. Imprisonment of 20 yrs and 1 day to Life imprisonment and a fine ranging from P400, 000 to P500, 000 if the quantities of dangerous drugs are 5 grams or more but less than 10 grams of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, mj resin, shabu, MMDA, and 300 grams or more but less than 500 grams of marijuana 3. Imprisonment of 12 yrs and 1 day to 20 yrs and a fine ranging from P300, 000 to P400, 000 if the quantities of dangerous drugs are less than 5 grams of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, mj resin, shabu, MMDA, and less than 300 grams of marijuana. The Unlawful Acts Punishable by Death Penalty (Prior to the abolition of Death Penalty) 1. Importation or bringing into the Philippines of dangerous drugs using diplomatic passport or facilities or any means involving his/her official status to facilitate unlawful entry of the same (sec 4, Art II). 2. Upon any person who organizes, manages or acts as “financiers” of any of the activities involving dangerous drugs (sec 4, 5, 6, 8 Art II). 3. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals with in 100 meters from the school (sec 5, Art II). 4. Drugs pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers and messengers or in any other capacity directly connected to the dangerous drug trade (sec 5, Art II). 5. If the victim of the offense is a minor or mentally incapacitated individual, or should a dangerous drug and/or controlled precursors and essential chemical involved in the offense be the proximate cause of death of the victim (sec 5, Art II). 6. When dangerous drug is administered, delivered or sold to a minor who is allowed to use the same in such a place (sec 6, Art II). 7. Upon any person who uses a minor or mentally incapacitated individual to deliver equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs (sec. 10, Art II). 8. Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 13), and Possession of Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings (sec. 14) What is the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB)? The DDB is the policy-making body and strategy-making body in the planning and formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and control. (under the Office of the President) (sec. 77, Art IX) Composition: 17 members (3 as permanent, 12 as exofficio, 2 regular members)(sec. 78, Art IX) 3 permanent members: to be President, one to be the Chairman.




12 ex officio members: Secretary of DOJ, DOH, DND, DOF, DOLE, DILG, DSWD, DFA, and DepEd, Chairman of CHED, NYC, and the Dir.Gen of PDEA. 2 regular members: President of the IBP, and the Pres/Chaiman of an NGO involved in a dangerous drug campaign to be appointed by the President. The NBI Director the Chief of the PNP – permanent consultant of the Board. What are the Powers and Duties of the DDB? (sec. 81, Art IX) 1. Formulation of Drug Prevention and Control Strategy, 2. Promulgation of Rules and Regulation to carry out the purposes of this Act, 3. Conduct policy studies and researches, 4. Develop educational programs and info drive, 5. Conduct continuing seminars and consultations, 6. Design special training, 7. Coordination with agencies for community service programs, 8. Maintain international networking. What is the PDEA? PDEA means Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. It is the implementing arm of the DDB and responsible for the efficient and effective law enforcement of all the provisions on any dangerous drugs Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC and/ or precursors and essential chemicals. Head: Director General – appointed by the President Assisted By: 2 Deputies Director General (one for Admin, another for Opns) – appointed by the President (sec. 82, Art IX). PDEA Operating Units: It absorbed the NDLE-PCC (created under E.O. 61), NARCOM of the PNP, Narcotics Division of the NBI, and the Customs Narcotics Interdiction Unit (sec. 86, Art IX). What are the Powers and Functions of the PDEA? (sec. 84, Art IX) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Cause the effective and efficient implementation of the national drug control strategy, Enforcement of the provisions of Art II of this Act, Undertake investigation, make arrest and apprehension of violators and seizure and confiscation of dangerous drugs, Establish forensic laboratories, Filing of appropriate drug cases, Conduct eradication programs, Maintain a national drug intelligence system, Close coordination with local and international drug agencies.

Other Features of R.A 9165 1. In the revised law, importation of any illegal drug, regardless of quantity and purity or any part therefrom even for floral, decorative and culinary purposes is punishable with life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to P10 million. 2. The trading, administration, dispensation, delivery, distribution, and transportation of dangerous drugs is also punishable by life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to P10 million. 3. Any person who shall sell, trade, administer, dispense, deliver, give away to another or distribute, dispatch in transit or transport any dangerous drugs regardless of quantity and purity shall be punished with life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from P500, 000 to P10 million.  But if the sale, administration, delivery, Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC distribution or transportation of any of these illegal drugs transpires with in 100 meters from any school, the maximum penalty shall be imposed. Pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers, and messengers or in dangerous drug transactions shall also be meted with the maximum penalty. A penalty of 12 yrs to 20 yrs imprisonment shall be imposed on financiers, coddlers, and managers of the illegal activity.

4. The law also penalizes anybody found in possession of any item or paraphernalia used to administer, produce, cultivate, propagate, harvest, compound, convert, process, pack, store, contain or conceal illegal drugs with an imprisonment of 12 yrs to 20 yrs and a fine of P100, 000 to P500, 000. 5. Owners of resorts, dives, establishments, and other places where illegal drugs are administered is deemed liable under this new law, the same shall be confiscated and escheated in favor of the government. 6. Any person who shall be convicted of violation of this new law, regardless of the quantity of the drugs and the penalty imposed by the court shall not be allowed to avail the privilege provisions of the Probation Law (P.D. 968). (sec.58, Art VIII) Filing of charges against a drug dependent for confinement and rehabilitation under voluntary submission program can be made: 1. 2. 3. 4.

second commitment to the center upon recommendation of the DDB may be charge for violation of sec. 15 if convicted – confinement and rehabilitation

Parents, spouse or guardian who refuses to cooperate with the Board or any concerned agency in the treatment and rehabilitation of a drug dependent may be cited for Contempt of Court (sec. 73, Art VIII). Anti-Drug Drives and Operational Concepts The Operational Plans (OPLANS) against the Drug Problem are: Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

1. Oplan Thunderbolt I –operation to create impact to the underworld 2. Oplan Thunderbolt II –operations to neutralize suspected illegal drug laboratories 3. Oplan Thunderbolt III – Operations for the neutralization of big time drug pushers’ drug dealers and drug lords. 4. Oplan Iceberg – Special operations team in selected drug prone areas in order to get rid of illegal drug activities in the area. 5. Oplan Hunter – operations against suspected military and police personnel who are engage in illegal drug activities. 6. Oplan Mercurion – Operations against drug stores, which are violating existing regulations on the scale of regulated drugs in coordination with the DDB, DOH and BFAD. 7. Oplan Tornado – Operations in drug notorious and high profile places. 8. Oplan Greengold – nation wide MJ eradication operations in coordination with the local governments and NGO’s. 9. Oplan Sagip-Yagit – A civic program initiated by NGO’s and local government offices to help eradicate drug syndicates involving street children as drug conduit. 10. Oplan Banat – the newest operational plan against drug abuse focused in the barangay level in cooperation with barangay officials. 11. Oplan Athena – operation conducted to neutralize the 14k, the Bamboo gang and other local organized crimes groups involved in illegal drug trafficking. 12. Oplan Cyclops – operations against Chinese triad members involved in the illegal drug operations particularly Methamphetamine Hydrocloride. In the conduct of anti-drug following must be strictly considered:



1. Respect for Human Rights (Sec. 11, Art. 2, Phil. Constitution) 2. Respect for right of the people to due process and equal protection (Sec. 1, Art. 3, Phil. Constitution) 3. Respect of Right of the people against unreasonable search and seizure. (Sec. 2, Art. 3, Phil. Constitution). 4. Respect for right of the people to privacy of communication (Sec. 3, Art. 3, Phil. Constitution). Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 5. Respect for constitutional rights of the accused undergoing custodial investigation (RA 7438), (Sec. 12, Art. 3, Phil. Constitution) 6. Respect for the statutory rights of the accused undergoing custodial investigation under RA 7438. The Principles of Drug Operations are: 1. Knowledge on circumstances on when to use necessary force (Art. 11, Chapter 3, RPC). 2. Knowledge on the statutory provisions on arrest (Rule 113, Rules on Criminal Procedures). 3. Knowledge on the administrative guidelines on arrest, search and seizure. 4. The Miranda Doctrine (384 U.S. 346) 5. Warrantless Search and Search incidental to lawful arrest (Rule 126, Rules on Criminal Procedure). National Campaign Strategies 1. Demand Reduction Strategy a.

Preventive education and information campaigns to prevent further demand of society particularly the youth. b. Treatment and rehabilitation of drug dependents. 2. Supply Reduction Strategy a. b.

Dangerous Drug Law enforcement Judicial and Legislative measures

Operational Plans against the Drug Problem 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Oplan Thunderbolt I – operations to create impact to the underworld. Oplan Thunderbolt II – operations to neutralize suspected illegal drug laboratories. Oplan Thunderbolt III – operations for the neutralization of big time drug pushers, drug dealers and drug lords. Oplan Iceberg – special operations team in selected drug prone areas in order to get rid of illegal drug activities in the area. Oplan Hunter – operations against suspected military and police personnel who are engaged in illegal drug activities. Oplan Mercurio – operations against drug

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC stores, which are violating existing regulations on the scale of regulated drugs in coordination with the DDB/DOH and BFAD. 7. Oplan Tornado – operations in drug notorious and high profile places. 8. Oplan Greengold –nationwide MJ eradication operations in coordination with the local governments and NGO’s. 9. Oplan Sagip-Yagit – A civic program initiated by NGO’s and local government offices to help eradicate drug syndicates involving street children as drug conduits. 10. Oplan Banat – the newest operational plan against drug abuse focused in the barangay level in cooperation with barangay officials. Rules on Narcotics Operations General Rules and Procedures: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Only specially trained and competent drug enforcement personnel shall conduct drug enforcement and prevention operations. All drug enforcement and prevention operations shall be covered by a Pre-Operations report. All steps taken before, during, and after the conduct of the operation must be documented and properly authenticated. Operating units shall promptly submit written a report after the operation. No apprehendee or seized item shall be released without authorization from the duly designated authority. All pieces of evidence confiscated will be deposited with the proper Evidence Custodian for safekeeping and proper handling. Each participating element must be given clear and do-able task.

