Maintenance Planner

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Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

Module1 - Introduction

Introduction • Who am I? • Who are you? • Outline your experience in planning and

scheduling/maintenance • Special requests over the subject matter if any

Outline of The Course Day 1 Objective of the course What is expected through the course Maintenance strategy Elements of work management Purpose of planning and scheduling Benefits of planning and scheduling Work identification Work prioritization Exercise

Outline Of The Course

Day 2 Exercise Planning Exercise Backlog Management Scheduling Work execution

Outline Of The Course

Day 3 Work closure and documentation Work order status control Analysis and continuous improvement Performance measurement Meetings Materials management Preventive maintenance

Outline Of The Course

Day 4 Shutdown Management CMMS Test questions and answers Questions and discussions

Objective Of The Course

• Define planning and scheduling • Understand the necessity of planned work • Understand it’s effect on interest groups • Understand it’s effect on maintenance performance • Understand the role of a Planner and Scheduler

What Is Expected Through This Course

• • • • • • • •

Better understanding of Planning and Scheduling Importance of defect identification What it takes to plan a job How to efficiently schedule daily and future work How to increase wrench time How to control Backlog How to conduct maintenance meetings How to measure maintenance performance

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 2 –Maintenance Strategy

Maintenance Strategy Definition

Management method used to achieve maintenance objectives

Maintenance Strategy Objective

Reduce equipment downtime Minimize equipment damage &repairs Reduce maintenance cost Reduce parts & material inventory Sustain plant reliability

Maintenance Strategies

Run-to-Failure (RTF) A strategy where the organization decides to

allow specific equipment/asset/system to fail without performing any PM or PdM. It is a deliberate decision based on economic effectiveness Predictive Maintenance (PdM) also called as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The strategy is based on the actual condition i.e health of the equipment/asset. It involves non invasive measurements and tests on the asset so as to identify and take actions in advance to prevent failures Preventive Maintenance (PM) The strategy is based on inspection, component replacement and overhaul of an equipment/asset at a fixed interval/cycle regardless the condition of the asset at that time

Reactive Maintenance

There is no structured maintenance program The individual asset/system doesn’t have its own PM/PdM

or RTF based specific maintenance strategy Maintenance is generally performed after the equipment has failed The failed equipment is returned to its working condition and service specifications by replacing or repairing faulty components  Reactive maintenance is mostly carried out on unscheduled basis

Advantages Of Reactive Maintenance

Lower start up cost Lower labor and staff cost Normally justified in small factories where : Down times can be sustained Repair costs are less than other type of

maintenance Financial justification for scheduling is not felt

Disadvantages Of Reactive Maintenance

High cost. Emergency repairs cost 3 to 5 times more

than planned repairs Unpredictability Life expectancy of assets is reduced Higher business risk Higher safety issues Time consuming Difficult to control budgets Resources get wasted Cannot be employed for equipments regulated by statutory provisions e.g. cranes, lifts, hoists etc

Proactive Maintenance

Maintenance work is completed to avoid failures or to indentify defects that could lead to failure. It includes Preventive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Defect Identification

Advantages of Proactive Maintenance

•Reduces equipment failures •Better utilization of resources •Lower consumption of spares and materials •Reduces business risk •Improves plant safety •Facilitates better coordination between operations , maintenance and stores •Ensures better work life balance •Higher employee moral

Disadvantages of Proactive Maintenance

•Labour intensive •Unless and until the maintenance frequencies are optimized , too much or too little preventive maintenance will occur •Increases investment in diagnostic equipment •At times includes some invasive activities that cause incidental damage to equipment

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 3 -Work Management

What Is Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Planning and Scheduling is a disciplined approach to get the right work done by the right people using the right material at the right time. It is an essential part of effective maintenance.

Strategic Purpose Of Planning And Scheduling

•To avoid delays •To leverage labour resource (get more work done with fewer people). •To establish an approach that will reduce reactive maintenance over the long term •To minimize the chaos and efficiency losses resulting from disconnects with production schedule, priority changes, emergency work and outages •Maximize plant availability at minimal cost

Benefits Of Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

•Reduction in equipment downtime •Up to 100% increase in wrench time •Reduction in maintenance costs •Improved inventory control •Improved plant safety •Improved maintenance and repair quality •Improved employee moral •Improved work relations between departments •Improved work life balance

Benefits of Maintenance P&S for Maintenance Dept

•Provides more time for site activities &leadership •Provides desired methods and procedures for jobs •Helps to know the requirement of the labor for the jobs well in advance •Helps improve quality of the work done •Helps to avoid delays due to non availability of spares, material, tool, job details, equipment etc •Facilitates better control over work as the quantum of weekly work is known well in advance •Better control on over time •Ensures better work life balance

Benefits of Maintenance P&S for Operations Dept

•Increases availability of the equipments by minimizing down time and interruptions •Operations own the weekly schedule. This ensures a better control over the work to be done •Joint prioritization facilitates correct job priorities •Helps to provide better estimates as to when the equipment will be available for usage •Ensures better coordination with maintenance with planner as single point of contact •Ensures better participation of operations in analysis of planned jobs

Wrench Time

Break/lunch; 13%

wrench time; 30%

Wait time; 16%

meetings; 5%

materials; 4%

Clean up; 2%

Administration; 4%

tools; 7% instructions; 4%

travel; 17%

Reasons For Wrench Time Losses Some of the major reasons for losses in wrench time are •Waiting for parts, spares and material •Searching parts, spares and material •Waiting for equipment to be shutdown/handed over •Waiting for instructions, information, drawings etc •Waiting for permits •Running from emergency to emergency •Travel time (to and fro) •Improper job scoping •Waiting for crane and auxiliary services •Waiting for the other craft to finish his work

How P&S Improves Wrench Time Consider a plant -A operating in a reactive mode with no planner/scheduler •Assume the plant to have 30 maintenance craft people with a wrench time of 30% •The total productive time available = 30 peoplex40 hrs/weekx0.30 = 360 man hours/week

How P&S Improves Wrench Time Consider a similar plant -B operating in planned maintenance mode with same number of maintenance people ie 30 people which includes 2 planners • The number of maintenance craft people available becomes (30-2) =28 with a wrench time of 50% •The total productive time available = 28 peoplex40 hrs/weekx0.50 = 560 man hours/week

How P&S Improves Wrench Time Comparing A & B , we find

•Plant B has performed 560 hrs-360 hrs=200 extra work with the same number of maintenance people

• 200 additional work hours/week are equivalent to 200/40X.3≈ 17 additional maintenance people

•Thus with 2 maintenance crew working as planners/schedulers, we have 200/360=55.55% increase in productive (wrench) time

Work Management Process Steps

Work Management Process

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 4 -Work Identification

Work Identification Overview

Work Identification is the first step in the Work Management Process  What  Where  Notifications/Work Requests - key component of

this sub-process

Function of Work Identification

To identify right work at the right time

Work Identification Methods  Planned Maintenance  Observations during work execution  Weekly Walk-Downs  Operator Rounds  Maintenance Reports  Audit Database (Internal / External)  Daily Reports  Shift Handover  Vendor Reports / Visitor Observations  Management / Supervisory Request  HSSE / Safety Inspection  Planned Shutdown Work  Project and Modification  Training  Recommendations of RCA’s  OEM Upgrade

Work Identification Responsibility

Remember •Anyone can be responsible for identifying work and generating work requests •Not the sole responsibility of maintenance & operations •Find little things •Get to it before it becomes a problem

Role Of Operators In Work Identification

•Operators run the equipment. Hence they are always in a better position to know equipment problems. •Operators should be encouraged to identify and report any defects or any abnormal behavior of equipment before they fail • Use operators as the 1st line of defense. Such a proactive practice acts as a very effective tool to reduce downtime and cost

Walk-Down Process

Proactive method of defect identification Participants include maintenance leader, production

leader, planner, safety representative, material coordinator Carried out every week Each area/zone is inspected every 3 months /yr Open WOs list for the area/zone is examined New work is identified Completed work is deleted from the open WOs list

