Innovation In Aircraft

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Innovation in The Aerospace Submitted By: Areeb Sharique 13P128 Benjamin Ganpathy Subramaniam13P074 Shweta Verma 13P170 Smriti Agarwal 13P237

The Curious Man • For centuries, flight was considered impossible but today, we can fly halfway around the world within twenty-four hours • Mankind has had dreams of flight for centuries. Even the famous inventor and painter, Leonardo from Vinci, invented a helicopter. • But even with wonderful sketches, ideas, dreams and brainstorming, man couldn’t make a successful flying machine • The first real flying machines by mankind which really worked were primitive hot-air balloons by Montgolfier brothers • Soon people realized that they needed a flying machine that could be completely controlled by man that could take flight, stay in the air, go where the pilot wanted it to, and land when and where he wanted it to land.

Timeline of Inventions

1783 - Hot air balloon

1880s – Bicycle was introduced

1903 – Controllable aircraft

1930s – Luxury Vehicles (Airship – a hybrid between airplanes and hot air balloons)

1950s – Postwar boom leads to modern aircrafts

The Dream of Icarious •

The Myth of Icarus - Icarus is a character in Greek myths. He was the son of Daedalus a brilliant (human) architect in Greek mythology. The story goes that Daedalus was so talented he was imprisoned along with his son and forced to work for the mythical King Minos of Crete. Out of wax and feathers he fashioned wings for both him and Icarus to escape. Before they departed he warned Icarus to stay close to him and not go to near the sun. Unfortunately being a vibrant young man Icarus couldn’t help himself and flew higher and higher until his wings melted and he fell to his death. • Inventors continue to try to bring the comic book fantasy of personal jet flight to life, and Yves Rossy has come closestability to fly like a bird remains elusive Personal flight—the despite those centuries of adventure and experimentation

PS1 The Sport Flying – ICON A5 •

In 2004, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), working closely with the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) created what has been called “The biggest change in aviation in 50 years.” They created an entirely new category of aircraft (Light Sport Aircraft) as well as a new category of pilot license (Sport Pilot), both aimed specifically at consumer recreational flying ICON Aircraft’s mission is to bring the freedom, fun, and ICON’s intent is to adventure of flying to all who have dreamed of flight

democratize aviation the same way that great brands like Apple, BMW, Ducati, or Oakley democratize their products: by fusing outstanding engineering

Stratospheric Skydive – A Mission to the Edge of Space •On August 16, 1960, Captain Joseph Kittinger made the final jump, from the Excelsior III, at 102,800 feet (31,300 m) •Towing a small drogue parachute for initial stabilization, he fell for 4 minutes and 36 seconds, reaching a maximum speed of 614 miles per hour (988 km/h) before opening his parachute at 18,000 feet (5,500 m) •Pressurization for his right glove malfunctioned during the ascent, and his right hand swelled to twice its normal size

Ballooning •

• •

Ballooning became a major "rage" in Europe in the late 18th century, providing the first detailed understanding of the relationship between altitude and the atmosphere. Work on developing a steerable balloon continued sporadically throughout the 19th century. The first powered, controlled, sustained lighter-than-air flight is believed to have taken place in 1852 when Henri Gifard flew 15 miles (24 km) in France, with a steam engine driven craft. Non-steerable balloons were employed during the American Civil War by the Union Army Balloon Corps.

Airships • • •

• •

Airships were originally called "dirigible balloons" The first aircraft to make routine controlled flights were non-rigid airships . At the same time that non-rigid airships were starting to have some success, the first successful rigid airships were also being developed. These would be far more capable than fixed-wing aircraft in terms of pure cargo carrying capacity for decades Although airships were used in both World War I and II their development has been largely overshadowed by heavierthan-air craft.

Powered Flight •

A powered aircraft is an aircraft that uses onboard propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine  From the first controlled powered fixed-wing aircraft flight until World War II, propellers turned by the internal combustion piston engine were virtually the only type of propulsion system in use Aircraft propulsion nearly always uses either a type of propeller, or a form of jet propulsion. Other potential propulsion techniques such as orinthopters are very rarely used

The Jet Engine History • • •

• • •

1928: Frank Whittle came up with the idea of the jet engine 1930: Frank Whittle patented the concept of the turbojet engine 1937: using newly available strong and light materials, he produced the first viable jet engine to be successfully tested in a laboratory May 1941: the Gloster-Whittle E28/39 made its first flight with the experimental Power Jets W1 engine July 1944: Gloster Meteor, the first British jet fighter and the first production jet, entered service with the RAF 1958: The Boeing 707 entered service and allowed travel distances at speeds that would had been impossible just 10 years earlier

The Jet Engine Innovation • -

Problem statements to resolve: How do you make a faster engine ? How do you create a chamber strong enough to house an engine that would create a lot of heat and vast directed thrust ?