Coverage of the Rules 1. Coverage: The rules covers the following antinarcotics operations. a. b. c. d. e. f.

Buy-bust Operations Search with warrant MJ Eradication Mobile Check point Operations Airport/Seaport Interdiction Controlled delivery

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC g. Undercover Operations h. Narcotics Investigation 2. Stages of Operations: Phase I – Initial stage  

Planning and preparations which include surveillance, casing, reconnaissance and other preliminary activities. Conduct the operation

Phase II – Action and post-action stage      

Tactical interrogation operation) Post operation Custodial Investigation Prosecution Trial Resolution


Buy-Bust Operations a. Concept: It is a form of entrapment employed by peace officers as an effective way of apprehending a criminal in the act of the commission of the offense. Entrapment has received judicial sanction as long as it is carried with due regard to constitutional and legal safeguards. b. Planning and Preparation: The operation must be preceded by an intensive surveillance, casing, or other intelligence operations and gathering, evaluation and timely dissemination. Intelligence must be evidence-based and shall be supported by documents such as summaries of info, maps, sketches, affidavits and sworn statements. Search For Drug Evidence with Warrant a. Concept: A search warrant is an order in writing issued in the name of the People of the Philippines, signed by a judge and directed to a peace officer, commanding him to search for personal property described therein and bring it before the court. (Sec. 1, Rule 126, Revised Rules of Court) b. Planning and Preparation: Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Prior to the procurement of search warrant, intensive intelligence data gathering must be undertaken, evidence-based and supported by credible documents. Conduct of surveillance, casing, and other intelligence operations. Identification, movement, activities and location of suspects should be established. Search warrant shall be applied with competent court Conduct of Operation Submission of reports

Marijuana Eradication a. Concept: Marijuana eradication involves the location and destruction of marijuana plantations, including the identification, arrest and prosecution of the planter, owner or cultivator, and the escheating of the land where the plantations are located. b. Planning and Preparation: The planning and operation shall be preceded by intelligence gathering to verify the existence of marijuana plantation and the existence to be supported by documentary evidence such as summary of information, maps, sketches, photographs and others. The intelligence gathering must be appropriately documented by pre-operations orders and after-casing reports. c.

Conduct of Operation: 1. Briefing, rehearsals, and proper formations. 2. Exact location of the plantation must be established. 3. Identify owner of the land or the cultivators. 4. Coordination with other operating units in the area. 5. Barangay eradication team should be organized. 6. Strict compliance with SOPs under Rules of Opns.

Mobile Checkpoint Operations a. Concept: No other forms of checkpoints other than mobile checkpoints are authorized for drug enforcement and prevention operations. They shall be established only in conjunction with on-going operations/situation or when there is a need to arrest a criminal. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

b. Planning and Operation: Intensive intelligence gathering supported by credible documents, with proper pre-operations orders and after surveillance or after casing reports. c. Conduct of Operations shall be in consonance with the existing SOPs on checkpoint operations. Airport and Seaport Interdiction a. Concept: Airport and seaport interdiction involves the conduct of surveillance, interception and interdiction of persons and evidence during travel by air or sea vessels. b. Planning and Operation: Intensive intelligence gathering supported by credible documents, with proper pre-operations orders and after surveillance or after casing reports. c. Conduct of Operations 1. Coordination with authorities. 2. Operations shall be existing SOPs on checks/operations.




in consonance with the airport and seaport

Controlled Delivery a. Concept: This is the technique of allowing illicit or suspect consignment of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or substances substituted for them to pass out of, through or into the territory of one or more countries, with the knowledge and under the supervision of their competent authorities with a view to identifying persons involved in the commission of drug related offenses. International cooperation in facilitating the controlled delivery of illicit drugs is considered the most effective means to neutralize transnational criminal syndicates. b. Planning and Operation: Intensive intelligence gathering and evaluation to determine the applicability of controlled delivery operations. It must be supported by credible documents, with proper pre-operations orders and after surveillance or Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. after casing reports. A committee or board constituted to study the project proposal suitable employment of a controlled operation.

Diso, RC shall be for the delivery

c. Conduct of Operations 1. Proper formation for accounting of personnel 2. Coordination with airport, seaport and other travel agency authorities. 3. Operations shall be in consonance with the existing SOPs on controlled delivery operations. Undercover Operations a. Concept: Undercover operation is an investigative technique in which the personnel involve assumes different identities in order to obtain the necessary information. This technique may also be considered as a method of surveillance. b. Planning and Operation: Undercover operations shall be resorted to only under circumstances where evidence can be hardly obtained in an open investigation or when an open investigation is unsuccessful. c. Conduct of Operations 1. Proper briefing and rehearsals. 2. Identification of effective cover and undercover. 3. Buy-bust or search with warrant operations. 4. Operations shall be in consonance with the existing SOPs on Undercover operations. Narcotic Investigation a. Concept: Narcotic investigation is a necessary tool employed by drug enforcement agencies in building up relevant and competent evidence, which are vital in the development of a drug case. Several investigative techniques may be utilized for the successful attainment of the operation. This include but not limited to use of informants, interviewing, interrogation, surveillance operations and undercover operations. b. Planning and Operation: The most effective way of Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC investigative technique or combination of two or more or all techniques under a given situation and setting that shall be determined by considering the magnitude of drug law violations. c. The conduct of investigation shall follow the basic steps in criminal investigation and detection. The application of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Initial Investigation Tactical Investigation (Follow-up) Post Operations Custodial Investigations After Investigation and Inquest

d. Prosecution and filing of the case e. Trial of the case

THE TREATMENT AND REHABILTITATION APPROACH A. Assisting the Drug Abuser 1. Treatment - the medical service rendered to a client for the effective management of physical and mental conditions related to drug abuse. Aims of treatment a. To prevent death from overdose. b. To treat complications following drug dependency. c. To make them comfortable during the withdrawal period. d. To encourage confirmed drug dependent clients to undergo rehabilitation and other specialized services. Detoxification - it is a medically supervised elimination of drugs from the system of any addicted person. Methods of Detoxification includes: 1. Cold Turkey 2. Substitution – the use of methodex, catapres, haemasin, dextropropoxyphene, tranquilizer, etc. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 3. Reduction Method – using the same drug to which the patient is dependent. The process could be gradual or rapid. 4. Acupuncture

2. Rehabilitation - the dynamic process directed towards the physical, emotional/psychological, vocational, social and spiritual change to prepare a person for the fullest life compatible with his capabilities and potentialities, and render him able to become a law abiding and productive member of the community without abusing drugs. Objectives: To restore an individual to a state where he is physically, psychologically and socially capable of coping with the same problems as others of his age group and able to avail of the opportunity to live a happy, useful and productive life without abusing drugs. Modalities: a. b. c. d. e. f.

Multi-disciplinary Team Approach Therapeutic Community Approach Primal Scream Therapy Spiritual Approach Eclectic Approach The 12 Steps of AA/NA

Methods of Rehabilitation 1. Psychotherapeutic Methods a. Individual Therapy – This involves a one to one relationship whose aim is to help the patient reduce his drug abusing behavior and develop insight into his condition. b. Group Therapy – This is a form of therapy where the individual is helped through group process. Each member of the group receives immediate feedback from the other members regarding his verbal and other forms of behavior. Group support and encouragement are given to the subject on the premise that these are effective devices, which can produce positive results toward behavioral modification. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC c. Unstructured Group Therapy – The role of the therapist can be assumed by the entire group or group members. In the therapeutic community, group therapy is commonly used, among others, through (a) group encounter, (b) verbal haircut (tongue lashing reprimand), (c) group games, and (d) family encounters. The Family Therapy – This form of intervention is based on recognition that while the family as a primary social unit, can be a source of problem leading to drug abuse, can also be a powerful factor in improving the behavior of the drug dependent. Family therapy may include restructuring of the family, environmental manipulation, strengthening family communication, and discovering other means of family communication, and discovering potentials of family members to help facilitate the rehabilitation of the drug dependent.

2. The Spiritual and Religious Means - development of moral and spiritual values of the user. 3. The Follow-up and After – Care The process of rehabilitation does not end upon the release or discharge of client from a center. After his discharge, he has to undergo follow-up and after-care services for a period of not more than 18 months by the appropriate center personnel. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) are deputized agents of the board to handle this. A Transfer Summary of the case from the rehabilitation facility is necessary and should be forwarded to the entity undertaking the follow-up and after-care services. The Social Worker of the receiving entity assigned to the case shall maintain a close contact with the client, family, the accredited physician attending to the case, and the police, for the purpose of assisting the client maintain his progress towards adjusting to his new environment. He shall also Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC see to it that a regular laboratory examination of the client’s body fluids is made to ensure that the client remains drug-free.

Duration of Rehabilitation - If the patient is found to be an opiate abuser, the treatment prescribed shall be for a period of not less than six (6) months. Criteria of Rehabilitation a. b. c. d.

The patient achieves a drug-free existence. He becomes adjusted to his family and peers. Socially integrated to the community. The client is not involved in socially deviant behaviors.

B. DIAGNOSTIC GUIDELINES A definite diagnosis of dependence should only be made if three or more of the following have been experienced or exhibited at some time during the previous year. 1. A strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance. 2. An impaired capacity to control substance-taking behavior in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use. 3. Substance used with the intention of relieving withdrawal symptoms and with awareness that this strategy is effective. 4. A psychological withdrawal state. 5. Evidence of tolerance such that increased doses of the substance is required in order to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses. (Clear examples of this are found in alcohol and opiate dependent individuals who may tale daily doses of the substance sufficient to incapacitate or kill non-tolerant users). 6. A narrowing of the personal repertoire of patterns of substance use (e.g. tendency to drink alcoholic drinks in the same way on weekdays and weekends and whatever the social constraints regarding appropriate drinking behavior). 7. Progressive neglect of alternative pressures or interests in favor of substance use. 8. Persisting with substance use despite clear evidence of overtly harmful consequences. (Adverse consequences may be medical as with harm to the liver through excessive drinking, social as in the Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC case of loss of a job through drug-related impairment of performance, or psychological as in the case of depressive mood states consequent to periods of heavy substance use).