Work Requests  Originator/assigned person must enter all notifications / work requests in CMMS  Key information may include Correct Notification type Defect description Defect / Repair Tag Number Work Type (Proactive, Reactive) Failure Codes, if known Functional Location (if required) Equipment identification number Priority Code Special Requirements if any(safety requirements, possible permits) ‘Created By’ ‘Reported By’ Projected Dates, if known

Benefits Of Clear Description

• Eliminates ambiguity • The job can be planned correctly the first time • Waiting time due to poor instructions can be eliminated • Originator is easier to identify • Helps to eliminate duplicate work orders

Work Request Approval

All work should have a work request Work request approval time for non safety jobs

should be <48 hours, for safety critical <24hrs An effective approval process should exist to ensure necessary work is approved and non-value added work is minimized

Work Request Cancellation

Cancellation of work requests should be carried out

on merit and valid reasons Originator should always be informed and the reasons explained Procedure should be in place with proper audit system to ensure that the cancellation process is being rightly followed

Benefits of Work Identification

Helps to take timely actions Enables to have parts and material at hand Can prevent small problem resulting into a major

breakdown and emergencies Helps improve plant safety Helps reduce maintenance cost

Work Identification


A stitch in time saves nine

Work Identification Process Flow


Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 5 -Work Prioritization

What Is Prioritization

It is a method of determining and communicating the real urgency of identified work

Why Prioritize

If work is not prioritized correctly, •Reactive work dominates •Less important jobs often precede critical jobs •Critical jobs are often lost in the backlog •Leads to over inflating of work •Creates a culture of mistrust •Safety often gets compromised •Maintenance costs escalate

Why Prioritize

If everything is very important, then nothing is important

Examples Of Prioritization

Three levels 1-Emergency- Needs to be started immediately 2-Urgent- Can be started after 24 hrs but in a week 3-Planned- All work that can be planned

Examples Of Prioritization

Four levels 1-Emergency- Needs to be started immediately 2-Urgent- Can be started after 24 hrs but in a week 3-Medium Priority-To be started within 30 days 4-Low Priority- Can be started after 30 days

Examples Of Prioritization

Five levels 1-Emergency- Needs to be started immediately 2-Urgent- Can be started after 24 hrs but in a week 3-Serious-To be started within 2 weeks 4-Medium Priority-To be started within 1 month 5-Low Priority- Can be started after 1 month

Benefits Of Prioritization

•More work can be planned, scheduled and executed •Ensuring correct priority means your plant output will be interrupted less often •Wastage of maintenance man-hours on tasks of low relative importance is avoided •There is consensus on importance of each of the jobs between maintenance and operations • Ensures higher schedule compliance

Benefits Of Prioritization

• Emergency work costs 3 to 5 times the planned work • Takes 2 to 3 times more to complete • Quality is often a suspect • Forward scheduled work cost 10 %– 20 % less than unscheduled work

Communication Of Prioritization

Maintenance priority system should clearly

communicated to all the plant personnel Priority Matrix should be displayed at various locations across the plant Personnel should be trained in effective priority based decision making


Priority system followed by you



Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 6 –Planning

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling


Planning Overview

•Planning is how to do the work and what information to collect to do this work •It is the key strategic element in maintenance planning and scheduling •The primary purpose of planning is to identify and remove as many obstacles as possible for smooth execution of the work •Good planning is a prerequisite for sound scheduling

Planning Overview

 Look into the future  All jobs don’t need the same level of planning

but all require some thought  When sufficient planning capacity exists, "all jobs that benefit" should be planned

The Rush Job

I am a rush job. I belong to no age, for man has always hurried. I prod all human endeavours. Men believe me necessary – but falsely. I rush today because I was not planned yesterday. I demand excessive energy and concentration. I override obstacles, but at great expense. I illustrate the old saying “Haste makes waste.” My path is strewn with the evils of overtime, mistakes, and disappointment. Accuracy and quality give way to speed. Ruthlessly I rush on … I am a rush job. Anonymous

Why Plan

Planning is necessary  To ensure that the work is executed the right way and is troublefree from start to finish  To reduce waste and non productive time  To ensure that the work is done error free (quality)  To minimise cost of the work  To facilitate good coordination between operations, maintenance and stores  To do the work safely ‘Failing to plan is planning to fail, Benjamin Franklin

Long-Range Maintenance Planning

WHY bother with a “Long-Range Maintenance Plan? In the rush to get work done we often forget activities that we know we should deal with. If you don’t write a commitment down on your calendar, there is a tendency to schedule two or more activities at the same time. A calendar is a long-range plan…and a long range plan is really just a calendar of future events

Long-Range Maintenance Planning Activities that lend

themselves to long range scheduling:  Known major events like

annual shutdowns, capital projects, etc.  PMs with frequency greater than one month  Regulatory requirements (set up in PM program)  Accounting for periods of resource constraints (vacations, Festivals, holidays, etc.)

Long-Range Maintenance Plan

Zone Maintenance Long-Range Planning Once all the long range activities have been identified, divide

the facility into “ZONES” ZONES” can either be Systems (with known boundaries), geographic areas, or large equipment. Systems can be broken into sub-systems if too large. Each “ZONE” is allocated to one week during a thirteen week quarter “ZONES” can be moved for resourcing or risk related issues PMs for the “ZONES” are adjusted for due date alignment “ZONES” can best be viewed on a spreadsheet Duplicate the 13 week “ZONE” schedule and you have a 52 Week “ZONE” schedule (13 X 4 = 52) Each week we focus on the associated “ZONE” or “ZONES”

Zone Maintenance Long-Range Planning

Zone Maintenance Long-Range Planning

One of the greatest benefits of using such a tool is that it allows

you to see PM activities before they are scheduled. What often happens is that we rely on our CMMS to schedule our PM’s automatically and arbitrarily based on some frequency and/or last finished date. This reliance tends to “hide” the PM. Depending on the system, the PM pops up on the radar screen right before it’s due. This allows the planner little time to properly prepare for the task, consequently leading to a greater probability of deferment or delinquency. Having the ability to visualize the task allows for recognition, planning and execution. Another benefit is that viewing the event on a calendar allows adjustments to meet seasonal needs.

Work Order

Work Order is a critical document in maintenance

management process It is a source of information for the work done, cost of labor, parts and material used and causes of failure Work orders help tracking of cost of ownership of the equipment for decision making  Importance of a work order should be made known to all the technicians involved in plant maintenance

Job Plan

A job plan is sequencing of steps and

coordination of supporting activities to accomplish a specific work activity the right way A job plan is not a job procedure A job plan is what the scheduler and execution team follows when they do their respective work

Minimum Requirements Of A Planned Job All jobs do not require same level of planning . However the minimum requirements of any planned job should be Correct Equipment Identification Number Work to be done Labor estimate of all the crafts required for the job List of parts and material & their estimated costs Checking availability of these parts and raising necessary requests wherever required Clearances requirements Changing the status in CMMS as ready to be scheduled Preparation of the work pack

Job Plan

Symptoms of Ineffective Planning

Some of the typical symptoms of poor planning  Maintenance people standing around waiting for parts  Maintenance people waiting for asset to be handed over  Frequent trips to stores by maintenance personnel  Poor quality of work  High rework  High stock-outs in the storeroom  Planners routinely used to expedite parts  Production downtime invariably higher than estimated

Planning Process

Seven steps of planning process Screening of work orders Assessing and scoping of the work to be performed Job Research (labour libraries, reference files, equipment

history, schematics) Breakdown of jobs with detailing and sequencing of tasks Material Preparation of work pack Receiving feedback and updating job plans

Screening Of Work Orders

Verify whether The work order is not a duplicate The requested work is needed (based on actual visit) Priority is correct (based on visit) Can the job be done anytime? Can the job be taken up during shutdowns? The description of the problem is clear and complete Correct Location and Equipment numbers are present  All requester required fields are completed with valid codes  Priority and requested completion dates are realistic and provide required lead-time for planning

