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The Nikomedia Workshop: New Evidence on Byzantine Tiles Author(s): SHARON E. J. GERSTEL Source: The Journal of the Walters Art Museum, Vol. 66/67 (2008-2009), pp. 5-53 Published by: The Walters Art Museum Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41427549 Accessed: 25-04-2016 17:46 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at http://about.jstor.org/terms

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The Nikomedia Workshop: New Evidence on Byzantine Tiles SHARON E.J. GERSTEL with technical analysis by Julie Lauffenburger

the art market in both England and Turkey in the last ten

This of more ofarticle more than presents thanthree three the thousand thousand full publicationByzantine Byzantine of a collection tile tile fragfrag-

years. One of these, the representation of St. Theodore

ments today in London.1 The tiles came to light in the

(cat. no. 11), joins with a tile in the London collection; the

early 1960s during the cultivation of fields on a narrow

reconstructed plaque is included in this catalogue.

plateau located in the forested ridge between Dagköy and

Common methods of manufacture, stylistic similari-

Tepeköy, two small villages approximately 10 kilometers

ties, the repetition of patterns, and the elemental profile

northeast of îzmit (Byzantine Nikomedia) on the road

established by neutron activation analysis (NAA) con-

to Kandira. At that time the north wall and apse of a

firm that the London fragments were produced by the

modest church stood to a height of approximately 1 meter

same workshop that created the polychrome tiles today

(fig. i);2 the south and west walls had tumbled down the

divided between the Walters Art Museum and the Musée

eroded hillside. Numerous fragments of marble and other

du Louvre.5 To this group can be added a single tile in

building materials littered the ground surrounding the church. Most important among these was an inscription

the Istanbul Archaeological Museum and three tiles in the State Historical Museum in Moscow.6 The Paris and

block, visible in the early 1960s, which recorded in Greek

Baltimore tiles, which were purchased in 1955 and 1956,

letters the name of Kl(audios) Philokalos (figs. 2a, b).3

derive from the city of Uskübü (Konuralp), located 8 kilo-

The beautifully carved epistyle, which can be dated to the

meters to the north of Diizce in Bithynia.7 The Istanbul

end of the second or early third century ce, most likely

tile, according to museum records, was found in Diizce in

derives from a Roman funerary monument that may have

been dismantled to build the Byzantine church. In the course of agricultural work at this site a large number of tile fragments had been revealed.4 In April 1963, preliminary investigation inside the church walls uncovered additional fragments within the deposition that overlay a terracotta tile floor; the precise find spots of the tiles within

the building were, unfortunately, not recorded, although roughly a third were discovered along the interior of the north wall. A letter of 16 July 1963 in the possession of the author confirms that: "two cases of multi colour frag-

ments of Byzantine tiles (?) from Turkey" were received

in London. Since that time the collection has remained in the possession of a single owner. In 2007-2008 twenty tiles from the collection were displayed at the Walters Art

Museum. Fragments from the same site have appeared on

Fig. i. Sketch of church as it stood in 1961 (drawn after photographs of the site)

The Journal of the Walters Art Museum 66! 67 (issue year 2008/2009, published 2011) y

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Figs. 2a, 2b. Inscription block in 1961

i960; in actuality, the fragment was acquired from neigh-

adopted in S. Gerstel and J. Lauffenburger, A Lost Art

boring Üskübü, i.e., the same location as the Paris and

Rediscovered: The Architectural Ceramics of Byzantium

Baltimore tiles.8 The Moscow tiles are said to be from

(University Park, Penn., 2001).

Nikomedia.9 To these may be added another substantial collection, as yet unpublished, from a site 10 kilometers to the southeast of Izmit.10 This second collection has also

been in London since 1963.