THE EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES Drug Abuse Prevention Education Drug abuse prevention education is concerned with bringing about changes in the people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices towards drug abuse. It utilizes a variety of approaches and methods whereby people go through teaching-learning process, and which may be planned, implemented and evaluated through the barangay organized groups and other organizations and agencies in the community. There are six known strategies prevention, which are the following:




1. Drug Education – learning situations during seminar-workshops, symposiums and lecture forums, which take up values clarification, leadership training, coping skills and decision-making. It is a movement, which utilizes humanistic techniques in both school-based and community oriented drug abuse prevention programs. 2. Drug Information – it is an activity, which focused on the dissemination of basic facts of the causes and effects of drug abuse with the objective of creating awareness and vigilance of the people in the community. It includes activities:





a. Youth-Adult Communication - parent-youth dialogues - family encounters b. Info-Oriented Classroom/Community Activities - Contest in the school/community – essay, slogans, posters, cartoon, play writing. c. Broadcast Media: TV/Radio or Printed - plugs, films, slides, spot announcement, music programming, newsletter, comics, leaflets/brochures, Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC magazines, other publications.

3. Alternatives – this includes a number of ideas for stimulating meaningful involvements for the youth that can compete successfully with the demands of drugs and alcohol. Primarily the emphasis should be on service or constructive and productive pursuits and recreational activities that are usually community-based such as: a. Voluntary service works b. Income producing activities c. Sports, arts development: theater – choral/dance groups d. Community fair/contest e. Other recreational activities: development of physical, emotional interpersonal, mentalintellectual, social, spiritual, and all aspects of behavioral development. 4. Interventions – this strategy is applied to experimenters and potential drug abusers. Activities like peer or group counseling should be encouraged in every community. It is applied to the individual/group, which needs specific assistance and support. The techniques intervention are: a. b. c. d.





Peer counseling Hot lines Cross-age tutoring New peer group creation

B. Peer and Cross-age Tutoring and Counseling Peer and cross-age tutoring and counseling enable the person/student to assume adult and mature roles, to become actively involved in their own learning and in other’s learning and to take on a “real world” responsibility. It can provide a meaningful “work” in the school setting to the students who might otherwise suffer from low self-esteem and a general lack of involvement with school or cross-age tutoring and counseling programs. The program is focused on: a. Life Career Planning – the preparation towards a comprehensive career education helps young people to make the right choices. b. Parenting and Family Communication – activities Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC that fosters better understanding and wholesome family relationship.

C. Effective Techniques and Learning Activities 1. Values Formation or Development – the articulation of personal values. Its process includes choosing from alternatives and repeatedly and consistently acted upon. 2. Role Playing – a technique used to help students identify more closely with historical figures or characters in literature, which will help them at sensing problems and testing solutions with out taking any great risk. 3. Decision Making and Problem solving – techniques using conflict resolutions focused on group problems, which help the students in identifying possible alternatives to solve the problem. 4. Individual Contact – the basic principles in working with an individual with the emphasis of making him feel at ease, involving him by asking questions, supplying with the necessary information and arriving at a decision that will end to action. It is carried out by: a. person-to-person relationship or individual counseling b. House/Office visits c. Telephone calls or by letters d. Information conversation or dialogues 5. Small Group Approach – involves contact with a number of people assembled in isolated group or in one of a series of related groups. This technique can be carried out by: a. Lecture – one way discussion b. Small group discussion –mutual interchange of ideas or opinions between the small group c. Symposium – group of talks, speeches or lectures presented by several individuals on various phases of a single subject. d. Panel Discussion – discussion before an audience by a selected group of persons expressing a variety of view points under a moderator e. The Buzz Session – the count off procedure f. Seminars, simulation games, debate, field trips 6. Community Approach – this involves working together about their common problems, identify Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC these and implement the kind of action patterns for the solution of the problems. This technique can be carried out by: a. Community assemblies and barangay fairs b. Sport festivals or on test in the community c. Church related activities INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION APPROACH The UNDCP The United Nation International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) was established in 1991 pursuant to General assembly Resolution 45/179 of 21 December 1990. The UNDCP is mandated exclusive responsibility Drug Control activities actions, coordination, activities in the United

by the General Assembly with the leadership for all United Nation in order to ensure coherence of and non-duplication of such Nation System.

The UNDCP assists government in fulfilling their obligation under the existing regulatory structures so that they can become parties to these conventions. The UNDCP Resources for Operations The financial resources come from the regular budget of the United Nation and voluntary contributions of the U.N members. UNDCP in SEA UNDCP is created in the different field offices in Laos and Burma (Myanmar), which handles national programs while Thailand, handles Regional programs. Master Plan Approach This involves encouraging and assisting governments in undertaking a thorough analysis of drug problems with in a country or region, the identification and assessment of all anti-narcotics intervention undertaken and planned. It also involves the identification of needs for new projects and activities. Measures Undertaken in SEA 1. Enhancement of Capital Punishment 2. ASIAN Drug Official group meetings/Conventions against Drug Abuse Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 3. Instant Urine Test Machine 4. Denial of Passport on all drug offenders upon released from prison 5. Use of Narcotic Drug Detector 6. ASEAN Cooperation on against Drug Trafficking Drug Outlook in the ASEAN Countries (Major Contributors) 1. Thailand – the training center for: a. undercover operations b. investigations c. informant handling d. surveillance e. other enforcement techniques 2. Philippines - the adoption of the Drug Demand Reduction Strategy and Supply Reduction Strategy. The Drug Supply strategy is carried out by the conduct of anti- narcotics operations (raids on plantations, laboratories, etc); arrest, search and seizure; surveillance and other intelligence operations; legislative and judicial measures. The Demand Reduction strategy is carried out by the conduct of information and educational drives and the treatment or rehabilitation of drug addicts.

3. Malaysia - The Asian treatment and rehabilitation training center is sponsored by the International Labor Union located in Malaysia. Malaysia then is considered as the training center for treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers in Asia. 4. Singapore - Singapore is responsible in the area of research as part of the Asian anti-narcotic work. The urine test project was adopted with the aim to train chemist from ASEAN members in the techniques of mass urine screening. SOCIETAL ROLE IN DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION Different sectors of society play vital roles in preventing drug abuse. All should exert concerted efforts to fight the spreading tentacles of this menace. A. The Individual The primary role of the individual is to improve his personality and develop traits and characteristics that Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC would help him build-up his self-concept, thereby making himself confident. He should develop strong spiritual and moral values, sharpen his skills in making decisions, and strengthen his will power. He should improve his physical qualities as well as his mental faculties. What a person can do to prevent drug abuse? 1. Maintain good physical and mental health. 2. Use drugs properly. Most drugs are beneficial when used under medical advice. 3. Understand himself. Accept and respect himself for what he is. 4. Develop potentials. Engage in wholesome, productive and satisfying activities. 5. Learn to relate effectively with others. Talk to others regarding problems. 6. Learn to cope with problems and other stresses with out the use of drugs. 7. Seek professional help regarding problems that are hard to cope with. 8. Develop strong moral and spiritual values. B. The Family The Role of Parents Parents are looked upon by their children as models. The parents should: 1. Create a warm and friendly atmosphere in the home. 2. Develop effective means of communication with their children. 3. Understand and accept the children for what they are and not for what they want them to be. 4. Listen to their children, respect for their opinions, and guide them in making decisions. 5. Praise their children for whatever positive achievement they have accomplished no matter how trivial this may seem. 6. Take time to be with their children no matter how busy they are. 7. Strengthen moral and spiritual values. C. The School Next to the home, the school is the child’s next impressive world. Here, the child moves about in a bigger social environment predominantly made up of his peers and teachers. As part of a broader social process for Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC behavior influence, it is said that the school is an extension of the home having the strategic position to control crime and delinquency. It exercises authority over every child as a constituent. The teachers are considered second parents having the responsibility to mold the child to become productive member of the community by devoting energies to study the child behavior using all available scientific means and devices in an attempt to provide each child the kind and amount of education they need. The school take the responsibility of preventing the feeling of insecurity and rejection of the child which can contribute directly to maladjustment and to criminality by setting up objectives of developing the child into a well integrated and useful, law abiding citizens. The school has also the role of working closely with the parents and neighborhood, and other community agencies and organizations to direct the child in the most effective and constructive way. D. The Church The church is also committed to fight against drug abuse. Religion is a positive force for humanitarian task of moral guidance of the youth. It is the social institution with the primary role to strengthen faith and goodness in the community, an influence against crime and delinquency. The church influences people’s behavior with the emphasis on morals and life’s highest spiritual values, the worth and dignity of the individual, and respect for person’s lives and properties, and generate the full power to oppose crime and delinquency. Just like the family and the school, the church is also responsible to cooperate with institutions in the community in dealing with problems of children, delinquents and criminals as regards to the treatment and correction of criminal behaviors. D. The Police The police are one of the most powerful occupation groups in the modern society. The prime mover of the criminal justice system and the number one institution in the community with the broad goals of maintaining peace and order, the protection of life and property, and the enforcement of the laws. The police are the authority having a better position to draw up special programs against drug abuse and crime in general because it is the very reason why the police exist. That is to protect the Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC society against lawless elements since they are the best equipped to detect and identify criminals. The police are the agency most interested about crime and criminals and having the most clearly defined legal power authority to take action against them. E. The Government and the other Components of the CJS The government and the other components of the criminal justice system is the organized authority that enforces the laws of the land and the most powerful in the control of people. Respect for the government is influenced by the respect of the people running the government. When the people see that public officers and employees are the first ones to violate the laws, people will refuse to obey them, they set a bad example for others to follow and create an atmosphere conducive to crime and disrespect for the law. In this regard, the government itself indirectly abets the commission of crimes. F. The Non-Government Organizations The group of concerned individuals responsible for helping the government in the pursuit of community development being partners of providing the common good and welfare of the people through public service. When the government is inefficient and unable to provide the necessary goods and services to the people, these nongovernment organizations are good helpers in providing the required services, thus preventing drug abuse. G. The Mass Media The media is the best institution for information dissemination thereby giving the public the necessary need to know, and do help shape everyday views about drug abuse, its control and prevention.