Jobs scoping involves

Job Scoping

•Discussing with the requester about the problem and his expectations •Verification of the specific job location •Listing what needs to be done from start to finish •Safety hazards and permit requirements •Forecasting requirements for job execution •Preparing a list of steps necessary to execute the job •Photographs/sketches •Identifying special needs if any •Whether the equipment needs to be shutdown •Vendor and services requirements

Job Research

In the job research step the planner should Determine the level of maintenance planning required for the job If a job plan is required, verify if one already exists in the system If no job plan exists, can parts of other job plans be applied to

create a new one if required Will a picture or sketch help move the work execution along Consider alternative plans /approaches for the work viz. 1) Should the item be replaced rather than repaired 2) Should the item be procured rather than fabricated 3) Will modification or extra work give better results Consider seeking help of engineering , reliability and specialists wherever required

Detailed Job Planning

The step involves Identifying the best method for job performance Splitting the job into tasks Identifying task dependencies Labour requirements Bill of Materials Special tools, equipment and services required including safety items Scaffolding, insulation removal, cranes etc Workshop and fabrication requirements if any Electrical isolations Transport requirements Cost estimates Disposal of wastes and oils

Detailed Job Planning

Essentials of good Labour Estimating Practices Familiarity with jobs and plant assets Comparing jobs against benchmarks Care while using historical data as they are likely to

have built in delays Don’t try to be 100% accurate

Detailed Job Planning

Steps and procedures Develop clear work instructions with supporting

sketches and drawings for disassembling and assembling a complex component Include steps at which data such as temperature or bearing clearances should be recorded Provide specifications and standards e.g torque value, pressures etc

Contingencies And Mitigations

All safety critical work orders should have documented mitigation plans  Planner should consult TA in safety critical work  Mitigation to reduce / eliminate risk should exist on planner checklist and should be used consistently for all work Regular audits should be carried out to ensure proper mitigation

Repetitive Jobs

All job plans should be properly stored in

CMMS and be easily accessible for review and re-use The database should be reviewed regularly to ensure that the information remains up-to-date Procedure should be in place to assure data base is maintained at a high quality

Work Pack

A folder handed over to the technicians containing all the information and details to complete the job •An index of what the folder contains •Work order •Job safety analysis and risk assessment •Work permits •Job Plan with task lists and task sheets •List of all tools, parts and materials •Drawings , schematics, prints , specifications, special procedures etc •Documents and repair approval forms •Descriptions and photos of what they should find as they do the job •Equipment history •A test and check sheet to confirm accuracy of the work •A feedback form for the execution team

Feedback On The Job Plan

Feedback is essential to make necessary improvements in the job plans for future use A typical Feedback Form carries following details: Were the job instructions clear? Was the job carried out in line with the job plan? Were the tasks and their sequencing correct? Did any unusual problem occur? Were the time estimates correct? Were any extra tools, material and services required? Were there any delays related to permits and equipment hand over?  Suggestions from the crew executing the job

Planner Role Planner is the most critical position in the entire

maintenance planning and scheduling process Should be proactive, efficient, skilled and competent A good communicator Be able to establish and maintain effective working relationships with all stakeholders Should make every effort to know his plant in detail People with work execution experience normally make a good planner

Planner Responsibilities

 Should look into the future  Review work orders requiring planning to understand the requested work  Evaluate and understand planned work priorities  Should spend at least 1/3 of the day in the field for job scoping and research  Prepare job plans based on level of detailing required for the respective jobs  Maintain and update job plan library  Identify and reserve parts & materials

Planner Responsibilities

 Prepare work packs  Coordinate with operations , maintenance, engineering and

service provider  Chair the weekly & daily scheduling meeting  Work towards improving the equipment BOMs  Generate reports on the KPIs  Maintain integrity of the backlog  Review job feedback to improve job plans and estimates

Don’ts of A Planner

A planner should not : •Be used for emergency/unscheduled work •Expedite material •Act as a reliever supervisor •Be assigned directly to the line organization •Be totally desk driven •Be immersed in real time activities

Don’ts of A Planner

The most common reasons planning programs fail are Unqualified/Untrained planner-wrong person in the role

of the planner Overlap in roles and responsibilities-Ambiguity in roles and responsibilities of planner and other functions in maintenance Overworked planner-High planner to craft ratio Planner doing multiple work

Enhancing Planning Capabilities

Planning capabilities can be improved by Leadership involvement and roles. All the maintenance team members should be educated in P&S to ensure that each one understands his/her role correctly Planners should be provided additional support wherever required in developing effective job plans. It invariably helps improving planning by providing a senior maintenance technician to the planner for a few hours every day Planners must have a library of information which should include equipment manuals, drawings, specifications , labor libraries and other documents Planned work packs should be reviewed by maintenance supervisor before scheduling to ensure that the work is doable as planned



Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 7 –Backlog


The total amount of work that has been identified but not yet completed

Purpose Of Backlog

Backlog acts as a storage area of maintenance work An effective way to organize and quantify the work Lowest cost reliability is achieved only when the right work is

planned, scheduled and executed in the right order Helps identify potential resource issues Helps to measure and control risk Remember

Maintenance cannot move past the reactive stage without a firm control over backlog

Backlog Contents

 Jobs enter backlog following notification approval  jobs are removed from backlog after completion  Backlog includes repair work as well as

preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance and routine work  General overhauls of equipment is considered as a part of backlog

How To Use Backlog

Backlog acts as a tool to make decisions about: What to plan What to schedule How many resources are required Material and service requirements When to use contractors

Measuring Backlog

Backlog = required man hours / available man hours Backlog is generally expressed in weeks of backlog Backlog calculations:  Add up required man hours for all pending work-A  Sum up total man hours available in a week-B (Average)  Sum up total man hours spent for lunch, breaks, training,

meetings, PM work etc in a week -C (Average)  Backlog = A/B-C weeks

How Much Is Too Much Backlog?

In general context and level of risk associated with

each particular asset determines the level of acceptable backlog Low risk assets tolerate higher backlog & vice versa An over staffed crew will have a small maintenance backlog and vice versa

Managing Backlog

The Planner should Manage the backlog ( Upkeep and Accuracy) Generate backlog reports Review backlog periodically with appropriate

personnel Sort backlog to produce work list for weekly look ahead scheduling Remember-Though Planner is the custodian of the backlog, managing backlog is everybody’s responsibility

How To Check Backlog Integrity •Jobs that are completed but haven’t been closed •Duplicate jobs •Ageing jobs •Jobs for which no one knows why the job was needed • A poorly described where it is difficult to know what is to be done •Job status not filled in and nobody recalls what the status is •Jobs waiting for parts. Were the parts ordered? Were they received? where are they now? • Jobs that need to be done but are not listed in the backlog

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 8- Scheduling

Scheduling Definition

A sequence of activities undertaken to ensure that proper resources are available at a specific time when equipment on which the work to be done can also be available


‘Who, and ‘When, of getting work done

Scheduling Objective

Choose the work, finalize coordination of resources and commit to get the work done within a defined time and date

Benefits of Scheduling Efficient scheduling results in Eliminating waiting for spares, material and permits Efficient use of work execution work force Allowing correct skills to be allocated to tasks Levelling the work load across high and low peaks Higher schedule compliance

Effects of Sound Scheduling With effective scheduling, the execution team gets everything they need for the job in time A work permit to execute the job Asset cleaned and ready to be released for job Asset ready for lock out and tag out Material and spares at the site including tools and material handling equipment Right maintenance personnel with proper PPE

Important Activities Prior To Scheduling Process should be in place to ensure quality of

the work order contents Planner should review the work against checklist Planner should review the work with operations, supervisors, technicians and also engineers wherever required Process should be in place to ensure visual identification of work as ready to schedule

Requirements Of A Reliable Schedule A reliable schedule must ensure A job priority ranking that reflects criticality and work impact Availability of all the material needed for the work Resource availability matches the scheduled work Realistic estimates and what is likely to happen rather than what the scheduler wishes Sufficient flexibility in the schedule. The scheduler must revise and update the schedule regularly

