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Human Growth and Development Theories
The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process. Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that.
Growth: 1. Is physical change and increase in size. 2. It can be measured quantitatively. 3. Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bone size, and dentition. 4. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development. 5. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood. 6. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood. Development: 1. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. 2. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment. 3. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth. THEORIES: THEORIES: 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory STAGE 1. Oral
AGE CHARACTERISTICS Birth to 1½ y/o Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration)
Primary need: Security Major conflict: weaning 1½ to 3 y/o Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & self-control)
3. Phallic 4. Latency
4 to 6 y/o
Major conflict: toilet training Center of pleasure: child’s genital (masturbation)
Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex 6 y/o to pubertyEnergy directed to physical & intellectual activities Sexual impulses repressed
Relationship between peers of same sex Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment
2. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory STAGE 1. Infancy 2. Early childhood
3. Late childhood
CENTRAL (+) RESOLUTION TASK Birth-18 mos Trust vs Learn to trust others Mistrust 1½ to 3 y/o Autonomy vs Self control w/o loss Shame & doubt of self esteem
3 to 5 y/o
6 to 12 y/o
Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement Compulsive, selfrestraint or compliance.
Ability of cooperate & express oneself Willfulness & defiance. Initiative vs Learns to become Lack of selfguilt assertive confidence. Ability to evaluate one’s own behavior
4. School Age
Industry vs Inferiority
Learns to create, develop & manipulate. Develop sense of competence & perseverance.
Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing. Over-control & overrestriction. Loss of hope, sense of being mediocre. Withdrawal from school & peers.
6. Young Adulthood
65 y/o to death
Identity vs role Coherent sense of confusion self.
Intimacy vs isolation
Feelings of confusion, indecisiveness, & possible anti-social Plans to actualize behavior. one’s abilities Intimate relationship Impersonal with another person. relationships.
Commitment to work Avoidance of and relationships. relationship, career or lifestyle commitments. Generativity vs Creativity, Self-indulgence, selfstagnation productivity, concern concern, lack of for others. interests & commitments. Integrity vs Acceptance of worth Sense of loss, despair & uniqueness of one’s contempt for others. own life. Acceptance of death.
3. Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE 1. Infancy & early childhood
DEVELOPMENTAL TASK - eat solid foods - walk - talk - control elimination of wastes - relate emotionally to others - distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience - learn sex differences and sexual modesty - achieve personal independence
2. Middle childhood
- form simple concepts of social & physical reality - learn physical skills, required for games
- build healthy attitudes towards oneself - learn to socialize with peers - learn appropriate masculine or feminine role - gain basic reading, writing & mathematical skills - develop concepts necessary for everyday living - formulate a conscience based on a value system - achieve personal independence 3. Adolescence
- develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions - establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes - achieve a masculine or feminine social role - accept own body - establish emotional independence from parents - achieve assurance of economic independence - prepare for an occupation - prepare for marriage & establishment of a family - acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities
4. Early Adulthood
- develop a set of values that guides behavior - select a partner - learn to live with a partner - start a family - manage a home - establish self in a career/occupation - assume civic responsibilities
5. Middle Adulthood
- become part of a social group - fulfill civic & social responsibilities - maintain an economic standard of living - assist adolescent children to become responsible, happy adults - relate one’s partner - adjust to physiological changes
6. Later Maturity
- adjust to aging parents - adjust to physiological changes & alterations in health status - adjust to retirement & altered income - adjust to death of spouse - develop affiliation with one’s age group - meet civic & social responsibilities - establish satisfactory living arrangements
4. Levinson’s Seasons of Adulthood AGE 18-20 yrs 21-27 yrs 28-32 yrs 33-39 yrs 45-65 yrs
SEASON CHARACTERISTICS Early adult transition Seeks independence by separating from family Entrance into the Experiments with different careers & lifestyles adult world Transition Makes lifestyle adjustments Settling down Experiences greater stability Pay-off years Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation
4. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development STAGE 1. Infancy 2. Childhood 3. Juvenile 4. Preadolescence
AGE DESCRIPTION Birth to 1½ yrs Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires 1½ to 6 yrs Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires 6 to 9 yrs Child forms fulfilling peer relationships 9 to 12 yrs Child relates successfully to same-sex peers
5. Early Adolescence 6. Late Adolescence
12 to 14 yrs Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex 14 to 21 yrs Person establishes an intimate, long-lasting relationship with someone of the opposite sex
5. Piaget’s Phases of Cognitive Development PHASE a. Sensorimotor Stage 1: Use of
reflexes Stage 2: Primary circular reaction Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction
AGE DESCRIPTION Birth to 2 yrs Sensory organs & muscles become more functional Birth to 1 Movements are primarily reflexive month 1-4 months Perceptions center around one’s body. 4-8 months
Objects are perceived as extensions of the self. Becomes aware of external environment. Initiates acts to change the movement. Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities.
Stage 4: Coordination 8-12 months of secondary schemata Stage 5: Tertiary 12-18 months Experiments with methods to reach goals. circular reaction Develops rituals that become significant. Stage 6: Invention of 18-24 months Uses mental imagery to understand the new means environment. b. Pre-operational Pre-conceptual stage Intuitive stage
2-7 years 2-4 year
Uses fantasy. Emerging ability to think Thinking tends to be egocentric.
Exhibits use of symbolism. Unable to break down a whole into separate parts.
c. Concrete 7-11 years Operations d. Formal Operations 11+ years
Able to classify objects according to one trait. Learns to reason about events in the here-andnow. Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract.
6. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development LEVEL AND STAGE LEVEL I: Pre-conventional (Birth to 9 years) Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation
DESCRIPTION Authority figures are obeyed. Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done. A deed is perceived as “wrong” if one is punished; the activity is “right” if one is not punished.
Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation
“Right” is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self.
LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Stage 4: Law and order orientation
When actions satisfy one’s needs, they are “right.” Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. Approval of others is sought through one’s actions. Authority is respected. Individual feels “duty bound” to maintain social order.
LEVEL III: Post-conventional
Behavior is “right” when it conforms to the rules. Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws.
(13+ years) Stage 5: Social contract orientation It is “wrong” to violate others’ rights. Stage 6: Universal ethics The person understands the principles of human orientation rights & personal conscience. Person believes that trust is basis for relationships. 7. Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development LEVEL CHARACTERISTICS I. Orientation of Individual Survival Concentrates on what is best for self. Transition Selfish. Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility II. Goodness as Self-sacrifice
Dependent on others. Recognizes connections to others. Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others. Puts needs of others ahead of own. Feels responsible for others. Is dependent.
Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth
May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to “help.” Decisions based on intentions & consequences, not on others’ responses. Considers needs of self and others.
Wants to help others while being responsible to self. III. Morality of Nonviolence
Increased social participation. Sees self and others as morally equal Assumes responsibilities for own decisions. Basic tenet to hurt no one including self. Conflict between selfishness and selflessness. Self-judgment is not dependent on others’ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions.
8. Fowler’s Stages of Faith STAGE Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith Stage 1: Intuitiveprojective faith
Stage 2: Mythicalliteral faith
CHARACTERISTICS Trust, hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment. Toddler-preschooler Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality. Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts. School-aged child Accepts existence of a deity. Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories. Appreciates others’ viewpoints.
Stage 3: Syntheticconventional faith Stage 4: Individuativereflective faith Stage 5: Conjunctive faith Stage 6: Universalizing faith
Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness. Adolescent Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity. Late adolescent & Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & young adult beliefs. Adult Adult
Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth. Makes concepts of love & justice tangible.