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Alcohol is colorless, tasteless clear liquid, which gives a burning sensation to the mouth, esophagus and stomach. Like many drugs, alcohol is toxic. It can poison the human body if taken in large amounts or in combination with other drugs. Alcohol is a depressant not stimulant. There are two kinds of alcohol – methyl and ethyl alcohol. Methyl alcohol is ver poisonous and is not put in drinks but is use in some industries. Ethyl alcohol is used in alcoholic drinks, which are made by breweries. This occurs when germs called yeast act on sugars in food to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermented brews and spirits contain different amounts of alcohol. The amount in beer is less than in other drinks. It varies from 2.5% to 8% in different countries. Types of Drinkers 1. Occasional Drinker – drinks on special occasions or uses alcohol as a home remedy, takes only a few drinks per year. 2. Frequent Drinker – drinks at parties and social affairs. Intake of alcohol may be once a week or occasionally reaches three or four times per week, uses beverages to release inhibitions and tensions. 3. Regular Drinker – may drink daily or consistently on weekends, usually comes from cultural background where wine or beer is used with meals to enhance the flavor of the food. 4. Alcohol Dependent – drinks to have good time, excessive drinking occurs occasionally but drinker may not become alcoholic. 5. Alcoholic – has lost control of his use of alcohol. Alcohol assumes primary goal in his life, even to the exclusion of physical health and interests of family and society in general. Motives for Drinking 1. Traditional – social and religious functions. 2. Status – symbol of success and prestige. 3. Dietary – dining incomplete without wine, integral part of today’s way of “gracious living”. 4. Social – release tensions and inhibitions so user can tolerate and enjoy another’s company. 5. Shortcut to Adulthood – user unsure of maturity, drinks to prove himself. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 6. Ritual – fosters group feeling, cocktail parties, toasts made to brides, wishes for good health. 7. Path of least Resistance - doesn’t want to drink but doesn’t want to abstain so goes along with everyone else. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE BODY When a person drinks alcohol, it passes down to the stomach. Here, unlike foods we eat, it does not need to be digested or broken down by juices in the stomach. It is absorbed easily into the blood stream and most of it stays in the blood. While in the blood stream, the alcohol is carried around the body many times as the heart pumps blood through the vessels. The alcohol stays in the blood and can only be passed out of the body when the liver changes it. A healthy liver takes approximately one hour to change the alcohol in one bottle of beer. While the liver is trying to remove the alcohol, the alcohol is having effects on body functions. The Brain and the Nervous System - The nerves are like telephone wires coming out of the control system in the brain and spinal cord. They send and receive messages from all parts of the body. Alcohol slows down the work of the brain cells and stops proper messages being sent to the rest of the body. Alcohol stops people behaving correctly to other people. They may do whatever comes first into their minds. They may say things that do not make sense or behave rudely to others. They may also have feelings of increased personal or social power. This is because their thinking is slowed down and not because it has sparked up. They are less able to cope with situations where drinking is needed. As the level of alcohol becomes higher in the blood, brain and nerve cells die from the poisonous or toxic effects of the alcohol. Unlike other body cells, once a brain cell is destroyed it is never replaced. As more and more of these brain cells are destroyed from repeated drinking over a period of years, the person’s thinking becomes cloudy. His feelings about things also change. He also will get a burning feeling and pain or numbness in his hands and feet from the death of nerve cells. After heavy drinking, and when the pain killing effects of the alcohol are removed, the person may suffer from a hangover. A hangover is the word used to describe the terrible pain and horrible effects, which follow a period of heavy drinking.

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CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Stomach and Intestines - Alcohol damages the stomach and intestines and makes them sore. This can cause a burning sensation, nausea and vomiting. Sometimes there is bleeding. Liver a. The first thing the liver does is to turn part of the alcohol into fat. Some of this goes into the blood, but a lot builds up in the liver cells. After drinking six (6) medium-sized glasses of beer everyday for a few days, fat is formed in the liver. b. To cope with the extra work of getting rid of the alcohol, the liver becomes larger. c. As the liver enlarges, the person gets more used to the effects of alcohol in the body. A person can drink larger amounts of alcohol without getting drunk. This effect is called tolerance to alcohol. However, the alcohol is still doing its damage. d. As the liver enlarges, it changes they way other drugs and medicines work in the body. So it can be dangerous to take medicines with alcohol. e. While the liver enlarges, some of the liver cells are damaged. The liver can become permanently damaged. As the alcohol poisons the cells of the liver, they die. If many of these cells die, the person may get what is called “ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS”. f. Scar tissue is formed where the liver cells die. This means the liver doesn’t work so well. This is called “CIRRHOSIS”. g. People with scarred livers can get a swollen abdomen, swollen feet and hands and may bleeding from inside the body. Waste products build up in the body and give a yellow color to the skin and eyes (jaundice). This also affects the brain so that a person may become unconscious and die. Heart and Muscles - Alcohol affects the heart and other muscles so that they become weaker and less effective. This makes people tired and breathless. Blood - The activity of the liver I trying to get rid of the alcohol results in many changes to the blood – for example – blood sugar is lowered and Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 blood fats are increased.

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

Kidneys - Alcohol decreased the ability kidneys to get rid of some waste products.



Sexual Activities - After the excessive use of alcohol, the ability to have satisfactory sexual activity is decreased. Malnutrition - The illness that occurs when a person doesn’t have enough food to eat or eats the wrong kind of food. The person who drinks alcohol may suffer from malnutrition because: a. He spends his time, money and energy in drinking. He may not eat the proper foods. b. Drinking alcohol decreases a person’s desire to eat. c. Alcohol burns the stomach and bowel so that food eaten is not used well by the body. d. If the liver is damaged, some important vitamins are not produced. Malnutrition in itself causes further liver damage, which makes the condition even worse. The result of all these are that the heavy drinker gets weak because of lack of energy and body building food. His body defenses are weakened against infections such as pneumonia, tropical ulcers and tuberculosis. The person may get severely emotional disturbed. The nerves in his arms or legs may be damaged so that he may not feel what he is touching. He may not walk properly and may keep falling over. Alcohol effect on General Behavior Drinking affects a person’s behavior. Most of the changes are due to the effect of alcohol on the brain and nerves. The effects of alcohol depend on how much there is in the blood. A large person has to drink more than small person to produce the same level of alcohol in the blood. Alcohol Effects on the Community Because drinking affects people’s behavior, it has effects on the community as a whole. a.

Trouble in the Home – Heavy drinkers takes money needed for food, clothes and furniture. This causes debts. Husbands and wife fight and

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CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC accuse each other of being unfaithful. There will be often be sexual problems. Children are badly treated and badly fed. And drinking makes people lazy and they may not go to work. Women may have to steal food to feed their families. b. Trouble among Friends – The heavy drinker will often fight with his friend and may even kill people. c. Trouble at Work – The heavy drinker often does not go to work because he feels sick. He sometimes works badly and hurts himself or others. d. Trouble at Play – Heavy drinkers has a bad effect on sportsmen. Because alcohol affects the brain, the drinker can not control his arms and legs well. A sportsman who has been drinking can not play well as he should. e. Trouble on Roads – The driver has lost his judgement, he is careless and takes risks. Accidents result. A person who is drunk may walk onto the road and be killed by a motor vehicle. f. Trouble with Crime – excessive drinking is the biggest cause of crime. People become aggressive, fight, break into houses and steal. g. Trouble with the Economy and the Nation - The economy is badly affected when people do not go to work and production falls. Heavy demands are made on health services, the police force and correctional institutions. Alcoholism is burden to the government. Alcohol Dependence A person who drinks a lot can become a dependent on alcohol. This means he can not live without it. If he tries to stop drinking, he will have the shivers and shakes and feels very bad. He may also experience acute anxiety or fear, delirium and hallucinations. Prevention of Alcohol Problem Solely treating people with medications can not control problem drinking and alcoholism. Treatment should be coupled with proper education both in the schools and in the adult community to develop the nation habits of moderation in the use of alcoholic beverages. It requires investigation and testing of social policies on the control of the distribution of alcohol as well as the effective implementation of these prevention policies.