• -

Solution: Instead on focusing on the strength of the combustion chamber, Whittle used ten combustion chambers which produced impressive thrust Rather than having just one large chamber the engine would divide up the combustion created into the ten diferent chambers


• -

The Jet Engine – The Principle

The principle of the jet engine: The engine sucks air in at the front with the fan A compressor raises the pressure of the air The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. - As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward.

• Consequence : carry the aircraft to fly far higher and faster than with the standard piston engine and propeller

The Turboprop Engine History 1938: György Jendrassik (Hungaryan engineer) designed first true turboprop engine, the Cs1

1941: abandoned during the war as Hungary signed the Triple Alliance with Germany which used more turbojet engines

1942: Max Mueller designed the first turboprop engine that went into production

1953: creation of the world's first turboprop-powered airline service with British European Airways

1961: design of the PT6A the most popular turboprop engine ever developed (36,000 units between 1963 and 2001

The Turboprop Engine - Innovation • -

Problem statements to resolve: How to make a more efficient engine? How to improve thrust of the engine? How to reduce fuel consumption?

• -

Solution: Use the benefits of both the jet engine and propeller

The Turboprop Engine Principle •

• • -

Jet engine attached to a propeller: the turbine at the back is turned by the hot gases, and this turns a shaft that drives the propeller. Modern turboprop engines: Propellers that have a smaller diameter Larger number of blades (for efficient operation at much higher flight speeds) Consequences: Better propulsion efficiency at flight speeds below about 500 miles per hour Lower fuel consumption

Fly-by-wire • A system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface • First pure electronic fly-by-wire aircraft without any backup was the Apollo Lunar Landing Research Vehicle in 1964 • Movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires • Pilot inputs commands via a sidestick or yoke to a computer, which directs the hydraulic or electric actuator to deflect a flight control surface • Boeing 777: First attempt at a completely fly-by-wire commercial airplane

Advantages of Fly-by-wire • • •

Systems have become advanced, making them easier to fly Weight savings: lesser fuel consumption, better balance and more room for other features Enhanced safety features: Automatic lockdown and early warning signals

Autopilot • • •

A system used to control the trajectory of a vehicle without constant ‘hands-on’ control by a human operator First aircraft autopilot: 1912 Advantages: – Allows the pilot to concentrate on other issues like reviewing checklists, communicating with ATC – Smoother flight for passengers – Saves fuel considerably

How Airbus Does It A history of innovation at AirBus Airbus entered the civil Airbus entered the aviation scene in civil the 1970 by aviation scene in the by developing the first1970 ever wide developing theengine: first ever wide bodied twin A300 bodied twin engine: A300 Airbus A320 – which set standards for efficiency and cabin comfort AirBus introduced the ultra A330 A340 aircraft for medium range and long range

Fly your Ideas: Crowd sourcing • A global initiative for students to innovate for the future • Fly your ideas is a unique event for students to work together in diverse teams to find out how to change norms related to air travel • The changes can be disruptive or they can be incremental • The major portion uses the concept of Medici efect bringing together students from diferent

Fly by Wire systems CarbonFiberReinforced Carbon Wings

World’s largest Airliner A 380 Side stick controls

Commonalit y Working with organizations such as innovate UK: • AirBus is seeking to help build the technical capability • Partner with universities to find out innovative ways to counter lightning adverse efects

How Boeing Does It Major focus: Incremental innovations- “No Moon shots” Boeing CEO

Boeing 787

Boeing 747 Making Long flights possible

US Space program Orbiter 1 First Us spacecraft to orbit the moon

Taking Cues from the nature - Bird wings

Round Window shapes Taking cues fro m the comet

Organizational Structure:  The Organizational structure helps the various initiatives for innovation at Boeing  Special invention Award: Every year a special invention award is conferred to the individuals/teams who have come up with new innovations or found new applications for existing technologies  Technical Fellowship program: Also ofers a technical fellowship program ofering their first rate scientists and engineers a separate path towards advancement  Boeing Research and Technology: The main innovation engine for Boeing, undertakes research which benefits the company as a whole

Future possible innovations • Safety pods:  One possible innovations in air safety could be safe electable seats. As soon as there is a possibility of a crash the whole seat assembly ejects out along with parachute

• 3-D Printing:  A very great possible innovation could be the application of 3-D printers in aircraft design. It could be used for rapid prototyping, fast production, capable machines that can run 24X7

• Safer- Aviation Turbine fuel:  Most of the deaths in Air Crashes are due to Highly inflammable fuel. A turbine fuel which does not ignite easily will serve a great purpose for Air craft safety

• Aircraft Cruises:  In the next generation Air Travel, Air Travel will be more of a leisure activity rather than a necessity. This would mean there is space for aircraft innovation where Aircraft is more transparent from the base and this would give the feel of travelling in air and a pleasurable experience


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