Equipment Criticality What is equipment criticality? A criticality rating for a piece of equipment is used to determine

how often the equipment should be inspected and how it is to be maintained It produces a priority scale to care for equipment with equipment of the highest importance getting highest protection and response It acts as a guide for the planner/scheduler to decide which require immediate attention and which work orders can be rescheduled to a future date It helps to determine the mitigation strategy to be applied to the asset Helps to determine the optimum level of holding of spares for the asset

Equipment Criticality Sample Criticality Criteria 5 Very High-Critical safety related items and protective

devices 4 High-Critical to uninterrupted production of the final product 3 Medium-Supporting system for the main production process 2 Low-Stand by equipment in a critical system 1 Very low-Other ancillary equipment In general 20% of plant assets should be classified as critical

Work Impact, If Not Done Sample Work Impact Criteria 5 Immediate threat to safety of people and plant 4 Will affect operation’s ability to meet primary goals 3 Will create hazardous situations for the people or

machinery though not an immediate threat 2 Will affect operations after some time though not immediately 1 Improve the efficiency of the operation process

Job Priority Samples of Job Priority Ranking Job priority = Equipment criticality x Work impact  A work order with equipment criticality of 3 and work

impact of 3 gives job priority ranking of 9 A work order with equipment criticality of 2 and work impact of 2 gives job priority ranking of 4

Day Ahead Planning And Scheduling

Planner/supervisor look ahead for one day A list of jobs for the next day is decided by using backlog

and requests from operations May or may not look into material requirements Job scoping is rarely done Proper job plans hardly exist The compliance is poor Defies the principle of planning and scheduling. Supports reactive maintenance culture

1Week Look Ahead Planning And Scheduling The Weekly Wish List  Planner looks ahead for one week  A list of jobs for the next week is prepared using backlog,

long range plan and operations requests  Partial planning is done on almost all the jobs  Job scoping/research is either poor or absent  Material/tools/services requirements are seldom captured fully  Labor requirements are poorly balanced against available

1Week Look Ahead Planning And Scheduling

No formal inputs from operations and

engineering during planning Schedule is rarely owned and protected by operations The schedule compliance is poor Defies the principle of effective planning and scheduling Exhibits reactive maintenance culture

Requirements of Look Ahead Scheduling

A long-range plan A well maintained quality backlog Willingness among the departments

to work together and not department priorities

Requirements of Look Ahead Scheduling

A proper planning and scheduling process extends the planning horizon to allow: • Parts and materials handled in a timely manner • Sufficient time to obtain the parts and services Remember

Do not schedule a job until all the required parts are available

6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling 13 weeks


WalkDown (T-7) Wkly. P & S Mtg. (T-6)

Planning (T-5 to T-3)

Scheduling(T-2) Scheduling(T-1) Execution(T-0)


























































































6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling

6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling Week T-6 •The planner/scheduler prepares a preliminary list of jobs to be executed during the 7th work week thereon. These include PMs form the annual PM plan, corrective work from backlog and the new jobs identified during previous week’s walk-down •Operations and maintenance supervisors review proposed work and recommend changes wherever required •The planner/scheduler revises the list and sends it to all the concerned disciplines

6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling Weeks T-5 to T-3 The Planner starts finalizing work plans, materials , support requirements etc for identified work •Materials dept starts procuring spares and material •The Planner ensures that materials have been ordered and coordinates with material dept to determine if they will or not arrive prior to the execution week •The Planner/Scheduler coordinates work assignments with external work groups •The Planner/Scheduler reschedules work wherever material or manpower availability changes •The Maintenance Supervisors review work plans and ensure that resource estimates are correct

6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling Week T-2 •The Planner/Scheduler evaluates capacity loading •The Planner/Scheduler reports on details of the work list •All disciplines review the status of the scheduled jobs •Jobs that cannot be performed are reassigned to the appropriate upcoming execution week window •Production and Maintenance personnel review the proposed work for operational risk and other issues if any • Operations approve the schedule during the meeting and the schedule is frozen

6 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling Week T-1 •Minor last minute changes are made to the schedule •Urgent work (if any) is added •The Planner/Scheduler reschedules any work removed from the execution week •All disciplines agree to the jobs during the weekly scheduling meeting and the schedule is considered locked •Maintenance raises appropriate work permit applications •The Planner/Scheduler issues the final schedule to all the disciplines post the meeting •The Planner/Scheduler issues work packs

5 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling

Similar to six week look ahead scheduling except that the planning period is lesser by one week

4 Weeks Look Ahead Scheduling

•Similar to six week look ahead scheduling except that the planning horizon is four weeks •Normally favored at places where spares, material and supporting equipment can be made available in a shorter time frame

Benefits of Look Ahead Scheduling Better coordination of activities between

operations, materials and maintenance Provides sufficient time for materials and support to be made available Ensures better utilization of resources Operations is able to take ownership of the schedule Reduces wait time Complete more work per unit of time Lessens reactive tendencies

Schedule Freeze

A frozen schedule jointly developed by operations and

maintenance ensures a higher compliance It eliminates unwarranted tussles and communication gaps between maintenance, operations and stores Operations own the schedule. Hence they support maintenance in execution as against any jobs imposed upon them by maintenance Wrench time improves. Schedule breakers and slipped work orders get reduced

Schedule Communication

The weekly schedule once frozen should be published

as per the prefixed time and copies made available to all the stake holders via email Hard copies should be displayed at appropriate places like workshops and common notice boards Online viewing should be enabled for all Visual planning board should be established and fully utilized

Advantages of Publishing Schedule In Advance

Maintenance supervisors discuss the jobs scheduled for

the week and the next day with each other & the technicians. Ambiguities if any get cleared in advance Technicians are aware of the weekly and daily schedule in advance Operations keep the equipment ready for maintenance Permit requirements are handled efficiently  Material required for jobs often get shifted to the site in advance Scaffolding , rigging, insulation removal etc get done in time facilitating timely completion of the work

Scheduling Tips

•Normally early morning is the period of battling breakdowns and so not a good time to schedule PMs • PMs may not get done if left for end of the day • Late morning or early afternoon are preferred times to schedule PMs •Schedule achievable work. Thus if the break in work is 15%, limit your schedule loading to 80%. Always keep some safety margin

Scheduling Tips

Balance the weekly schedule After keeping sufficient room for emergency jobs, the schedule should contain a balance of high priority work (60%), mid priority work(20%) and low priority work(20%) . This helps Getting sufficient number of mid and low priority jobs

getting done in time before they turn into emergencies Technicians realize that mid and lower priority jobs too are being given due importance. This encourages defect identification, the 1st step of Work Management Provides additional buffer for emergency work

Scheduling Tips

Whenever possible multi-person job should be scheduled

as the first job in the morning. Advantage is that everyone is available to start the job together When a schedule is interrupted, consider postponing a job not started rather than interrupting a job in progress. Ensure that the job site is secured before moving to the emergency repair Give preference to completing higher priority jobs by utilizing skills allotted to lower priority jobs if required

Scheduler Role

The Scheduler Can come from Operations or Maintenance Often times a Planner fills the function Works best when an Operations type is the Scheduler

Scheduler Role

The Scheduler Creates the Schedule Owns the Schedule Runs the Scheduling Meeting Is the Restricting Orifice for changes Validates Break-ins

Scheduler Role

The Scheduler Monitors Schedule Performance Runs daily Meetings Is Accountable for Schedule Performance Makes it very Painful to Change the Schedule once frozen Reports on Schedule Compliance

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 9 - Work Execution

Process Definition

Work Execution is the physical execution of the maintenance work according to the work order instructions and an agreed plan

Execution Overview

• While Work Identification, Prioritization,

Planning and Scheduling are strategic i.e. forward-looking , Work Execution is tactical •Benefits of a effective maintenance planning and scheduling process are realized during work execution • The best laid plans if not executed properly will lead to failure

Work Execution Process

Schedule ownership transferred from planner to

execution team Supervisor verifies preparedness for each day’s work Supervisors assigns jobs to specific team members Technicians collect material and tools for the job Operator inspects the job site and signs permit Conducts dynamic risk assessment at job site