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

TOBACCO Facts about Tobacco Smoking The use of tobacco is one of the foremost public health problems in the world today. Tobacco had for centuries been used all over the world as a way of increasing the enjoyment of life or as an aid in coping with some of its problem. The World Health Organization estimates that around the world one person dies every 13 seconds from tobacco-related diseases. Doctor’s cite 50,000 scientific studies from various independent bodies that have proved beyond doubt that smoking is responsible for around 90% of all cases of lung cancer, 95% of all cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and 25% of heart conditions in men under 65 years of age. The World Health Organization Advisory Panel on Smoking and health estimates that at least two million of 30 million Filipinos under 20 years of age today will eventually be killed by smoking. Smoking threatens not only the adults, but also children – born and unborn. The Philippine Obstetrical and Gynecological Society notes that premature in infants of mothers who smoke is three times more common than in mothers. Spontaneous abortion is likewise more common in smoking mothers. Too often, the smoking habit begins in the early teens or even earlier. Becoming a smoker may have the immediate value to some teenagers of being accepted by their peers, feeling more mature because smoking is an adult behavior to the child providing level of psychological stimulation and pleasure and might even serve the function of an cat of defiance to authority figures. General Effect of Tobacco Smoking The effects of tobacco smoking consist primarily of ill-health and of human suffering. These necessarily, too, the productivity of the work force, the need for medical care and other variables. Thus smoking impairs society’s total well-being and posses substantial economic loss to the nation. Properties of Tobacco Cigarette smoke contains over 2,000 different chemicals and gases whixh can produce coughing, broncho spasm, increased mucus secretion. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC NICOTINE – It is the most important active ingredient in controlled doses. It is an extremely toxic substance. A typical cigarette contains 1-2 mg of nicotine. When smoked, less than 1 mg from each cigarette is filtered or not depending on the characteristics of the filter, the depth and frequency of inhalation and the length of the butt. Effects of Smoking on the Following Cardiovascular System

          

Respiratory System

     

Increases in heart attack risk with amount smoke Increases heart rates 15-25 beats with one to two cigarette. Constricts small arteries causing higher blood pressure. Increases chance of developing peripheral vascular diseases. Causes carbon monoxide from smoke to rob oxygen carrying potential of blood. Causes increase of free fatty acids in blood which may be related to heart attack. Increases risks of developing lung cancer ten-fold for the average of one pack a day smoker. Increases lung cancer risk with amount, with length of time smoked and early age starting. Major factor identified in the development of lung cancer Only one in twenty lung cancer victims is saved from death per year Lung cancer deaths slightly exceed traffic deaths per year A major cause of chronic bronchitis Increases risk of

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CDI 5 

Increased Mortality  from other Causes   Over all Morbidity  and Mortality  Reproductive System

 

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC dying of chronic bronchitis and emphysema about six fold. Tends to paralyze bronchial cilia and stimulate production of mucus. Eventually destroys ciliary structure cleansing system predisposing to respiratory infections Increases in abnormal cell growth in bronchial tube walls with increase in basal cell layers and thickening Causes closing of the bronchi, reducing effective breathing space.

Increase cancer of the larynx, the mouth, bladder and the esophagus. Increase in ulcer deaths, death from cirrhosis. Increase in kidney problems. Greater incident of infant prematurity and mortality. Life expectancy is expected to reduce by about 14 minutes per cigarette smoked. Women who smoke during pregnancy increase the risk of still birth and prenatal mortality, and the child physical and intellectual is delayed Women who smoke causes menopause in early age than in normal. Male smokers, penile arteries become constricted bringing about slower erection time, impotence in 1 in 4 heavy smokers versus 1 in 12 nonsmokers. Smoking fathers may beget children who may suffer from brain tumor, leukemia and other abnormalities due to decreased number of spermatozoa.

Measures to Reduce Smoking Government support of demonstrates commitment to the problems related to smoking and attitudes to smoking. Successful

anti-smoking campaign eradication of health public influences and programs to reduce the

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CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC prevalence of tobacco use by young people need a combination of legislative measures and health education including:       

prohibition of sales in minor prohibition of smoking in schools and other places frequented by the young restriction on advertising and promotion of tobacco products especially those aimed at young people health education at both primary and secondary levels of schools use of fiscal policies to increase the price of tobacco products health warnings on cigarette packets Collaboration with the media to deglamorize the image of the smoker.

NARCOTIC INVESTIGATION Since narcotic use has direct link with criminal activities, investigation of this must be specialized. The following are some reasons why it has to be investigated in a specialized manner: 1. Illicit



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specialized 91


CDI 5 2. 3. 4. 5.

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC syndicated. The underworld organization is composed of and operated by selected and highly proficient members of the elite. Drug addicts are clannish and they represent a rare group of individuals. Drug abusers and or addicts have their own lingo and way of life. The illicit drug trade is completely underworld in conception and operation capable to espionage or subversive operations; it is a hidden crime where there is rarely a complainant.

Considerations in Narcotic and Investigation The Violation a) Republic Act No. 9165 (The Comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act of 2002) - Under this law, the following are punishable: 1.

Importation of Dangerous drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 2. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 3. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 4. Maintenance of a Den, Dive or Resort where dangerous drugs are used or sold in any form; 5. Being an employee or visitor of a den, dive or resort; 6. Manufacture of dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 7. Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 8. Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals; 9. Possession of Dangerous Drugs; 10. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs; Possession of dangerous Drugs during Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings; 11. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs during Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings; 12. Use of Dangerous Drugs; Cultivation of Plants classified as dangerous drugs or are sources thereof; 13. Failure to comply with the maintenance and keeping of the original records of transaction on any dangerous drugs and/or controlled precursors and Essential Chemicals on the part of practioners, manufacturers, wholesalers, importers, distributors, dealers, or retailers; 14. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs; 15. Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs

The Violators – The Persons of Importance a) The Addict or User - A “user” is one who injects, intravenously or intramuscularly, or consumes, either by chewing, smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking, or otherwise introducing into the physiological system of the body, any of the dangerous drugs. An “addict” is one who habitually uses dangerous drugs. 1. Determine his history. 2. Has he just used or administered the drug? Get urine and, if possible, blood samples for analysis within 24 hours after administration. 3. Is he in possession of the drug? 4. Determine the reason for possession. Is it for sale or for own consumption? 5. If possession is for reason other than personal use, he must be accordingly charged under RA 6425. 6. Is he suffering from the signs and symptoms of drug abuse? This will guide the investigator to determine whether the violator is an addict or not. b) The Pusher - “Pusher” refers to any person who sells, administers, delivers, or gives away to another, on any terms whatsoever, or distributes or dispatches in transit or transport any dangerous drug or who acts as a broker in any such transaction. 1. Ordinarily, he is an addict himself. 2. If not an addict, determine the reason for his possession of the drug. Is it for sale, for giving away, etc.? 3. If he is selling, determine his clientele. Get their names and other personal circumstance. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 4. Determine, if possible, his source of supply, their names, addresses, etc. 5. Determine the number of times that he had been arrested and charged for the same offense. 6. If he is a recidivist, state so in the complaint or information to be filed. c. The Narcotic Evidence These include opium and its active components and derivatives, the coca leaf and beta eucaine, and the hallucinogenic drugs. It includes all preparations made from any of the foregoing and other drugs and chemical preparations; whether natural or synthetics, with the physiological effects of a narcotic or a hallucinogenic drug. Opium and its derivatives “Opium” refers to the coagulated juice of the opium poppy and embraces every kind, character and class of opium, whether crude of prepared; the ashes or refuse of the same; narcotic prepared; the ashes or refuse of the same, narcotic preparations thereof or therefrom; morphine or any alkaloid of opium; preparations in which opium enters as an ingredient; opium poppy; opium seeds; opium poppy straw; and leaves or wrapping of opium leaves, whether prepared for use or not. Field test: Burn a small quantity of the suspected substance. The odor or smell is similar to burnt banana leaves or has a sweetish odor. Morphine – the drug varies in different forms such as: Powder – white, odorless granulated powder with a very bitter taste. Sometimes however, illicit traffickers add color to deceive investigators. Block – with embossed marks like “999” “555” “AAA” “1A”, etc. with “Lion”, Elephant”, “Tiger/Dragon” brands. Licit morphine used for medical purposes invariably comes in powder form, tablets, capsules with the brand name of the manufacturer. Heroin (Dimorphine Hydrochloride/ Diacetylmorphine) is a white, odorless, crystalline powder with a Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC very bitter taste. Heroin is the hydrochloride of an alkaloid obtainable by the action of acetic anhydride or morphine. The alkaloid base may be made by treating morphine with acetyl chloride, washing the product with a dilute alkaline solution and crystallizing from alcoholic solution.

NOTE: Both heroin and morphine may be sold by pushers in bundle containing about .03 gram of powder. The price will depend on supply and demand. Cocaine (Methyl ecgonine). Cocaine (C12 H 21n O4) is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Erythorxylon coca and the other species of Erthroxlon Linne, or by synthesis from ecgoine and its derivatives. Preparation - It may be made by moisturizing ground coca leaves with a sodium carbonate solution, percolating with benzene or other solvents such as petroleum benzene, shaking the liquid with diluted sulfuric acid, and adding to the separated acid solution and excess of sodium carbonate. The participated alkaloids are removed with ether, and after drying with sodium carbonate, the solution is filtered and the ether distilled off. The residue is dissolved in methyl alcohol and the solution heated with sulfuric acid or with alcoholic hydrogen chloride. This treatment splits off any acids from the ecgonine and esterifies the carbozyl group. After dilution with water, the organic that have been liberated are removed with chloroform. The aqueous solution is then concentrated, neutralized, and cooled with ice, whereupon methyl ecgonine sulfate crystallizes. Upon adding water and sodium hydroxide, methyl benzoyl ecgonine or cocaine is precipitated. The cocaine is extracted with ether and the solution concentrated to crystallization. For the purification of cocaine, recrystallization from a mixture of acetone and benzene is generally preferred. Solubility - 1 gm dissolves in about 600 ml of water, 7 ml of alcohol, 1 ml of chloroform, 3.5 ml of ether, and is very soluble in warm alcohol. Uses - Cocaine was the first local anaesthetic to be discovered. At present, it is considered too toxic for any anaesthetic procedure requiring injection, but is still extensively employed for anesthesia of the nose and Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC throat. For this purpose, a 10 % solution of the hydro – chloride is used. Cocaine is a central stimulant, but is never employed clinically for this purpose. Addiction and a certain amount of tolerance result from its use. Because of its properties, the sale of cocaine is prohibited in the Philippines. Cocaine also comes in the form of salt crystals, known as “crack” and usually sold in packets. This is the American counterpart of the local “shabu” or methamphetamine hydrochloride. Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa) Marijuana is a seasonal plant grown from seed. Depending on soil and weather condition, it grows approximately 20 feet. The leaves come in clusters of 3,5,7,9 to 13 leaflets. The leaflets are elongated with the tip pointed and the sides serrated. Manicured or grounded leaves and flowering tops – Although dried and grounded, they will retain their greenish color. Reefers or cigarettes known as “joints” and other names – These are hand-rolled in cigarette paper, irregular and slim with both ends tucked in or twisted. Hallucinogen Drugs These are the drugs that are capable hallucinations in the mind of the taker such acid diethylamide commonly known as LSD and falling under this category are DMT, STP, morning glory seeds.

of creating as Lysergic other drugs peyote and

Synthetic Drugs Those having the same physiological action narcotic drug, such as methadone and demerol.