CATALOGUE

Figurai Tiles

It would appear, on the basis of the tiles find spots and evidence internal to the tiles, that we can localize the

Only a small number of the thousands of tile fragments

workshop that produced them to the Byzantine city of

that have survived from medieval Byzantium have figurai

Nikomedia or its immediate environs.11 The identification

decoration. In 2004, the number of Byzantine ceramic

of this workshop is significant, for although the use of the

icons stood at forty.14 Of these, twenty-nine are found in the collections of the Walters Art Museum and the

term "testis de Nicomedia'12 in a medieval inventory has long suggested to scholars that the Bithynian city was an

Musée du Louvre. Additional figurai tiles are located in

important production site for tiles that served as architec-

the Benaki Museum in Athens, the Istanbul Archaeological

tural revetment, there has been, to date, insufficient mate-

Museum, the State Historical Museum in Moscow, and in

rial evidence to test the reliability of the written source.13

a private collection in England.15 The London collection

The assemblage of a large number of tiles attributable to a

includes fragments of three large (26-31 cm) and fourteen

single workshop in the region of Izmit demonstrates that

small (17-20 cm) square figurai plaques, as well as three

the Nikomedian industry mentioned in the inventory of

fragments from colonnette capitals.16 Each figure on the

the Botaneiates oikos was very much a reality.

flat plaques is framed by a circular, painted band and set

Like the well-known collections in Baltimore and

against an amber background that was meant to evoke the

Paris, the London tiles are both figurai and ornamental.

gold background of icons in paint or enamel.17 In gen-

In order to make sense of this collection, this article begins

eral, the figures are represented half length and in frontal

with a section on the ceramic icons. The ornamental tiles

pose. Some of the plaques, including the archangels and

are then divided by shape: half colonnettes, flat plaques,

apostles (cat. nos. 2-7), may have decorated the epistyle

and rectangular tiles that are concave, convex, or narrow

of a sanctuary screen. Unlike the plaques in the Walters

strips. These sections are followed by a technical analysis

Art Museum that were affixed to a templon beam, how-

of the materials. The article concludes with remarks about

ever, none of the figurai tiles in the London Collection is

the importance of this collection for the study of Byzantine

marked on the reverse with letters or symbols that might

revetment tiles. With some exceptions, the names of the

have facilitated installation.18 Yet other ceramic icons,

patterns and their descriptions follow the nomenclature

such as the image of Panteleimon (cat. no. 10), may have

6

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Fig. 3. Virgin Mary and Christ, 29.5 x 29.5 cm Musée du Louvre,

Fig. 4. St. Christopher, 29.5 x 29.5 cm. The Walters Art Museum,

Paris, Département des Objects ďart (ас 83)

Baltimore (48.2086.13)

functioned as votive plaques or as icons of significance to

A faint line drawn above the upper lid emphasizes the

the community or individuals. Three additional figures in

crease below the brow. The brows are sharply arched. Lines

the London collection, Christ, the Virgin, and a military

descend from the inner corner of the lower lid. A prepa-

saint (cat. nos. 18, 19, 20), are painted on tiles with a curved

ratory sketch of an eye, executed by this painter, can be

profile. Framed within guilloche bands and flanked by

seen on the reverse of a rectangular strip decorated with

foliate crosses, these once adorned the bulbous centers of

concentric circles (cat. no. 87). Additional facial features

half capitals.19

allow us to attribute these tiles to the hand of a single

The hands of two painters can be detected in the deco-

painter. The ears are attached low on the head. The mouth

ration of the figurai tiles in this collection; both painters

is formed by a black, bowed line, which divides the pink,

can also be associated with tiles today in the Walters Art

slip-painted lips. Two curved lines articulate the upper

Museum, the Musée du Louvre, and, most likely, the

line of the chin; three curves outline its base. Narrow

State Historical Museum in Moscow and the Istanbul

lines descend from the chin to the neck, in several cases

Archaeological Museum.20 The first painter was respon-

terminating in curves. The fingers of the saints in this

sible for a group of large tiles in Baltimore and Paris,

group, when preserved, are attenuated, and the nails are

including the icons of the Virgin and Child (fig. 3), St.

not usually articulated. The tiles of the two archangels,

Christopher (fig. 4), St. Panteleimon and, perhaps, St.

two episcopal saints, two apostles, St. Panteleimon, and

Ignatios Theophoros.21 The tiles in this group share sty-

a fragment of Christ from a capital, can be attributed to

listic affinities with the portrait of a male saint found in

this group (cat. nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 19).