Work executed by technicians

Executing The Work

Ensure that the crafts have been appropriately

trained and are assessed to be competent to undertake the task Additional work completion checks should be undertaken by supervisors or TA for critical jobs to ensure the work has been done correctly Supervisors should check out the progress of the work periodically throughout the day

Post Job Execution Activities

• The technician should enter failure codes, material ,

actual time spent etc in the work order and return it to the supervisor • Work orders must be verified for completeness and correctness by the supervision, signed off and returned to planner as soon as possible on the same day. •Unused parts, material and warranty items must be returned to the stores in line with a documented process • Wastes must be segregated and disposed off in line with the documented process

Important Job Execution Tips

•Protect the schedule once it is published •Always make the technicians aware of the next

day’s schedule in advance. Publish next day’s work in advance • Make a list of jobs that can be interrupted during emergencies •Plan for the emergencies by holding resources in reserve, assigning them to interruptible jobs •Encourage technicians to stick to the schedule

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 10- Work Closure and Documentation

Work Order Closure and Documentation

•Work order closure, documentation and feedback is the sixth step in the work management process •Apart from job execution, technicians play a very important role in this process step


Remember  A good job plan starts with three key items 1) the crafts required 2) Estimated hours 3) Parts and materials Post execution the technicians should write additional information to improve the plan viz. tasks, additional parts/ tools/equipment required, safety aspect, time loss etc in the feedback form When the planner gets this information, he updates the job plan for future use


What did you find What was the cause of failure What did you do to correct the condition How long did it take What do you think happened What parts did you use How can the job plan be improved How did you leave the equipment

Importance of Work Order Closure and Documentation

Source of real time information Helps improve job plans Helps improve quality and accuracy of work

instructions Helps to get the correct history and maintenance costs of the equipment Helps evaluation of workmanship by tracking rework Sets the basis for improvement in maintenance

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 11- Work Order Status Control

Purpose of Work Order Status Control

Purpose of Work Order Status Control is to monitor issued work orders to prevent unnecessary backlog

Work Order Status Control

Run report & determine reasons for outstanding overdue Work Orders, which may include: Emergency priorities outstanding more than 1 day Urgent priorities outstanding more than 1 week Work scheduled but not completed on time Unreturned work orders Completed work orders not closed

Work Order Status Control

 Work Orders created but not planned  Planned but unreleased works orders  WR’s not reviewed within the desired time frame from

creation  Postponed WR’s  WR’s not processed to Work Order within the prefixed time frame from the time of approval

Benefits of Work Order Status Control

Work Order Status reports help Management and stake holders to analyze work order statuses To quantify the resource requirements To discuss and take necessary actions for backlog levels beyond a specified target

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 12- Analysis & Continuous Improvement

Analysis & Continuous Improvement

 Feedback forms should be reviewed for productivity and

quality improvements. Failure reporting and related data in CMMS should be reviewed for Reliability Analysis Rework should be tracked for conducting RCAs Reporting standards should be in place to generate reports to be used for analysis and continuous improvement Defined Process should be in place to analyze data of earlier week schedules for corrective actions and improvement Ageing report of the WOs should be generated every month to take necessary actions

Analysis and Continuous Improvement

Remember There is no such thing called a

perfectly planned job Continuous Improvement is always a must for ‘Efficient Maintenance Planning and Scheduling,

Analysis and Continuous Improvement

Root Cause Analysis Root Cause Analysis (RCA) or Root Cause Failure

Analysis (RCFA) as it is sometimes called is a step by step methodology that leads to the discovery of the prime cause (root cause) of the failure It is a structured way to arrive at the root cause of the failure thus helping elimination of the cause and not just the symptoms associated with the failure.

Analysis and Continuous Improvement General Categories of RCAs Safety based- RCA is performed to find the cause of

accidents related to occupational safety, health and environment Product/Production based- RCA is done to identify causes of poor quality, production losses and other problems in manufacturing related to the product Process based-RCA is performed to identify the causes of problems related to the processes Asset based- RCA is performed for analysis of failures of equipment or systems in the plant

Analysis and Continuous Improvement General Principles for RCAs Aiming corrective measures at root causes is more

effective than treating symptoms of the problem To be effective RCA must be performed systematically. Conclusions must be supported by evidence There is usually more than one root cause for any given problem

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Six Steps in Performing a RCA Define the problem-the failure Collect data/evidence about issues that contributed to

the problem Identify possible factors/causes Develop solutions and recommendations Implement the recommendations Track the recommendations solutions/actions to ensure effectiveness

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 1-Define the problem-the failure What happened/what failed How was the problem discovered What were the specific symptoms Provide a detailed description of the actual event

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 2-Collect Data/Evidence What proof do we have that the problem exists? What sequence of events lead to the problem How long has the problem been existing What is the impact of the problem

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 2-Collect Data/Evidence What proof do we have that the problem exists? What sequence of events lead to the problem How long has the problem been existing What is the impact of the problem Use 3W2H to gather details of the problem (3W-What,

When, Where; 2H-How, How Much) Remember-Do not make any assumptions when examining a failure. No two failures are exactly the same in nature and cause

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 3-Identify Possible Factors Causing the Failure What are the factors causing the failure. Use 1. 5 Whys- Ask why? Until the root of the problem is found 2. Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone Analysis)—Create a chart of

all possible causal factors 3. Drill Down-Break down the problem into parts to get a bigger picture 4. Ask So What- Determine all possible consequences of facts

.Why does the factor causing the failure exist .What is the real reason that the failure has occurred

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 4-Develop Solutions and Recommendations Physical causes-Material item failed in some way (example

car brake stopped working) Human causes- Operator made a mistake/did not do that was needed Organizational/Process causes- The process, system or policy that people use to do the work/make decisions is faulty. (example- no SOP, Everyone assumed that other had filled the brake fluid) Remember-RCA should investigate all three types of causes

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 5-Implement Recommendations What can be done to prevent the problem from happening

again? How will the solution be implemented Who will be responsible for implementing it What are the risks of implementing the solution How will the implementation success be measured Develop a plan with schedule and present it for approval of the stakeholders/management.

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Step 6-Track the solutions to ensure effectiveness Track the implemented solution for its effectiveness. If the solution is not found to be effective , the team

should revisit the RCA , modify solution and re-check the effectiveness

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Examples of some basic elements of RCA Materials 1. Defective part 2. Wrong of type of part for the job

Equipment /Machine 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Incorrect equipment/machine used Incorrect tool used Poorly maintained equipment Poor design Poor machine installation Defective machine/tool

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Examples of some basic elements of RCA Environment 1. 2. 3. 4.

Poorly maintained workplace Incorrect layout of work Surfaces poorly maintained Forces of nature

Safety and Management 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

No or poor management involvement Poor attention to the job Task hazards not identified and guarded properly Hazards identified earlier were not eliminated High stress

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Examples of some basic elements of RCA Methods 1. No or poor procedures 2. Not following the procedures 3. Poor communication

People System/Involvement 4. 5. 6.

No or lack of proper training No or lack of proper SOPs No or lack of proper employee involvement

Analysis and Continuous Improvement 5 Whys Analysis A simple and effective method to identify the root cause

of the failure quickly Involves looking at any failure and asking ‘’why,,? And ‘’what caused the problem? Normally answer to the first WHY will prompt another WHY and the answer to the second WHY will prompt another and so on.

