Indian Constitution

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CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY  Constituent assembly consisted of 389 members. 292

elected from provinces, 93 nominated by princely states and 4 nominated by Chief commissioners provinces.  Dr. Sachidanand Sinha was the 1st President of Constituent assembly.  Assembly appointed 22 committees, Most important being Drafting Committee  Drafting Committee had 7 members. Bhim Rao Ambedkar Chairman.

 Constitution was adopted by the assembly on     

26Nov.1949 But it came in force on 26January 1950 Constituent assembly met for 166 days over period of 2years 11months 18days. Gandhi & Jinnah were not the members of constituent assembly. Later on constituent assembly became provisional parliament. Then president of assembly Rajendra Prasad became 1st President of India.

Borrowed from Others  Fundamental Rights & Supreme court- USA  Directive principles of state policy – Ireland  Division of power of legislation between central and

   

state government(provision of union state and Concurrent list) – Australia Residual Power with centre- Canada Parliamentary democracy- British Suspension of fundamental rights during EmergencyGerman Constitution. Fundamental Duties- USSR


Important Things and their location in Constitution  Citizenship- part II (art 5-11)  Fundamental Rights – Part III (art 12-35)  Directive Principles of state policy- Part IV (art 36-51)

 Fundamental Duties- Part IV A-(art 51A) 42nd

amendment 1976  Union Government, Supreme court- Part V (art 52-151)  State Government- Part VI- (art 152-237)

 Union territories- Part VII- (art 239-242)  Panchayat- Part IX- (art 243-243 O)

 Municipalities- Part IX A- (art 243 P- 243 ZG)  Elections- Part XV- (art 324-329)  Special provisions relating to certain classes like

SCs, STs OBCs, Anglo-Indians – Part XVI(art330-342)  Official Language- Part XVII- (art 343-351)  Emergency- Part XVIII- (art 352-360)

Important Articles         

Equality before law- art 14 Prohibition of Child Labour- art 24 Organisation of Village Panchayats- art 40 Free and compulsory education- art 45 Protection of monuments/places of national importance- article 49 Separation of judiciary from executive-art 50 Power of president to grant pardon- art 72 Qualification of MP- art 84 Annual financial statement Budget- art 112

 Comptroller & Auditor General of India art148  Power of parliament to legislate regarding      

states in national interest- art 249 Executive Power of Centre supersedes that of state- art 257 Interstate council- art 263 Finance Commission- art 280 Union and state Public service commission- art 315 Election Commission- art 324 National Commission for SC/ST- art 338

 Official language of India- art 343  Proclamation of National Emergency- art 352  President’s Rule for states( failure of constitutional

Machinery)- art 356  Financial Emergency- art 360  Power of parliament to amend Constitution and procedure- art 368  Temporary provisions for Jammu & Kashmir- art 370

Important Schedules  Allocation of seats in Rajya shabha to states and UTs –   

4th Schedule Union List, State List and Concurrent List - 7th Schedule Languages recognized by Constitution originally 14 now 22 – 8th Schedule Panchayat- 11th Schedule (73rd amendment) Municipalities- 12th Schedule (74th amendment)

Important Amendments  7th amend(1956)- reorganization of states on Linguistic 

 

basis 39th amend (1975)- Election of President, Vice president, PM, Speaker of Lok shabha cannot be reviewed by judiciary 42nd amend(1976): Words Socialist, Secular and Integrity incorporated in the preamble. Incorporated Fundamental Duties of Citizens. 61st amend(1985): reduced voting age from 21 to 18. 73rd amend(1992): constitutional status to Panchayati raj

 74th amend(1993): Constitutional status to 

 

Municipalities 80th amend(2000): Increase of share of states in revenue to 26% as per recommendation of 10th Finance Commission. 86th amend(2002): Free and Compulsory education for Children between age 6-14yrs 88th amend(2004): Taxes on services 89th amend(2004): creation of National Commission for SCs and STs 93rd amend(2005): Power to make law for reservation in Educational institute.

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