Üskübü (Diizce) (fig. 5), the likely find spot of the Walters

A second painter recognized in the Baltimore tiles was

and Louvre tiles, and a portrait of St. Panteleimon in the

responsible for smaller plaques with portraits of saints,

State Historical Museum in Moscow (fig. 6), said to be

including those of Arethas (fig. 7), Panteleimon, Basil,

from Nikomedia.

an unidentified martyr, an apostle, the Virgin and Child

A particular feature that assists in grouping these tiles

and, perhaps, Constan tine. 22 The portrait of St. George

is the rendering of the eyes. The upper eyelids are slightly

in the State Historical Museum in Moscow (fig. 8), a tile

thickened, flair horizontally, and taper toward the hairline.

said to be from Nikomedia, should also be assigned to this

7

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Fig. 5. Male Saint, M.P.H. 5.5 cm. Archaeological Museum, Istanbul

Fig. 6. St. Panteleimon, 14.5 x 14.0. State Historical Museum, Moscow

(6545 P.T.)

(53066)

Fig. 7. St. Arethas, 17.2 x 17. 1 cm. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

Fig. 8. St. George, 17.3 x 17.2 cm. State Historical Museum, Moscow

(48.2086.2)

(53066)

group.23 These tiles make wide use of deep purple (man-

decoration ornament the garments. The necklines of the

ganese) glaze, particularly on the elaborately detailed vest-

tunics are generally trapezoidal. The figures' right hands are

ments. Pink slip is used liberally to highlight facial features

rendered in an identical fashion with articulated thumb-

and costume elements. The contours of the face are simi-

nails and lines emphasizing the crease between the thumb

larly tapered, with wide cheeks leading to a narrow chin.

and the rest of the hand. The letterforms of the inscriptions

Intricate foliate patterns, elaborate fibulae, and gemstone

painted on these tiles are ornate. The alphas and epsilons

8

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Fig. 9. St. George. Detail of cat. no. 12. Private Collection, London

3 . Archangel (Michael ?) M.P.H. 5.2; Th. 0.7 cm

on the Theodore (cat. no. 11), Constantine, and George

This single fragment is the upper left edge of a small square

(Moscow; fig. 8) plaques are nearly identical.24 The inscrip-

plaque. Portions of the green-glazed band and flat, open

tions on the portraits of George in the London collection

leaf that framed the figure are still preserved. Only the

(fig. 9, cat. no. 12) and in Moscow both begin with crosses

upper portion of the angels head survives. As in the por-

formed from pellets. Eight tiles from the London collec-

trait of Gabriel painted by the same hand, the angels

tion can be assigned to this painter with some security:

hair is held back from his face by a diadem; two wisps

the portrait of one apostle, St. Theodore, the incomplete

fall onto the forehead and are shaded with pink slip. His

portrait of St. George, three military saints (including

arching eyebrows are preserved along the lower edge of

one on a capital), the partial face of a male saint, and the

the fragment.

cross-holding hand of a male figure (cat. nos. 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20).

4. Apostle H. of plaque as reconstructed 17; Th. 0.7 cm

i . Christ

Maximum preserved height (M.P.H.) 6.5; Thickness (Th.) 0.7 cm

The three joining and one non-joining fragments derive from the center and left corner of a small, square plaque.

