Gmp In Bakeries 1629053886

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Food Safety & GMP In Bakeries Part 1

Learning Outcome This manual is for basic manufacturing outlets including small canteens, caterers, bakeries etc. This manual explains General Requirements on Hygienic and Sanitary Practices to be followed by all Food Business Operators engaged in catering/food service establishments, as per Food Safety & Standard Act, 2006. This manual presents bare minimum requirements of Food Safety and hygiene to be followed by Food Business Operators along with Industry best practices. The objective of this manual is to train the Food Safety Supervisors about GHP requirements that should be followed in a catering business. The FSS may interpret these requirement according to the size and type of their establishment. The desired outcome of this manual is better understanding of food safety and hygiene requirements and high standards of food safety.


Modules 1. Introduction to Food Safety 2. Food Safety in Bakery Practices 3. Good Hygiene (GHP)and Good Manufacturing Practices(GMP) in Bakery 4. Regulation and Technical Skills in Bakery 3

Module I - Introduction to Food Safety


Food Safety Food Safety can be defined as the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared or eaten according to its intended use .


Why Food Safety Is Important? Loss of Customer & Sale

Loss of prestige & reputation


Legal action by Authority 6

What’s Wrong? Sources of Food Contamination

Food Contamination

Food Spoilage

Food Poisoning 7

Food Contamination A food contaminant has been defined as any substance not intentionally added to food, which is present in such food as a result of the production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, transport or storage of such food as a result of environmental contamination.


Sources of Contamination From Farm to Table Vehicle emission Crops

Processin g

Agricultural practices

Cooking Livestock


Industrial emissions and effluents



Seafood Distribution


Types of Food Contamination

Food Contamination

Physical Contamination Jewellery, Hair and fingernails Pest droppings, fur, dust and dirt Paper, Cardboard, threads Wood, glasses, bits of equipments

Chemical Contamination Cleaning Agents Pesticides Residues

Non-permitted Food Additives

Machinery Grease

Biological Contamination Bacteria


Yeast & Molds 13

Food Allergens in Bakery




Pea Nuts


Tree Nuts


Contributing Factors to Food Contamination No Pest Contro l

Improper Cleaning and Sanitatio n

Uncovere d Food

Poor Personne l Hygiene

Improper storage and temperatur e

Cross Contaminatio n

Bad Storage

Expiry date

Danger Zone Checking internal temperature of cooked food


Food Poisoning • Food poisoning is an acute illness, which usually occurs within 1 to 36 hours of eating contaminated or poisonous food. • Symptoms normally last from 1 to 7 days and include one or more of the following abdominal pain diarrhea vomiting fever collapse

Food Poisoning!

Food Safety Programs Food Safety Programs are procedural measures that reduce the likelihood of a food safety or a food quality hazard occurring, but one that may not be directly related to activities taking place during production.

Different Food Safety Programs: ❖GMP - Good Manufacturing Practices ❖GHP - Good Hygiene Practices ❖HACCP - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

Module II - Food Safety in Bakery


Introduction • Bakery businesses are food processors of largely wheat based products cooked in insulated heated space, the bakery ovens. • Baking includes the production of such items as bread, cake, pastry, biscuits, crackers, cookies, and pies where flour is the essential and principal ingredient for the base product

Bakery Premises - Location Establishments should be built away from:

✓Polluted areas and industry activities ✓Areas subjected to floods ✓Areas prone to infestation by pests ✓Areas where waste cannot be removed effectively

Design and Layout ✓ Premises and Rooms Facilities: appropriate maintenance, cleaning and disinfections

✓ Minimizes contamination: Walls, Floors, Partitions, ceilings, windows - well designed and constructed for easy maintenance and cleaning

Facilities • Portable water- for manufacturing and hand washing • Non portable water can be used for fire control or steam. However lines used be clearly marked • Drainage and waste disposal • Personal hygiene facilities, lavatories and changing facilities with hot water (> 40⁰C) • Natural and mechanical ventilation • Proper ventilation and temperature control mechanism. • Natural or artificial lighting

Waste Bin with foot operated lid

Equipments • Proper procedures should be available for each equipment like Oven, Mixers, Proofer etc. • Easy to dismount, Smooth edges and easily accessible for cleaning, free from dust and pest activity • Covered or protected to prevent contamination • Cleaned and disinfected after every maintenance procedure • All interior surface in contact with the product must be emptying


Keep Bakery Equipments Clean

Proper placing of Tools/ Equipments

Bakery Process Flow Pre Mixing

Mixing Dividing

Dough Moulding

Fermentation Proofing Baking Cooling Packing

Non Fermentation

Raw Material •All material should be procured from

vendors who have obtained FSSAI license •All material should be clean and uncontaminated, and safe •All material should be examined at point of receiving for ➢Damage or signs of contamination ➢External dirt on packages ➢Labeling, Product name, Manufacturers name and address, date and code, and all information required by packaging Rules. ➢Material should be easily traceable to its source.