Other Dangerous Drugs These include self-inducting sedatives, such as seconbarbital, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, amobarbital, salt or a derivative of a salt of barbituric acid: and salt, isomer or salt of an isomer, of amphetamine, such as benzedrine of dexedrine, or any drug which produces a physiological acting simlar to amphetamine; and hypnotic Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC drugs, such as methaqualone, nitrzepam or any other compound producing similar physiological effects. Barbiturates – Manufactured synthetically as salts of barbituric acid. All names of these drugs are in al, such as pentobarbital, secobarbital (seconal), amobarbital, phenobarbital, barbital, etc. Categories according to Effects    

Long acting barbiturates – take effect with in 30 to 60 minutes and last up to 8 hours, e.i. Phenobarbital Intermediate acting barbiturates – take effect with in 15 to 30 minutes and last up to 6 hours, e.i. amobarbital and butabarbital. Short acting barbiturates – take effect with in 10 to 20 minutes and last up to 6 hours, e.i. Pentobarbital and secobarbital. Ultra short barbiturates – take effect with in 45 seconds and last up to 30 minutes, e.i. thiopental sodium.

Note: Slang Terms of Barbiturates Pentobarbital – “yellow jackets” - Secobarbital – “red devils” - Amobarbital – “ blue devils/ blue birds” Amosbarbital – “ rainbow/ double trouble” Note: Under FDA law, it is illegal to sell these drugs without prescription. There is no illegal possession charge under the FDA law, but under RA 6425, there is such a violation. Amphetamines – Stimulate the central nervous system and have the ability to combat fatigue and sleepiness. These are also known at uppers. Chemical Names a. Amphetamine Sulfate b. Dextroamphetamine Sulfate c. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride Amphetamines come in varied forms, colors and shapes. Examples of amphetamines are benzedrine or the “bennies”, dexedrine or the “dexies”, and the methedrine known as the “meatballs”. Shabu is the most widely known amphetamine in the country today. The compound (methamphetamine hydrochloride) is also known as “poor Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC man’s cocaine”. The latter term, however, is misleading because although cheaper than that cocaine, shabu is nonetheless expensive as compared to other drugs such as marijuana or solvents. The Volatile Substances – also called the Inhalants, Solvents or Deliriants. This are chemicals which when sniffed can produce intoxication effects such as gasoline, kerosene, thinner, paint, etc. The most popular among them is the solvent rugby. These chemical substances are significant in narcotic investigation because of their intoxicating symptoms that do not produce alcoholic breath. HANDLING NARCOTIC EVIDENCE Evidence handling Physical evidence of various types can do must to augment the inevitable oral evidence in a prosecution involving drugs. The investigator should be constantly on alert to obtain physical evidence during an inquiry for presentation in court. Drug seizures - One officer, preferably the officer who made the seizure, should be detailed to take charge of the drug found. The following procedure should guide him: 1. Identify the seizure in some permanent way using markings or non-removable labels or wax-sealed tie on tag. 2. The identification should give detail of the time, date and place of seizure, and the name of the owner or suspect where an arrest had been made. 3. The officer should complete the identification of the seizure by placing his initial or signature on the identifying label. 4. Where a suspect charged demands a sample of the seized drug for independent analysis, the desired sample should be place in a suitable container. It should then be sealed in such a way as to prevent tampering preferably with the signature of the suspect and the officer appearing on the seal. 5. Where another officer later takes the seizure – as in during questioning – that drug is shown to suspect during questioning – that officer should continue the chain of identification by placing his initials on the label. 6. Few parties as possible should hold the seized drug. Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC A permanent written record of the movement of the seizure, noting time, dates and signatures or receiving parties should be maintained. 7. As soon as after seizure, the drug should be sealed in a container in such a way as to prevent loss or tampering with. The seal should be affixed in such a way that it will be impossible to open the container without breaking the seal. The seal should bear the same identification as the seizure itself. 8. The officer in the area designated by his command should retain the seizure, the security of which will satisfy the scrutiny of the court. 9. Where the nature of the seizure requires special storage conditions or facilities, this should be arranged and the security of the seizure maintained. 10. At the first opportunity, the officer should himself deliver the seized drug/s to the laboratory for examination. 11. If the commitments of the officer holding the seized drug/s are such that he cannot travel to the laboratory, he should hand the same to another officer who should make the delivery personally. 12. If personal delivery is not possible, the seized drug(s) should be carefully packed in a parcel, which is then sealed. This should be adequately addressed and shipped by certified delivery mail. Photographs - A permanent written record should be kept relating to photographs taken in the course of an investigation, noting the time, date and place of the photograph, its subject the weather condition at the time it was taken. The technician might also note details of film and camera operations. Several prints of each photograph should be obtained, and on one copy, these details should be recorded together with the name of the officers who can “prove” the photograph. The other print copies be retained unmarked for possible submission to court. Photographs of, for instance, a meeting between two offenders can adduce valuable corroborative evidence. Documents - Documents that may become evidence in a prosecution should be retained in their original form. They should be treated in much the same manner as drug seizures with regard to identification, and it is suggested that all under whose supervision this is done can later “prove” the original, particularly incases where returned to a person for production later in court. Investigative Records - Records in this particular category include: Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC 1. Information on a suspect of drug movement 2. Results of background inquiry on a suspect 3. The log or running sheet kept on investigator and suspect movement during surveillance or arrest 4. Investigator’s notebooks and diaries 5. Investigator’s notes of conversations, events or interviews DRUG INVESTIGATIVE PROCESS Roles of the PDEA Drug investigation in the Philippines is under the concern of the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) being newly created and organized. The agency has one among its powers and functions the initiation of all investigation proceedings concerning drug cases, absorbing all drug enforcement units of the other governmental agencies like the National Bureau of Investigation, the Philippine National Police, the Bureau of Customs and other agencies and bureaus with drug investigation divisions. As mandated by law and here quoted, the PDEA shall “create and maintain an efficient special enforcement unit to conduct an investigation and file charges and transmit evidence to the proper court”. Proper handling of drug evidence is necessary to obtain the maximum possible information upon which scientific examination shall be based, and to prevent exclusion as evidence in court. Drug specimens, that truly represent the material found at the scene, unaltered, unspoiled or otherwise unchanged in handling, will provide more and better information upon examination. Legal requirements make it necessary to account for all physical pieces of evidence from the time it is collected until it is presented in court. With these, the following principles should be observed in handling all types of evidence in narcotic investigation: 1. The evidence should reach the laboratory as mush as possible in same condition as when it is found. 2. The quantity of specimen should be adequate. Even with the best equipment available, good results cannot be obtained from insufficient specimens. 3. Submit a known or standard specimen for comparison purpose. 4. Keep each specimen separate from others so there will be no intermingling or mixing of known and unknown material. Wrap and seal in individual packages when Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC necessary. 5. Mark or label each piece of evidence must be maintained. Account for evidence from the time it is collected until it is produced in court. Any break in this chain of custody may make the material inadmissible as evidence in court. Generally, the recognition, search, collection, handling, preservation and documentation of evidence in narcotic investigation rest upon the quality of people involved in the activity which they follow certain guidelines for investigative success. Below is an illustration of a basic procedure in narcotic investigation focused in the crime scene:

Receipt/Report Complaint First Responder Conduct of Crime Scene Security and Protection Investigation

From this point:  

Cordoning Safety of Injured Preparation persons, if any  prevention of entry Approach by unauthorized Preliminary Survey Evaluation of Physical evidence Documentation of crime Scene Preparation of Narrative Description Crime Scene Search Collection of Physical Evidence Final Survey & Release of crime Scene






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in 101


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC crime scene investigation involving any crime which is narcotic investigators can fundamentally base on a scientific crime scene processing. In the flow of the investigation, it shows that upon receipt or report of a crime, the desk officer shall record the date and time the report/ complaint was made, identify persons who made the report, place of incident and a synopsis of the incident then inform his superior or duty officer regarding the report. The first responders will properly preserve the crime scene. The security and protection of the crime scene to get maximum scientific information that will help successful prosecution of perpetrators. Then the formal investigation maybe conducted. Procedure at the Crime Scene Upon Arrival at the Crime Scene a. Record time/date of arrival at the crime scene, location of the scene, condition of the weather, condition and type of lighting direction of wind and visibility. b. Secure the crime scene by installing the crime scene tape or rope (police line) c. Before touching or moving any object at the crime scene determine first the status of the victim, whether he is still alive or already dead. If the victim is alive the investigator should exert effort to gather information from the victim himself regarding the circumstances of the crime, while a member of the team or someone must call an ambulance from the nearest hospital. After the victim is remove and brought to the hospital for medical attention, measure, sketch, and photograph. d. Designate a member of the team or summon other policemen or responsible persons to stand watch and secure the scene, and permit only those authorized person to enter the same. e. Identify and retain for questioning the person who firs notified the police, and other possible witnesses. Recording The investigator begins the process of recording pertinent facts and derails of the investigation the moment he arrives at the crime scene. (He should record the time when he was initially notified prior to his Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC arrival). He also writes down the identification of person involved and what he initially saw. He also draws a basic sketch of the crime scene and takes the initial photographs. This is to ensure that an image of the crime scene is recorded before any occurrence that disturbs the scene. As a rule, do not touch, alter or remove anything at the crime scene until the evidence has been processed through notes, sketches and photographs, with proper measurements. Searching for Evidence a) Each crime scene is different, according tot he physical nature of the scene and the crime or offense involved. Consequently, the scene is processed in accordance with the prevailing physical characteristics of the scene and with the need to develop essential evidentiary facts peculiar to the offense. A general survey of the scene is always made, however, to not the location of obvious traces of action, the probable entry and exit points used by the offender(s) and the size and shape of the area involved. b) In rooms, buildings, and small outdoor areas, a systematic search of evidence is initiated, (In the interest of uniformity, it is recommended that the clockwise movement be used). The investigator examines each item encountered on the floor, walls, and ceiling to locate anything that may be of evidentiary value. He should:     

give particular attention to fragile evidence that may be destroyed or contaminated if it is not collected when discovered, if any doubt exists as to the value of an item, treat it as evidence until proven otherwise, carefully protect any impression of evidentiary value in surfaces conducive to making casts or molds, note stains, spots and pools of liquid within the scene and treat them as evidence, proceed systematically and uninterruptedly to the conclusion of the processing of the scene. The search for evidence is initially completed when, after a thorough examination of the scene, the rough sketch, necessary photograph and investigative note have been completed and the investigator has returned to the point from which the search began.