This is the portrait of a youthful apostle, who carries a

This single fragment from a large, square plaque pre-

scroll in his left hand and extends his right hand in a

serves the right side of an identifying inscription and the

gesture of speech. The apostle wears a tunic with a trap-

remains of the right side of a broad cross that was once

ezoidal neckline covered by a white mantle. Black, sharp

glazed green. The style of the chi and lunate sigma recalls

lines indicate the folds of the cloth. The chin is under-

the letters on the Christopher plaque in the Walters Art

lined by three curves, and looping, thin strokes mark the

Museum (fig. 3) where the chi is also embellished with

divide between the neck and collarbones. Parallel black,

squared serifs.

curved lines are painted below the lower lip, dividing it from the chin. The painter has applied pink to highlight the figures neck and fingers. The reverse of the plaque is

2. Archangel Gabriel M.P.H. 4.2; Th. 0.8 cm ГАВ[р1Г|1]

This single fragment from a small square plaque contains the partial name and face of the archangel. The angels hair,

glazed in deep brown that was colored by manganese, is

painted with loose, red brushstrokes, perhaps part of a quickly sketched face.

5. Apostle Est. H. and W. of plaque 18; Th. 0.7 cm

held back from his face by a diadem; two wisps fall onto

This single fragment is the lower left corner of a small,

the forehead. The angels eye has an elongated upper lid

square plaque. The framing green band and the open leaf

and is covered by a sharply arched brow. A fainter line

in the corner are both well preserved. The white garments

articulates the upper crease of the lid. Touches of pink slip

are marked by black lines, which denote the folds of the

are applied to contour and shade the face. Traces of the

fabric. Characteristic of the style of this painter is the

framing band demonstrate that this figure was represented

drawing of an angular hook at the end of lines that mark

in half length within a green, circular frame.

creases in the drapery.

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6. Apostle

9. Episcopal Saint

M.P.H. 6; Est. H. and W. of plaque 18;

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 26;

Th. 0.8 cm

Th. 0.9 cm

This single fragment, from the lower edge of a small square

Five joining fragments from the lower right corner of a

plaque, preserves the green band and partial figure of an

large square plaque. A green circular frame, terminating in

apostle. The apostle is garbed in a white robe with thick,

heart-shaped leaves in the corners, contains the partially

dark lines denoting creases in the fabric. In his left hand

preserved image of an episcopal saint. The bishop wears an

he holds a scroll; two fingers from the right hand, raised

omophorion decorated with a black cross. His office is also

in a gesture of speech, are partially preserved.

signified by his epitrachelion , which is marked by parallel

lines and pellets in the shape of a cross. A jeweled gospel book rests in the crook of the figures covered left arm;

7. Apostle (?) M.P.H. 6.9; Est. H. and W. of plaque 17.5; Th. 0.6 cm

two fingers from his right hand are extended toward the codex. The bishop s white vestments are marked with thick black lines that denote folds in the fabric. Characteristic of

This single fragment comprises the lower right corner of

the painter, some of the lines terminate in squared hooks.

a small, square plaque. The figure grasps his robe with

Parallel short brushstrokes provide further texture to the

his right hand. The most prominent characteristic of the

garment. The thin line descending from the face to the

painters style is the thumb, with its carefully delineat-

neck and the traces of a curved line below the chin, as

ed nail and knuckle. The portrait of St. Christopher in

well as the use of pink shading and the attenuated fingers

the Walters Art Museum has similarly rendered fingers

with undifferentiated nails, associate this tile to the painter

(fig- 4)-

of St. Ignatios Theophoros in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 4). The two tiles are identical in size.

8. Episcopal Saint H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 20;

i о . Saint Panteleimon

Th. 0.9 cm This is a single fragment from the lower edge of a small square plaque. The frontal, half-length bishop has a long, pointed beard. His fingers are attenuated. Black, elongated

[o'Ayioç I navTeXgr¡]M,QN

M.P.H. 16.7; H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 31; Th. 0.6 cm

crosses ornament both sides of the omophorion, which is

Three joining fragments of a large square plaque. The

crossed in front of his chest. The figure holds a jeweled

saint, at the center of the plaque, is placed against an

Gospel book in his left, covered hand. An error has been

amber background. His hair, face, neck, and shoulder are

made in glazing the cover of the codex. The small trian-

preserved. The saints curly hair is highlighted with quick

gular section below it and to the left (where the book

brushstrokes. Cropped short, the tendrils fall behind the

was clasped shut) should have remained white. This may

left ear lobe. His right brow arches over a carefully painted

suggest that the person who sketched the figure was not

eye. The dark iris is attached to the thicker, upper lid,

the same as the one who glazed it. This figure closely

leaving some white space below. The line of the upper lid

resembles the representation of St. Ignatios Theophoros

extends outward, elongating the eye. A curved line below

in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger,

the eye articulates the crease under the lower lid. The

A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 4) and must have been made by

nose, drawn in black line, is modeled by the use of pink

the same painter.