Storage • Raw materials, process materials and products are stored separately at ideal conditions of temp, R.H and air velocity • Chemicals, bagged raw materials should be stored on sound pallets • Storage area must be free from pests and other contaminants • Raw material and finished products must be rotated in First In First Out (FIFO) and First Expiry First Out (FEFO) basis.

Raw Material Storage No Stacks

Proper Stacks

Mixing • All dry material must be sifted, and liquids must be filtered before use. • Vessels should be clean, and of stainless or non rusting material. • Formulas and Recipes should be strictly followed and quantity of additives must be within limits. • Any bit of dough that falls to the floor should not be re-mixed, as it can pick up bacterial contamination. • All hand tools, spatula, spoons and scoops should be clean and be kept on hygienic surfaces like trays, and clean working table tops.

Dividing • From bulk dough, unit dough piece or

batter is separated for processing before baking. • High speed machines, Semi-automatic equipment, and hand work may be

involved. • Dough bits, dusting flour, and oil if

allowed to gather for long, will go rancid, allow bacteria to grow, and encourage fungal growth.

Dividing •Food should be prepared at steady pace and not allowed

to stand more than necessary for process. •Temperature control should be maintained as needed by process.

Baking and Cooling • Oven area should be segregated, to avoid cross contamination with fumes and smoke. • Controls should be maintained on

temperatures, humidity, and timing of baking.

• Cooling should be done in as clean an environment as possible.

• Finishing, cutting, and decorating should be done with all precautions.

Packaging •Packing material can have unwanted smell from paper or inks. These will get picked up by food. •All packs must carry codes to allow

quick tracing of material in event of any issue. •Internal records should be accurately kept.


Packaging of End Products No Packaging

Proper Packaging

Transportation • Requirement of safe and proper transportation of foods ✓ Design and construction of vehicle ✓ Clean and/or disinfect ✓ Separates food from non food item ✓ Maintain temperature ✓ Prevents contamination ✓ Training of carrier personnel ✓ Maintenance of records of written procedures, agreements and training (required of carriers) • Verification Procedure ✓ Inspection of vehicle ✓ Programs describing effective cleaning – and sanitation ✓ Loading/unloading ✓ Materials used in vehicles for food transportation

Module III – Good Hygiene and Manufacturing Practices

Personal Hygiene - A healthy human is covered with microorganisms

on hair (incl. beards and mustaches)

in the nose

in the mouth

on the skin

under the nails

The human gastro-intestinal tract excretes microorganisms


Only minute amount of certain pathogens can cause infections in humans

Infections occur easily when just one food handler does not observe hand hygiene rules.


Before you get to work • Take a shower Wash off dead skin and bacteria • Put on clean clothes and footwear Clothes and footwear can carry bacteria into the plant • Keep fingernails clean, trimmed and without polish Polish or artificial nails can fall off


Personal Hygiene Do’s and Don'ts

Hands need to be washed regularly and immediately •before working with food •after using toilet •after handling rubbish/waste •after smoking, coughing, sneezing, using tissue, eating, drinking, smoking •after touching hair or scalp or mouth

Sanitizers do not replace hand washing

Steps of proper hand washing Washing hands the right way only require three elements: •running water, •soap, •and something to hands with.



Use clean facilities Dirty facilities

Clean facilities


Maintain Correct Food Temperature


Correct Food Storage


Check Expiry dates and Label Foods


Pest Prevention and control • Holes, drains and places must be sealed • Food sources shouldbe kept away from the walls and above the ground • Doors should have self closing facility • Use of poisons are strictlyprohibited in the raw materials and production area • Insecticides and pesticides used should be of low toxicity and should be approved by the regulatory body • Plantinspectionand surveillance program must be conducted and documented.


Pest Control Measures -Fumigation ✓ Periodic fumigation to be ensured. ▪Method of fumigation should be approved (like use of Aluminium phosphate which is an approved fumigant) ▪Fumigation is recommended to practice minimum Once in a year. ▪Should be carried by an approved third party (expert and experienced) ▪Post fumigation, the area should be inspected and verified for nonpresence of any fumigant residue.


Pest control in Bakery


Sticky fly Papers

Rodent Traps

Mist Net


Pest control measures in Bakery

Strip Curtain

Air Curtain


Pest Control Measures -Good House keeping • Premises and refuse areas kept in clean and tidy condition • Waste bin should be washed after emptying • Waste must not be allowed to accumulate • Spillages are cleared away promptly • Food should be covered • Drains are kept clean and good conditions • Sightings of pests or pest damage are reported to management immediately • Stock should be checked regularly and damaged stock removed


Cleaning and Sanitation • Procedure and frequency must be documented • Cleaning products- recommended for food industry • Labelled and kept outside the production area • Litter bins should be covered and fitted with plastic insert • Silos must be capable of totally emptied and cleaned • Adequate preventive and corrective maintenance to facilitate cleaning operations


Forbidden behaviour in a food-handling environment

No Eating in processing area

No Jewellery, Mobile


Wear hair nets/ beard nets No beard Net

Proper Beard Net


Forbidden behaviour in a foodhandling environment No gloves

Wearing Gloves


Stop Cross Contamination Colour coding of chopping board

Steps to Serving Safe Food 1. Wash hands with soap and clean water before serving food. 2. Keep food covered prior to serving 3. Serving plates and utensils should be cleaned and air dried 4. Do not reuse and reheat food in disposable wares 5. Eat freshly baked food as far as possible