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Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

c) In large outdoor areas, it is advisable to divide the area into strips about four (4) feet wide. The policeman may first search the strip on his left he faces the scene then the adjoining strips. d) It may be advisable to make a search beyond the area considered to be immediate scene of the incident or crime. For example, evidence may indicate that a weapon or tool used in the crime was discarded or hidden by the offender somewhere within a squaremile area near the scene. e) After completing the search of the scene, the investigator examined the objects or persons involved. Methods of Crime Scene Search - As maybe applicable in narcotic investigation, the following methods of searches maybe used: Strip Search Method, Double strip or grid method of search, Spiral Search Method, Zone Search Method. Collecting search is photographs as they are

Evidence - This is accomplished after the completed, the rough sketch finished and taken. Fragile evidence should be collected found.

Removal of Evidence - The investigator places his initials, the date and the time of discovery on each item of evidence and the time discovery on each item of evidence for proper identification. Items that could not be marked should be placed in a suitable container and sealed. Tagging of Evidence - Any physical evidence obtained must tagged before its submission to the evidence custodian. Evaluation of Evidence - Each item of evidence must be evaluated in relation to all the evidence, individually and collectively. Preservation of Evidence - It is the investigator’s responsibility to ensure that every precaution is exercised to preserve physical evidence in the state in which it was recovered until it is released to the evidence custodian. Releasing the Scene - The scene is not released until all processing has been completed. The release should be effected at the earliest practicable time, particularly Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 when an activity curtailed.



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC closed or its operations

Pointers to Consider in Sketching the Crime Scene 1.

To establish admissibility, the investigator must have had personal observation o the data in question. In other words, the sketch must be sponsored or verified. 2. Sketches are not a substitute for notes or photos; they are but a supplement to them. 3. Write down all measurements. 4. Fill in all the detail on your rough sketch at the scene. Final sketch may be prepared at the office. 5. Keep the rough sketch even when you have completed the final sketch. 6. Indicate ht North direction with an arrow. 7. Draw the final sketch to scale. 8. Indicate the palce in the sketch as well as the person who drew it. Use the KEY – capital letters of the alphabet for listing down more or less normal parts of accessories of the place, and numbers for items of evidence 9. Indicate the position, location and relationship of objects. 10. Methods or systems of locating points (objects) on sketch 11. Critical measurements, such as skid marks, should be checked by two (2) investigators. 12. Measurements should be harmony; or in centimeters, inches, yards, meters, mixed in one sketch. 13. Use standard symbols in the sketch. 14. Show which way doors swing, 15. Show with arrow the direction of stairways. 16. Recheck the sketch for clarity, accuracy, scale, and title key. The Role of SOCO in Narcotic Investigation A number of crime incident committed in the country are unsolved and/or dismissed by trial courts because of insufficiency of evidence. In cases of narcotic investigation, it is important that pieces of drug evidence that will provide clue on the suspects/offenders identities can be found in the crime scene. However, those vital evidence in the crime scene are either left in the crime scene are critical in the prosecution on the Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC case in court with the advent of new technologies, they could be analyzed scientifically for these purpose. The recovery of physical evidence during investigation of crime scene is the most important task of current law enforcement. In most cases, the material items of evidence and descriptive information collected from the scene of the crime make a big difference in the success and failure of cases in court. The capability of the Crime Laboratory to provide scientific interpretation and information depends on the recognition, recovery and documentation of the evidence in the crime scene. Field investigators work as part of the forensic team as that of laboratory technician. If evidence collected in the crime scene is not properly accomplished, the work of the crime laboratory is impeded and even negated. The recovery of physical evidence during investigation of crime scene is the most important task of current law enforcement. In most cases, the material items of evidence and descriptive information collected from the scene of the crime make a big difference in the success and failure of cases in court. Past experience shows that a well-trained team, coordinated and properly equipped, can be of great advantage in effectively and efficiently recovering evidences. Personal knowledge and instinctive actions or institutions are of great help in the solution of the criminal and drug related cases. However there is no substitute for the adoption and practice of scientific investigation. The idea of enhancing SOCO in narcotic investigation is to assist drug investigators in terms of scientific approach in investigating criminal cases, specifically heinous ones. DRUG TESTING Field Test - The test describes in the following pages are designed to give investigators emergency means of making on-the-spot tentative identification of samples seized or purchased during the course of investigations. Results obtained should not be regarded as final identification since a number of such drugs are marketed in combination with other chemicals from which they must be separated (by laboratory methods) before true results can be attained. Care of Apparatus and Reagents - Reagents should be protected from excessive heat and light. Acid reagents should be stored in glass bottles. Reagent stability should be tested from time to time with drugs of known Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC identify. All apparatus used in making test should be thoroughly cleaned before reusing. Marquis test is used for morphine, codeine, heroin and other opium derivatives. When brought into contact with morphine, heroin or other opium derivatives, the reagent develops brilliant colors ranging from blue to reddish purple. There are some other substances, which also produce colors with this reagent. No confusion, however, should arise once the operator is familiar with the specific colors given by the opium alkaloids. It is therefore essential that the test be observed with known samples before any unknown is tested. Making the Test – following are considered:






1. Allow the reagent to drain to one end of the ampul 2. Break the ampul between the fingers along the scored line. 3. Introduce a small bit of sample into the open end of one-half of the sample by scraping a cube or pinch of powder held between the fingers with a sharp edge. Tap the closed end so as to shake the sample further into the tube and thus bring it into contact with the reagent. 4. After the test, the ampul should be rinsed with water before discarding. *** DO NOT THROW AMPUL IN WASH BAIN OR SINK. NOTE: The value of this test lies in the fact that a positive reaction indicates the presence of an opium derivative. A negative result does not rule out the possiblity of the sample being a prohibited drug since cocaine, methadone, demerol, dromoran, etc. do not give positive results with this reagent. A suspected sample that gives a negative result should be submitted to the laboratory for examination. General Drug Tests Drugs

Test Used

Color Reaction

Opium Marquis test Purple/Violet Heroin Nitric Acid Yellow-Green Morphine Nitric Acid Red Orange Cocaine Cobalt Thiocyanate Blue Barbiturates Dille-Kopanyi test Violet Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC Or the Zwikker test Blue color Amphetamines Marquis test Red/Orange -Brown LSD Para Amino BenZoic Acid(PABA) Purple Marijuana Duquenois-Levine test or KN TestRed Bottom layer Shabu Symone’s test Purple FIELD DRUG TESTING Field Tests for Methadone This narcotic drug, known also as Amidone, Dolophine and di-6 dimethylamide-4, 4diphenyl-3-heptanone hydrochloride, can be detected in the presence of some other drugs by employing the reagent and technique as set forth below. After solution is effected, filtration of the sample is desirable but not essential to the success of the method, since insoluble substance such as starch, talc, etc. are not blue in color. Reagent: Dissolve 1 gm of cobalt acetate, nitrate or chloride and 1/5 gm of potassium thiocyanate in 90 ml of water and 10ml of glacial acetic acid. Test: Dissolve the sample in a minimum amount of water, Filter. Add 2 or 3 drops of the reagent to the filtrate. Shake for about 1 minute. A blue precipitate indicates the presence of methadone. Field Test for Cocaine, Demerol and Methadone This field test for cocaine, demerol and methadone was developed by the U.S. Customs Laboratory, in Baltimore, Maryland in 1961 and has been successful use since then. The field test is based on a modification of the well-known cobalt thiocyanate color test that produces a blue color in the presence of cocaine. The customs field test is a stable single-solution version of the thiocyanate test and is the most specific cocaine color test available at this time. The field test is not intended to replace specific laboratory determination and should be used as a preliminary test. Some non-narcotic substances, as certain antihistamines, are known to give a color cobalt thiocyanate.

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more only such with

CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC The test is simple to perform. The ampul should be broken at the point where the glass is scored and the powdered sample introduced into the open end of the half of the ampul should NOT BE SHAKEN. A blue color is indicative of cocaine, demerol or methadone give stronger blues than that demerol. For each of the three narcotics, the strength of their blue in the ampuls is proportionate to their active content. The ampul contains a dilute acid and should be discarded in a place where water can be used to delute the acid.