slip along the tip. Touches of pink slip also provide color

on the cheeks and shade the bridge and tip of the nose and the sides of the neck. This figure closely resembles a

10

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2

4

8

9

il

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portrait of Panteleimon in the State Historical Museum

1 2 . Military Saint (George ?)

in Moscow (fig. 6). Two additional portraits of the saint

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 17;

are found on ceramic tiles in the Walters Art Museum.25

Th. 0.8 cm

Panteleimon s martyrdom in Nikomedia in 304 ce and the popularity of his cult in that city and the surrounding

This small square plaque is reconstructed from two non-

region undoubtedly account for the frequent representation of the saint in this medium.26 The Church of St.

joining fragments. One additional border fragment may

Panteleimon of Adamantios, located to the west of the city,

by a green band, is set against a background of interlock-

functioned as a center of devotion to this saint throughout

ing green and deep purple triangles, a pattern found on

the Middle Ages.

ornamental tiles in this collection (cat. nos. 48, 49, 54).

also belong to this plaque. The amber medallion, encircled

This is the only figurai tile to have such decoration. The upper left fragment is inscribed with a cross that is com-

1 1 . Saint Theodore

(ó'Ayio; 0)EO(So)POC H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 17.5; Th. 0.8 cm

posed of pellets and an alpha with a triangular element (fig. 9). The form of the alpha and the cross recall those

on plaques depicting St. Constantine in the Walters Art

Museum (fig. 14) and St. George in the State Historical This small plaque is reconstructed from one large frag-

Museum, Moscow (fig. 8). 28 The lower right section of the

ment and one smaller joining piece.27 Seven nonjoining

plaque preserves part of the figure of the saint, who wears

fragments complete the reconstructed tile. A compass

a light purple mantle bordered in white reserve. The outer

mark at the center of the plaque creates a depression in

garment is pulled aside to reveal an amber tunic. Similar

the glaze. The saint, rendered frontal and half length, is

garments are represented on the St. Theodore plaque (cat.

set against an amber background. A green band that opens

no. 11) and on the St. George plaque in Moscow.

into a heart-shaped leaf at each corner encircles the portrait. The saint's lean face is bearded. His sunken cheeks

and long nose are highlighted with pink slip, as are his

13. Military Saint M.P.H. 8.8; Th. 0.8 cm

lips. Thin lines emphasize the verticality of the face and delineate individual locks of his cropped hair. In his right

Single fragment from a small square plaque. The male

hand, the saint holds a cross that was once glazed green.

figure wears a cloak clasped by an elaborate fibula com-

Thick lines outline the thumbnail and fingers of his right

posed of five circles.

hand. For a nearly identical hand and cross, see cat. no. 17. Theodore wears a dark brown tunic that is ornamented with a wide amber collar. Circles on this collar simulate the appearance of pearls and gemstones. The saints outer

mantle, glazed dark brown and green, is clasped on his

14. Saint George (?) (ó 'Âyioç Гесор)ГЮС

M.P.H. 5.1; Th. 0.8-0.9 cm

right shoulder with a fibula and opens to reveal an amber

Two joining fragments from the right side of a small square

garment below. For a similarly treated garment, see cat.

plaque. The framing green band and the amber medallion

nos. 13 and 15, two military saints, and the representation

are preserved, along with a partial inscription.

of St. George in Moscow (fig. 8).