Analysis and Continuous Improvement Sample RCA Template Failure Failure summary Team Members Data summary from 5Why/Fishbone Analysis Identified Root Causes 1. Physical 2. Human 3. Organization/Process and Procedures

.Recommended Corrective Action .Implemented Plan .Metrics to measure effectiveness .Special/Additional Comments

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 13 - Performance Measurement

Performance Measurement

“It is not possible to manage what you cannot control and you cannot control what you cannot measure!” (Peter Drucker)

KPI Definition

A scorecard used to measure the performance of a critical or high leverage activity or process

Purpose Of KPIs

To measure the health of the Work

Management Process  A tool to identify and undertake needed corrective actions

Criteria For Selection Of KPIs

KPIs should encourage the right behaviors Should be difficult to manipulate Collection of data and reporting should be


Benefits of KPIs  Accountability:- Properly designed KPIs document progress towards

achievement of preset goals and objectives . This helps guiding organizations to fulfill their obligations towards their employees, stakeholders and customers Resources/Budget justification :- As KPIs link activities to results, they become a planning tool to justify proper resources and budget allocations  Ownership and Teamwork:-By identifying the specific functional area for concentrating the efforts, KPIs help to provide better employees participation in problem solving, goal setting and process improvements. It helps define priorities and promotes better teamwork among departments  Communication- Achievement of set goals through KPIs enables employees to understand and support management strategies better. It also facilitates better communication and sharing of knowledge among employees

Leading And Lagging Indicators

Leading indicators They are in-process measures used to predict future performance. Act as performance drivers Leading indicators use historic data to monitor if we are doing those required activities that are known to produce good results Help to take proactive action Lagging indicators They are used measure the results of past activities The trend shows our progress and can be projected forward a little to forecast the likely progress Are of no help when attempting to influence the future

Leading And Lagging Indicators

Leading Indicators Percent of Urgent Work (Break-ins) Schedule Loading Factor Schedule attainment by week Estimated backlog in crew weeks PM compliance Percent available hours for: Emergent work PM work Corrective work (from PM) Routine work PM effectiveness Inventory stock outs Compliance to planned hours Work Capacity Index

Lagging Indicators Maintenance cost (Expense) Cost / unit output Cost / unit capacity Cost / replacement asset value Maintenance staff / unit capacity Overtime Effectiveness Replacement Asset Value (RAV) Wrench time Rework Production Equipment Effectiveness Utilization Availability OEE Unplanned downtime Inventory spare parts turns

Calendar Weeks

Leading Indicators

Sample Example of KPIs Score Card Scorecard Kpi Tracking Kpi Elements % Emergency Work orders (Priority 1) Count (Target <5%)


Week 50

Week 51

Week 52

Week 53

Week 01

Week 02

Week 03

Week 04

Week 05

> 7% 5 - 7%


















































































0 - 5% % Emergency Work orders (Priority 1) Hours (Target <5%)

> 7% 5 - 7% 0 - 5% >15%

% Urgent Work orders (Priority 2) Count (Target <10%)

10 - 15% 5 - 10% 0 - 5% >15%

% Urgent Work orders (Priority 2) Hours (Target <10%)

10 - 15% 5 - 10% 0 - 5% < 60%

Maintenance Schedule Attainment (Compliance) Count (Target > 90%)

60 - 80% 80 - 90% 90 - 100% > 100% < 60%

Maintenance Schedule Attainment (Compliance) Hours (Target >90%)

60 - 80% 80 - 120% 120 - 140% > 140% < 50%

Schedule Loading (Hours) (Target> 85%)

50 - 85% 85 - 100% > 100% < 60% 60 - 80%

PM Attainment Count (Target95%)

80 - 95% 95 - 100% > 100% < 60% 60 - 95%

PM Attainment Hours (Target >95%)

95 - 120% 120 - 140% > 140%

Emergency Work

•Emergency work orders as a percentage of all the work orders executed during the week •World class <2%

Emergency Work-Benefits

The reduction in emergency WOs directly reduces

the schedule breakers Review of emergency WOs helps identify prioritization issues Tracking of emergency WOs provides cases for RCA Uptime increases as critical equipment failure reduces

PM Compliance

Percentage of all PM work completed on

or before the original due date World Class >98%

PM Compliance-Benefits

As PM attainment increases, reactive

work reduces Plant reliability and availability increases

Schedule Compliance

Percentage of scheduled work completed

to the number of jobs scheduled World Class>98%

Schedule Compliance-Benefits

A consistent improvement in schedule compliance provides a clear indication that Work Management process is working Emergency and urgent work is under control Break-Ins are being contained


Total hours of pending work divided by

total resource available in a week World class 4-6 weeks


Helps forecast resource requirements Control of backlog within the stipulated

range helps reduce overtime/contract labor Helps reduce and manage risk

Capacity Planning

Percentage of actual resource charged to

the planned work during the week World class >90%

Capacity Planning-Benefits

Increase in schedule loading indicates

reduction of emergency work, urgent work and break Ins Indicates better utilization of resources

Estimating Accuracy

Percentage of difference in planned vs

actual labor hours for scheduled jobs World Class <5%

Estimating Accuracy-Benefits

As estimating accuracy increases,

productivity increases Resource planning can be handled efficiently Accuracy of Backlog improves

Safety Critical Compliance

Percentage of safety critical work

completed on/before the due date against planned World Class >98%

Safety Critical Compliance-Benefits

Helps to maintain focus on plant safety Consistently higher compliance will

ensure higher plant safety


KPIs are meant to Reflect on processes and not people Tell you when things are going right Point out opportunities for improvement

KPIs Remember KPIs should be viewed over a period of time Too many KPIs result in losing focus A below target weekly KPI is not bad news Make sure every one knows what actions need to be taken in order to improve each metric. Though it looks obvious, it is often overlooked. Discuss about the KPIs often so as to retain their importance all the time Used incorrectly KPIs are likely to cause more harm than good.

Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

Module 14- Meetings

Communication Communication is key to successful maintenance planning and

scheduling Proper, continuous and effective communication should exist between the planner, maintenance supervisor, technicians, stores personnel, operations personnel all the time Any breakdown in this communication is bound to diminish the probability of success The role and responsibilities of each stakeholder need to be clearly defined and made known to the individual Weekly and daily meetings play a very important communication role in planning and scheduling

Daily Scheduling Meeting

Purpose •Review schedule of the previous day •Review today’s schedule •Review new work •Review next day’s schedule

Daily Scheduling Meeting Attendees

Maintenance Supervisor, Production

Supervisor, Planner and Scheduler When

Morning everyday Duration

20 Minutes

Daily Scheduling Meeting

Agenda •Review Break Ins •Review ongoing activities of the previous day •Review activities scheduled for today •Review tomorrow’s activities •Permits/isolation preparedness •Others-materials, service, equipment etc issues •Recognition, benefits & concerns

Daily Scheduling Meeting Desired Outcome Finalise day’s schedule Assign work resources Communicate daily schedule Update next day’s schedule

Weekly Planning And Scheduling Meeting Purpose To create preliminary T-6 work week schedule using inputs from the annual plan work list, backlog and the Walk-Down work list To review the status of the T-2 work week schedule and make necessary adjustments To coordinate all necessary resources for execution of T-1 work week schedule and make necessary adjustments To finalize maintenance schedule for work week T-0 To review performance and develop Action Plans from the KPI’s resulting from T+1 To identify and re-schedule past due work orders

Weekly Planning And Scheduling Meeting Attendees Operations Manager, Maintenance Manager, Maintenance Supervisor, Production Supervisor, Planner, Scheduler, Support Services, HSSE, Materials Representative When  Every week on a pre-fixed day Duration 60 Minutes

Weekly Planning And Scheduling Meeting Agenda Review Performance of previous week Develop work list of T-6  Prepare work orders for execution T-5 to T-3 Finalize work schedule T-2 Finalize and approve work schedule for T-1 Review T+1 Recognition, Benefits and Concerns 

Weekly Planning And Scheduling Meeting Desired outcome Consensus amongst all parties involved as to what will be done and when Updated copy of the weekly work lists T-6 through T-1 Finalized schedule for work week T-0 Action Plans for results of the previous week performance (KPI) review

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 15- Materials Management

Materials Management To get the right material at the right place

at the right time Maintenance planning and scheduling cannot be a success without proper materials management practices in place

Materials Management

Separating Maintenance from Stores

makes good sense Planning and Materials take different skills and abilities Maintenance, inventory and supply chain working together is key to success

Maintenance Inventory Spare parts, consumable items and other

material that are required to keep the assets operating in the plant It meets the emergency, short-term and long term maintenance requirements to keep the assets operating Inventory is an hedge against the unknown Often called “buffer stock against use,,