Field Tests for Marijuana NOTE: Do not rely on chemical tests alone. Always examine the material with a microscope or hand lens. Cannabis Sativa, or marijuana, can be quickly and positively identified by subjecting the sample to the following tests: Microscopic - Using a magnification of approximately 30 diameters, the leaves, small twigs, seed hulls and flowering tops exhibit a characteristics warty appearance due to the presence of non-glandular hairs which contain at their base called spheriodal cystolith of calcium carbonate. Adding a drop of diluted hydrochloric acid to the slide and noting the effervescence may show the presence of carbonate. Many of the cystolithic hairs appear in the shape of bear claws. The seed or fruit, deprived of its hull, under the same magnification, presents a mottled effect and gives the viewer the impression he is looking at a hulled coconut or nutmeg. A comparison with an authentic sample is most desirable. Chemical - The Duquenois-Levine Test has been found to be the only satisfactory chemical test for the identification of marijuana. The chloroform soluble color developed in this test is due to the presence of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) which is the active principal of the marijuana plant. Reagents - Duquenois Reagent – Dissolve 5 drops of acetaldehyde and 0.4 gm. of vanillin in 20 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol. (This reagent may be kept for some time in glass-stoppered bottles in a cool dark place. It should Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC be discarded after it assumes a deep yellow color). -

Add a pinch of suspected marijuana to a test tube containing about 2 ml (one teaspoon) Duquenois reagent. Add an equal amount (2ml) of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Stir with a glass rod or shake the test tube in a circular motion to mix its contents. CAUTION – Do not splash acid contents on body or clothing. Allow the test tube to stand for 10 minutes, or until a color develops. Decant the liquid into a second test tube. Add 2ml of chloroform. Stopper and shake. If marijuana is present, a violet or indigo-violet color will be transferred to the bottom (chloroform) layer. Seeds – When a sample consists entirely of seeds, their identity alone is not sufficient to bring them within the purview of the law, which requires them to be fertile. To establish their fertility a number of the seeds should be placed in a suitable container with moist paper pulp or wet vermiculite, and place in a warm dark place until germination takes place. When reporting a sample containing marijuana seeds alone, their fertility should always be stated. Field Test for Amphetamines This field test for identifying amphetamines is useful in screening out caffeine, vitamins, or other substitutes proffered as amphetamines. Test Material – The test material consists of 2 or 3 drops of Marquis reagent (2 drops of 37% formaldehyde in 3 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid) in a small glass ampul. Test Procedure – Break the ampul at the scored center and place 1 or 2 drops of the reagent on the sample. This should be done on a glass ashtray, inverted tumbler, etc. Amphetamines react with the reagent to give a red-orange color, turning to reddish and then dark brown within 1 or 2 minutes. The reagent gives this characteristics color reaction when applied to white, pink, yellow, peach or green amphetamine tablets. The speed within which the color is formed appears to depend upon the hardness of the tablet. The red-orange color forms immediately of some tablets while with others it appears in 10 to 20 second. Therefore, the critical Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC period of color differentiation for amphetamines is within the first 20 seconds. The peach-colored caffeine tablet gives a color, which might cause some confusion. The difference between the color formed by this tablet by this tablet and that formed by a peach-colored amphetamine tablet are crushed before the reagent is applied. Once the difference is seen, there should be no trouble in distinguishing one from the other. Amphetamine powder and tablets – Red-orange onset to reddish brown to dark brown within a couple of minutes, Caffeine powder and tablets - no color reaction, Methamphetamine and tablets – Red-orange onset to reddish brown to dark brown in 1 to 2 minutes, Phenyl tertiary butylamine HCI – Same color change as amphetamines, Wyamine sulfate – Same color change as amphetamines. Field Test for Barbiturates For the tentative identification of the barbiturates, the Zwikker test is used. Zwikker Test – An anhydrous methanol solution of the barbiturate upon several drops of cobalt chloride in methanol solution gives a bluish color, which changes to dark blue upon being alkalized with a 5% isopropylamine in methanol. The Atkinson Laboratory, 33031 Fierro Street, Los Angeles, California, manufactures a compact kit that utilized the Zwikker Test. Test Material – The Zwikker Test Kit consists of a small plastic bag containing three solutions in plastics dropping bottles and small porcelain spot plate. Solution # 1 – Anhydours methanol, Solution # 2 – Cobalt chloride dissolved in methanol, Solution # 3 – 5% isopropylamine in methanol. CAUTION: The above solutions are volatile and inflammable. They should be kept sealed. Test Procedure – The following shall be considered: 1. Place part of sample into spot-tester, (enough to cover letter “O” on a typewriter key). 2. Put two drops of solution # 1 on sample in spottester. (Sample should dissolve.) 3. Add two drops of solution # 2 (This may produce a violet or a blue color.) 4. Add tow drops of solution # 3. (If color deepens to a darker violet of blue, this indicates presumption presence of barbiturate.) The solution will become contaminated. Wash and dry spot-test plat after use. NARCOTIC DEATH INVESTIGATION Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

A common occurrence in the drug culture is the death of a user. Investigation of a narcotic death is divided into three (3) phases: the SCENE investigation, the MEDICAL investigation, and the TOXICOLOGICAL investigation. An officer involved in such a case should determine the manner of death, that is, whether homicide, suicide or accidental. All of the factors and elements of the scene must be accurately and completely recorded. This will assist the medical examiner in determining the cause of death. Physiological Effect of Narcotic Ingestion The ingestion of narcotics or dangerous drugs poisons the body. This is poisoning effect will leads to a paralysis of the respiratory center or cause heart failure. This, the, will deny the body a sufficient amount of oxygen. Evident or visible signs, which remain after death, often accompany the effects of a particular drug on the human body for the trained observe. These signs are result of symptoms experienced by the victim prior to death. Following is a partial listing of the more dangerous drugs, the minimum lethal dose, symptoms and cause of death: Poison

Symptoms/Cause of Death

Codeine Nausea, Respiratory failure Heroin & Morphine (Vomiting),







Constipation, itching, cyanosis, respiratory failure

nausea thirst,

Barbiturates lower body temperature, cyanosis, cold extremities skin rash, constipation, respiratory arrest of pneumonia Cocaine nausea, vomiting, chills, sweating, thirst, convulsions, circulatory and respiratory failure Amphetamine Chills, sweating, constipation, nausea, vomiting, cramps, thirst, convulsions, hemorrhages Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)

diarrhea, petechial



Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

The Scene of Death During investigation of the scene, you should recognize and relate seemingly insignificant items or material, which would justify a conclusion of narcotic involvement. The following are just some of such items: 1. Paraphernalia (or “works”) – Tools or implements used in administering narcotics. These may include the obvious syringe and needle, tourniquet, spoon or bottle top “cookies” and tinfoil packet. Also included are small balls of cotton, capsules and envelopes, and a book of matches. 2. Narcotic Medication – Laudanum, paregoric, codeine cough syrup, all utilized as “carryovers” until the next fix. 3. Maalox –Milk of Magnesia – Medication used to relieve nausea, vomiting, constipation, cramps or diarrhea. 4. Absence of Nutritional Food – Loss of appetite is a symptom of poisoning. Presence of candy or soft drinks indicates low insulin count. 5. Body Fluids – Presence of urine, feces, mucus or vomitus on the scene may be evidence of the body attempting to rid itself of poisoned substance. 6. Clothing or Bed Linens – which may be sweat-stained or soaking wet from the victim having hot and cold flashes, should be collected and analyzed. 7. Lack of Ordinary Cleanliness – Dependent user is not concerned in most cases with the environment or health, and this is shown by a neglect of both. 8. Wet Body – Evidence of body being immersed in tub or shower, or having ice cubes placed in underclothes or in private parts. It is a common mistake uses make in thinking this helps in overdose cases. Salt water may also be injected into the victim. Hospitals use Narcan as antidote. 9. Nylon Stoking – Stretched over a hanger used as sieve. 10. Playing Card – with the powder, may have been used to “smack” (cut) heroin. The card is usually on top of a record album or similar. 11. Merchandise – Small items which are easily carried and disposed of after, being stolen-radios, watches, portable TVs, radios, etc. The Body Signs 1. Cyanosis – bluish discoloration of the face and /or Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC fingernails due to insufficient oxygenation of the blood caused by increase in carbon dioxide in the body. 2. Petechial Hemorrhages – Pinpoint spots of discoloration resulting from capability ruptures due to pressure and generally observed in the eyes, eyelids, behind the ears and internally. 3. Form or Froth – Observed in mouth and nose, may be white or pinkish and caused by fluids entering the air passages. 4. Hematoma – A localized swelling on any par to the body caused by bleeding beneath the surface of the skin. This is caused by “skin popping” rather that vein injections. 5. Needle marks/tracks – Visual evidence of repeated intravenous injections. The tracks will follow a vein (exception “skin popping”) and result in a dark discoloration and eventual collapse of the vein. 6. Scar – Skin imperfection caused by the victim in removing needle mark scabs, added to uncleanness of the victim. 7. Rash/scratched Skin – External body signs of morphine or heroin poisoning. 8. Asphyxia- When it is the cause the death, it is often accompanied by external body changes. These changes, visible to the naked eye, are not restricted to narcotic-related deaths and may be found in other asphyxia deaths, such as hearth attack, drowning, hanging, etc. They must be noted, photographed and reported to the pathologist during the pre-autopsy interview. Victim’s History Historical date on the victim would include his criminal record (local, national and international and international); medical record (of a private doctor, hospitals, clinics, etc. and any mental treatment or attempts at suicide); social (relatives, friends, neighbors, co-workers); marital (past or present); and financial records. When interviewing users or person possibly involved in narcotics traffic, you should use straight language rather than attempt street talk because slang constantly changes. You must determine the extent of decedent’s addiction, his familiarity with other drugs, whether he had a steady source of the drugs or continuously shopped around, and other matters relative to his personal Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


CDI 5 history.

Nor-Alissa M. Diso, RC

Medical Phase This is the most important stage of the narcotics death investigation. Since the pathologist will rarely be able to examine the body at the death scene, you should note every detail, which may be of medico-legal importance and make a complete report on this. You should attend the autopsy yourself. Make sure that the following specimens are submitted for narcotics, alcohol or other foreign matter. Heroin is quickly changed to morphine after entering the body, and clears the blood in approximately ½ hour remains in the urine about 24 hours and in the bile for ¾ days.

Drug Education and Vice Control (S.Y. 2020-2021)


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