12

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16. Male Figure M.P.H. 2.9; Th. 0.8-0.9 cm

1 5 . Military Saint M.P.W. 4; Th. 0.8 cm Single fragment from a small, square tile. The saint, who

This single fragment representing the head of a bearded

has a long beard, wears a gold mantle over a green tunic

figure, either Christ or a saint, derives from a small, square

with a trapezoidal collar. A gold, circular fibula clasps the

plaque.

garment on his right shoulder. The figure is identical in

scale and decorative details to the representation of St. Theodore and another military saint (cat. nos. 11, 13).

10

il

12

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17. Male Saint M.P.H. 6; Th. 0.9 cm Two joining fragments from a small, square plaque representing the right hand of a saint carrying an elaborate cross. For a nearly identical hand and cross, see the rep-

3

resentation of St. Theodore, cat. no. 11.

14 15

1 8. Capital with the Virgin Mary (?)

M.P.H. 3 cm 16

A single small fragment with the left ear, partial face, and 18

purple mantle of a female figure, most likely the Virgin

Mary. The tile is curved in profile, demonstrating that it forms part of a capital with figurai decoration. If the

17

figure is indeed the Virgin, then this fragment most likely

belongs to a capital that was paired with cat. no. 19, a capital with a representation of Christ. For the render-

a private collection in England offers a comparable case

ing of a female saint with similar garb, see Gerstel and

of placing a holy portrait on a curved surface rather than

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , a. 20.

on a flat plaque (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art

Rediscovered , j.i). Wells of polychrome bowls found in

1 9 . Capital with Christ H. as reconstructed 29; D. at base 17;

D. at rim 20.5; Th. 0.9-1.2 cm.

Two nonjoining fragments from a decorated capital. Christ is represented in frontal pose and half length. A jeweled cross radiates from his head and touches the sides of the encircling frame. The upper lids of his eyes are elon-

Constantinople are also decorated with images of saints, suggesting that the types of surfaces that could receive holy

portraits were more varied than previously known.29

2 о . Capital with Military Saint H. as reconstructed 31; D. at base 18;

D. at rim 20; Th. 0.7-0.9 cm

gated and his brows sharply arched. His head, the contours

Seven fragments from a decorated capital. A green strip

of his face, and the part of his hair are painted with thick

borders the rim of the capital, which is flat and thick.

black lines and shaded with pink slip. Individual strands

Heart-shaped leaves glazed in amber and ornamented

of hair are rendered in quicker strokes. The background

by black veins run in a tight pattern in a band along the

of the medallion is amber. The medallion forms part of

upright rim of the capital. Green triangular leaves and

a guilloche band in which the figure is flanked by foliate

florettes fill the voids created by the leaf pattern. Below,

crosses in alternating loops. A similar guilloche, though

two joining curved fragments are decorated with a guil-

without figures, is found on flat, rectangular tiles in the

loche band enclosing decorative crosses and the frontal

Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost

figure of a military saint. The saint has short, curly hair

Art Rediscovered, a. 55). Cat. nos. 18 and 20, the represen-

and wears a green chlamys over a purple tunic. A gold,

tation of a female saint or the Virgin Mary and the rep-

circular fibula clasps the garment on his right shoulder.

resentation of a military saint, belong to similarly shaped

To the left: of the head is a terminal sigma from the word

capitals. Although the depiction of figures on the curved

Hagios. At the base of the capital are an amber band and

surfaces of capitals is unusual in the Middle Byzantine

the remains of a leaf pattern that mirrored the pattern on

period, a representation of Christ on a convex tile now in

the upper rim.

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Animals

Ornamental

Tiles

The London collection includes fifteen fragments deco-

The London collection of approximately three thousand

rated with the heads, bodies, wings, or legs of animals.