Maintenance Inventory

Inventory Classification Active inventory Infrequently used inventory Rarely used inventory

Maintenance Inventory

Active Inventory Items that are used frequently Their demand can be predicted with reasonably

good accuracy Any part or item that have high demand or used atleast once a month is an active inventory item Oil seals, standard bearings, safety gloves etc are examples of active inventory items

Maintenance Inventory

Infrequently Used Inventory (IUI) Items that are used infrequently Normally used <10 times a year Their demand can be predicted with some


Maintenance Inventory Rarely Used Inventory (RUI) Items that are to be of the type- Must Have These parts are extremely difficult to obtain Require a vey high lead time for procurement Often seen lying on shelves for year and more Vast majority of inventory items fall into this

category Examples- Large motors, valves, transformers etc

Maintenance Inventory

ABC Analysis(Inventory Stratification) Inventory is classified on the basis of value and usage rate. A type items-Long delivery time, high cost and low demand B type items- Available in a few days or weeks, mid to high cost, less critical and infrequently used C type items-Available in a few hours or days, low cost, frequently used and may not need inventory control

Maintenance Inventory

Maintenance Inventory Hidden Stock Covers items that have been stashed under conveyors, staircases, cabinets, tool boxes etc. This material is called lost each year when cycle count is taken. The condition of these parts is not known

Dead stock Spares that have been removed from use long ago and are lying in stores

Maintenance Inventory Total Inventory Costs Inventory carrying cost- Cost of holding an item in stores.

Normally varies from 20% to 30% the cost of the item/year Ordering Cost – Cost of replenishing the inventory. It includes Cost to enter PR/PO, approval steps, cost to process the receipt, incoming inspection, invoice processing, vendor payment related costs and even a portion of freights. These costs are associated with frequency of orders and not quantities ordered. Stock-out cost- Loss of production when asset cannot be repaired and made available for production due to non availability of the part

Maintenance Inventory Economic Order Quantity Analysis A technic used to optimize inventory levels by ordering the ‘’right,, quantity at a specific time interval in order to minimize inventory costs and yet meet the maintenance dept’s needs. It determines the point at which the combination of order costs and inventory carrying costs are the least. Recommended for situations where demand is relatively steady

Maintenance Inventory

Materials Management-Requirements All planned work orders should have detailed material plan

for each task BOMs should be available for all the critical equipment  Material plan should be linked to inventory/BOM in CMMS.  Incidental materials should be correctly identified for each task in the work orders  Planner/materials coordinator should validate materials are correct as per the requirements Formal Kitting and staging process should be in place

Kitting And Staging Process Kitting- It is the process of identifying, collecting, tagging and

keeping together all the spares, material and tools well in advance to facilitate better execution a work order Staging-It is the process of stacking the kitted material the right way in the right area designed for the purpose All the parts should be checked for accuracy once kitted The staging area should be properly organized, secured and must facilitate easy retrieval of kits Procedure should be in place to allow only the authorized people to visit and collect the material Once scheduled, the kit may be transferred to the site in advance so that the technicians can execute the work order as required

Benefits Of Kitting And Staging Proper staging and kitting provides Increase in wrench time by reducing the travel time of the technicians spent in locating parts and material Minimizes chances of defective/wrong parts being made available for the execution of the jobs Minimizes makeshift repairs Higher schedule compliance Better control over spare parts and stores management

Materials Management Remember Extended planning horizons help sourcing issues and also

provide material dept enough time to locate the parts Expediting of materials should always be avoided by planners Completed work orders should be reviewed for parts issues Materials Management representation at weekly planning meetings should be encouraged Effective kitting requires effective planning, scheduling and an established PM program in place

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 16- Preventive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Definition

Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or according to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the probability of failure or the degradation of the functioning of an item The European Standard (prEN 13306, 1998)

Preventive Maintenance Guidelines PMs form the base workload of the plant as the work is a known

quantity and can be planned well in advance PMs should be balanced through the year so that the resource requirements do not vary significantly A yearly PM resource plan should be in place In general more than50% of available resource hours should be utilized for PMs and CBMs as they serve getting control of the equipment In general Time based PMs should be 15-20% while run/cycle based PMs and CBM 30-40% Better PM program translates into less emergency work

10% Rule Of Preventive Maintenance The rule states that the preventive maintenance work should be

completed within 10% of the scheduled maintenance interval Thus a monthly PM not completed within ±3 days of the due date is out of compliance The 10% rule helps PM intervals to be constant, reduces extreme time variations and thus helps sustaining the reliability of the equipment The rule should be applied to all PMs. However in case it becomes too difficult to do so, at least all the critical assets should be maintained as per this norm Companies that follow the 10% rule have been found to have higher equipment reliability

Example of Poor Monthly PM Compliance



2nd Feb

28th March

PM Effectiveness And Optimization  PM program should generate some corrective work. In general 6

PMs should generate at least 1 corrective work order. If few or no defects are found, the PM is either not doing its job or is being done too frequently  Similarly if a specific PM is generating too much corrective work, the PM is either not doing its job or the frequency needs be shortened  It is also critical to review PM system on a regular basis for reviewing changes to tasks  PM Optimization should be done so as to eliminate all the unnecessary, redundant, and ineffective PMs without compromising with the reliability and performance of the equipments

PM Effectiveness And Optimization PM’s are often performed on a rigid schedule regardless

the condition of the asset. It makes sense to check history to verify whether the asset was recently repaired/overhauled  Vendor recommendations should be implemented with caution to avoid extra PMs PM creep is another major source of unwarranted costs and time if not properly checked and controlled . Do not introduce unwanted PMs just because a certain asset is failing

Benefits of PM Optimization

Maintenance costs are reduced Better resource utilization Maintenance is more effective Reliability of the equipment is increased Higher equipment uptime

Making Your PM Program Successful Make the executioners aware that PM is a

recognized and important method of effective plant maintenance Assign competent, methodical, disciplined and responsible people for PMs Conduct Regular training programs for them Follow up to assure quality performance from all involved

Making Your PM Program Successful

Publicize results of effective PM program viz.

higher uptime, reduced costs, improved plant safety etc Don’t perform additional corrective work during a PM unless it is safety-related and is of a very short duration. It is unplanned work, expensive and will affect your PM schedule  Avoid pulling off PM crew to work on unplanned work. If resource need is critical, consider other less important work

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module17-Shutdown Management

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling Turnaround Planned shutdown of equipment, production line, process

unit to clean, change catalyst, make major repairs etc. after a normal run. Duration is usually in days or weeks It is the elapsed time between shutdown of the unit and putting it into action again

Shutdown Process Characteristics A typical Shutdown has the following characteristics: A Project that must be strictly managed to achieve the

objectives A large peak in resource requirements A multiplicity of inter-related jobs to be coordinated A long lead-time for scheduling work Normally once-a-year opportunity to maintain or improve equipment capability and reliability High cost benefits if planned duration can be reduced High cost penalties if planned duration is exceeded

Impacts of Ineffective Shutdown Process

Costly schedule overruns Inefficient use of labor resources Excessive & unnecessary shutdown costs Failure to complete required work scope Ineffective maintenance & repairs Negative impact on unit availability, reliability, &


Shutdown Planning Process Shutdown Planning can be divided into the following tasks: Identify the skill types and numbers required for each job. Identify the spares and materials required for each job. Identify all other resources required – e.g.. cranes, scaffold,

radios, welders, chain blocks, tools, etc.

Shutdown Planning Process Develop a draft Master Plan based on: WBS-Work Breakout Structure Job and task list Dependency chart Estimate time needed Determine critical path

Shutdown Planning Process Develop resource plans Apply ‘Resource Leveling’ Develop cost estimate Develop ‘S-Curve’ Approve final plan The S Curve displays craft hours, resource resource usage usage and and cumulative cumulative costs, costs, plotted as a function of time.

All All jobs jobs cannot cannot be be done done simultaneously simultaneously due to limited limited resources. Resource Resource leveling refers refers to to staging staging jobs jobs sequentially sequentially so so as as not not to to overburden overburden available available resources. resources.