Cold foods should be

served chilled and stored in fridge (below 5°C) 7. Hot food should be served and kept above 60°C 8. Wash crockery and cutlery after use 9. Do not serve food pr put ice in a glass with bare hands 10.Use a spoons, tongs or gloves while serving food

Safe Serving Materials (Do’s and Don'ts) ✓ Use Stainless steel utensils ✓ Use Copper utensils ✓ Use food grade glass, ceramics or ✓ porcelain ✓ Use Safe disposable wares or single service items

× Do not use any kind of plastic wares to serve food × Do not use newspaper to serve food × Do not serve anything sour in non-tinned copper and brass utensils, or aluminum utensils

Power Outages and Food Safety

During a Power Outage

•Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed. •The refrigerator will keep food safe for up to 4 hours. • If the power is off longer, you can transfer food to a cooler and fill with ice or frozen gel packs. •Keep the freezer full. Fill empty spaces with frozen plastic jugs of water, bags of ice, or gel packs. • A full freezer will hold the temperature for approximately 48 hours (24 hours if it is half full).

After a Power Outage

•Never taste food to determine its safety. When In Doubt, Throw It Out! •Discard food like milk, cream, fillings, cut fruits , cooked vegetables, pies if your refrigerator has been without power for more than 4 hours: •Discard any foods like bread or salad greens that may have become contaminated by juices dripping from raw meat, poultry, or fish. •In general, if any food has an unusual odor, color, or texture, throw it out.

Do’s and Don’ts ✓ Keep food covered ✓ Wear gloves while handling and serving the food ✓ Wear a hair restraint when working with food ✓ Clean and sanitize equipment on a regular basis ✓ Hand basins should be located conveniently and used for hand washing only ✓ Prevent cross-contamination

× Never cough or sneeze over food × Toilets should not open directly into any room where food is handled. × Do not wear jewelery/ nail polish while preparing/serving food × Cold foods should never be stored on top or near hot food storage × Waste shall not be permitted to build up in food areas × Never prepare the food with open cut/ wound


Before and After Training




Keep Bakery clean


Correct people BUT ALSO praise A personal thankyou from a supervisor for correct behaviour do wonders.


Module IV - Regulation and Technical Skills in Bakery


Food Laws in India - FSSAI •

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) implements a complete law to control food businesses and ensure food safety.

It lays down standards on all food categories and guidelines for manufacturing practices that need to be followed.


FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2006 is applicable on all who are handling food, uniformly across the country. •

FSSAI is the single authority for • Scientific development of Standards • Ensuring uniform implementation on who handles food, in manufacture, sale or transportation of all food. • Encouraging food Business operatives to be responsible for food safety • Encouraging food safety management systems • Providing stringent penalties for deliberate or negligent acts that would make food unsafe.


Food Safety • Food article made in a bakery can become unsafe if strict controls are not followed during processing.

• FSSAI defines UNSAFE FOOD as an article of food whose nature, substance or quality is such as to make it injurious to health. • The article itself, or its package should not be of poisonous or deleterious substance • The article should not have any filthy, rotten, or decomposed substance • Food should not be prepared under unhygienic processing • Food should not have an ingredient which is not permitted • Food article should not be coloured, flavoured, coated, or treated as to damage the article or to make it appear better or of greater value than it really is.




Filing of a completed Application

Filing of an Application

Application Form A Fees Rs 100/-

Acknowledge application & grant unique application no.

Processing of Application

Grant Registration Certificate if ok or reject or Issue notice for inspection

Conduct inspection – suggest improvement if necessary

After Inspection and satisfied with improvement grant registration or reject

Scrutiny, notice on any additional information required or incomplete Application if any

Within 7 days of receipt of application 30 days Within a period of 30 days

Food Business operator may start business

Applicatio n form B 15 days

FBO files additional required information

Inspection of premises & issue inspection report, improvement notice

Either grant or reject the license Within 60 days of receipt of completed application or within 30 days of inspection

No inspectio n

FBO may start the busine s s after 60 days

Factors affecting Quality of Baked Goods •Method of preparation •pH •Specific Gravity of batter •Temperature of batter/ dough

•Scaling and Leveling •Baking •Water Activity •Food safety measures


Process Control Points – Breads & Biscuits • Weighing balance should be calibrated correctly • Raw material temperature like flour and water temperature • Dough / batter temperature, pH • Mixing time • Proofing time • Proofing temperature and Relative Humidity • Oven Temperature • Baking Time


Process Control Points in Cake • • • •

• • • • • •

Mixing time Mixing Aeration Amount & type of sprayed greasing oil/fat Temperatures of the different zones of the oven, balance between upper and lower heat, Baking Humidity (level of the chimneys) Baking time, etc. Solid ,Liquid/Recipe Balancing Balance of Sugar against flour. Type of Shortening and its balance against eggs. If Milk is used total weight of egg and milk is balanced against sugar.



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