Shutdown Planning Tools

• Work Breakout Structure – WBS • Critical Path Method – CPM • Project Evaluation and Review Technique –

PERT • Gantt charts

Shutdown Planning Tools Work Breakout Structure A chart that creates a hierarchy of the projects,

subprojects, and tasks needed to implement the shutdown Level 1 of the WBS is the project level. – Plant Shutdown

Shutdown Planning Tools Work Breakout Structure Level 2 of the WBS lists the subprojects needed to implement the shutdown Level 3 of the WBS lists the jobs listed in the subprojects needed to implement the shutdown

Shutdown Planning Tools

CPM –Critical Path Management Based on dependency chart The pathway in the dependency chart that accounts for

the longest projected pathway

Shutdown Planning Tools Critical Path Method – CPM List of tasks taken from WBS Time and duration for each task Dependencies for tasks Graphical representation

Shutdown Planning Tools CPM –Critical Path Management Steps in CPM • Identify tasks • Sequence • Diagram • Estimate time • Critical Path

Shutdown Planning Tools Critical Path Days needed


Total time in path

Task A

2 days


2 days

Task B

2 days


2 days

Task C

4 days


6 days

Task D

1 day


3 days

Task E

3 days


5 days

Task F

2 days


5 days



Milestone G

Critical Path A-C Six days

Shutdown Planning Tools Dependency Chart and Critical Path Task A

Task E



Task C


Total 4 DAYS

Total 6 DAYS

Milestone G

4 DAYS Total 5 DAYS


Task D

Task F



Shutdown Planning Tools Gantt Chart • •

A Gantt chart is a form of bar chart used to demonstrate a project schedule. Gantt charts summarize the project by illustrating the start and finish dates of the parts of the project.

Shutdown Planning Tools Gantt Chart ID 1

Task Name

Start of project

Dec 30, '07 Duration W T

6 days


Task A

2 days


Task C

4 days


Task E

2 days


Task B

2 days


Task D

1 day


Task F

2 days


Milestone G

0 days


Jan 6, '08 S S M T W T


Jan 13, '08 S S M T W T



Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Manager assigned


Shutdown Planning Timeline Identify major Shutdown projects Compile a list of all major projects to be completed Include: the project scope, the project leader if known, and the expected budget for the project.


Shutdown Planning Timeline Key participants assigned The following should be identified: Project leaders Planners Schedulers


Shutdown Planning Timeline Charter Statement defined Complete Charter Statement

Establish expected duration Establish expected duration


Shutdown Planning Timeline Identify long lead time parts & materials Compile a list of all expected material needs which may have

long lead times. Assign responsibility to procure and expedite items Add milestones for procurement


Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Kick-off meeting Attendees should include: the plant manager project leaders, planners schedulers plant supervisors/leaders others expected to play a role


Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Kick-off meeting Communicate important high level planning information: Charter Statement Major Shutdown work scope and schedule Assignments Expected resources Constraints Make sure you take minutes


Shutdown Planning Timeline High Level Schedule Finalize and distribute List important milestones Level schedule depicts: Critical path Major jobs Expected duration Does not contain detailed WBS


Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Planning Meeting Focus on major projects. Project leaders report planning and scheduling progress Project leaders discuss: Procurement of materials or services All long lead time parts and materials Updates / revisions to scope Updates to Level 1 schedule


Shutdown Planning Timeline

Recommendations, Lessons Learned Review: Prior Shutdown reports recommendations and observations Internal reports and reports - OEM’s, contractors, or service



Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Planning Meeting Planner(s) identify Work List Confirm standard CMMS database work list List corrective and non-routine maintenance jobs Update assigned projects plans and schedules Review long lead time list for parts and materials


Shutdown Planning Timeline Procurement Planning Meeting Review all projects / activities requiring outside

resources Discuss strategies for contracting services Bundle projects for bidding if possible


Shutdown Planning Timeline Bid Specs, Contractor Services Formal work scope and schedule for contractors Technical and commercial bid specs Contractor(s) must develop estimates  Labor  Materials  Budgets

Integrate into overall Shutdown plan


Shutdown Planning Timeline Scope Freeze Date All work scope must be identified by now The “final” Shutdown Work List is locked in Planners and Schedulers develop final plans and

schedules No work will be added after this date


Shutdown Planning Timeline

• Review & Approve Final Work List • Planner compiles list of projects after Scope Freeze Date • Shutdown Manager facilitates a meeting to review and approve


Shutdown Planning Timeline

• Shutdown Planning Meeting • Shutdown Work List is locked-in - planning, scheduling, and resource leveling activities can be finalized • Procurement strategies well underway • Review long lead time parts and materials


Shutdown Planning Timeline Distribute Level 2 Shutdown Schedule Intermediate level of detail. Shutdown milestones defined  critical path  expected duration

Labor resources noted All projects on master Work List


Shutdown Planning Timeline Bids / Estimates, Contractor Services Set a date for return bids 2 – 4 weeks after

specifications are issued Review bids and estimates for completeness, clarity, and compliance with specs


Shutdown Planning Timeline Distribute Level 3 Schedule Greatest level of detail. WBS defined for every project and maintenance

job. Total WBS comprises the complete Task List. Shutdown schedule developed including constraints TLabor resources defined and leveled 8

Shutdown Planning Timeline Distribute Site Plan / Laydown Plan Develop site plan / laydown plan identifies use

areas Site plan identifies locations Identifies pre-staging areas Location of temporary services vehicles Accessible doorways and drives


Shutdown Planning Timeline Purchase Orders / Services Contracts Issue POs and contracts Contractors submit detailed schedule for work in



Shutdown Planning Timeline Lockout / Tagout Planning Meeting Review safety sequence - isolating and de-

energizing equipment Common errors are isolating equipment and systems too soon or too late


Shutdown Planning Timeline Lockout / Tagout Planning Meeting Review the schedule / critical path to ensure that

equipment is locked out and tagged out appropriately Develop, document and distribute


Shutdown Planning Timeline Directory/Organization Chart Directory listings include: Names Project assignments Responsibilities Contact information – phone, email Organizational chart


Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Planning Meeting Continue to: Meet Update Refine Communicate


Shutdown Planning Timeline Final Week Distribute: Written plans Schedules Instructions Details-special circumstances


Shutdown Planning Timeline Shutdown Planning Meeting Continue to: Meet Refine Update Communicate

to all participants and stakeholders


Shutdown Planning Timeline Unit Off-line, Shutdown Starts Last milestone of the pre-Shutdown planning process First milestone of the actual Shutdown schedule T 0

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 18- CMMS/EAM


 A software that keeps records and tracks all maintenance activities e.g., Work Orders, PM Schedules, Material Parts, Work Plans, Asset History etc.


EAM- Enterprise Asset Management  Enterprise-wide collection of systems viz. Maintenance Management, Material Management Finance, HR etc These individual systems interface with each other with ease across multiple plants and locations Examples of companies offering such systems-SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, J D Edwards

CMMS CMMS-Computerized Maintenance Management System Normally a standalone application used as a tool for

effective maintenance management Can be interfaced with other ERP systems viz. Finance, HR Normally much user friendly as compared to EAMs Most of the more popular CMMS packages can be used as EAM systems Examples –Maximo, Assetpoint, MP2, Ellipse, Pronto


CMMS provides Wealth of information Greater predictability of activities Simplified access to data Efficient management of resources, services & cost Increased reliability and availability Helps to create and manage the maintenance budget better

CMMS/EAM CMMS/EAM is useful in: Equipment identification Preventive maintenance Equipment history Costs and budgets Labor Materials Planning Scheduling Work order management Continuous improvement


Remember Data Integrity is Critical Continuous training is important A well designed CMMS/EAM system closely

linked to your work management process will add great value to company’s asset management practices

Maintenance Planning And Scheduling

Module 18- Review and Close


Review of Day 1 Review of Day 2 Review of Day 3

Test Questions

Hand outs of Questionnaire

Questions And Discussions

Training Evaluation

Hand-Outs of Evaluation Forms

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