fragments represents less than half of the tiles that once

These fragments belong to at least six different tiles, most

decorated the church interior. The astonishing variety of

likely square in shape. Representations of animals are not

patterns and shapes represented in this collection provides

unique to this collection. Peacocks are found on large

some insights into the decorative strategies employed by

square tiles in the Walters Art Museum and the Musée du

tenth-century church decorators. Although some of the

Louvre.30 One additional flat rectangular plaque in the

tiles may have been placed against a wooden framework

Musée du Louvre represents a boar, a hare, and a lion.31

as a barrier between the nave and the sanctuary, it is more

Some scholars have suggested, due to its unusual decora-

likely that the colonnettes and the large number of flat

tion and narrow size, that the Paris tile may have been used

plaques in this collection lined the lateral walls and apse

in a secular context, perhaps as inlay in a larger object, such as a wooden casket.32 The London animals - an

of the church, framing works of devotional import. The

eagle, a lion, an ox, and two peacocks - are represented

arches containing portraits of saint can be seen, for exam-

in frontal pose or in profile. Depicting animals associated

ple, in the eleventh-century decoration of the New Church

with Evangelist symbols or animals of symbolic value,

of the Tokali Kilise, Cappadocia (fig. 10), a monument that

these tiles could easily find a place within the decoration

also repeats in its ornamental designs a number of patter-

of a church. Numerous parallels for stylized animals are

ns found on the Nikomedian tiles. Indeed, churches in

attested in Middle Byzantine sculpture of the period, par-

Cappadocia display the tendency to decorate architectural

ticularly on carved epistyles and are also found, in secular

components - columns, cornices, and capitals - in the

contexts, on whiteware vessels.

same patterns represented on the tiles. Such decoration is

use of painted half colonnettes as framing devices for blind

especially well displayed in the eleventh-century Karanlik

Kilise (fig. 11), where columns are painted with sawto-

2 1 . Animals

oth and marble patterns, and wall surfaces are covered

Th. 0.7-0.9 cm

with vine scrolls, jeweled bands, and decorative squares

The animal tiles are very fragmentary and are thus treated

that resemble attached plaques. The painted architectural

as a group. Three fragments form part of the representation

fragments that once decorated the Lower City Church

of a bird of prey (a) - its talons stretch to the left and tail

at Amorium provide important comparisons from a site

feathers to the right. Two fragments belong to separate rep-

geographically closer to Nikomedia. Dated to the late

resentations of either a horse or an ox (b). One fragment

ninth or early tenth century and to the eleventh century,

represents the body of a lion (c). At least two tiles - one

the fragments include a limestone string course sculp-

small and one large - depict peacocks (d).

ted with a guilloche pattern that was painted red-orange,

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Fig. io. New Church, Tokali Kilise, Cappadocia, Turkey. General view

Fig. 1 1 . Karanlik Kilise, Cappadocia, Turkey

to the north

yellow, blue, and black.33 The foliate patterns and split leaves that decorated cornice blocks from the church are also close in design and color to patterns presented on the

tiles (fig. 12; see cat. no. 81). Fragments associated with the refurbishment of the Lower Church in the eleventh century are also carved with decorative patterns that are

found on tiles produced by the Nikomedia workshop, including interlaced circles, upright leaves and guilloche. The large number of ornamental patterns found in painted and sculpted churches of the period provides evidence that

the polychrome aesthetic of the Middle Byzantine period extended across media, even to the walls of a very modest church in the hinterlands of Nikomedia.34 Decorated with

numerous ceramic colonnettes painted in a wide variety of colorful patterns and reveted with plaques of matching or antithetical patterns, the interior decoration of the

church, evidenced only by the chance survival of part of

Fig. 12. Cornice blocks, Lower City Church, Amorium, Late 9th/early 10th century (T905, t8 50). After E. Hendrix, "Painted Polychromy on Carved Stones from the Lower City of Amorium," in C. S. Lightfoot,

its ceramic decoration, must have impressed the faithful

ed., Amorium Reports , II: Research Papers and Technical Reports , BAR

with its rich color and striking luminosity.

International Series 11 70 (Oxford, 2003), pl.i.ix/3

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Colonnettes

The London collection is outstanding for its large number

of colonnette shafts and capitals. The collection includes fragments from numerous colonnettes made of multiple "drums," or shaft segments, divided by bands. The reconstruction of at least twenty colonnette shafts (cat. nos. 22,

25, 26, 30, 34) demonstrates that each segment measured at least 35 cm. Made in pairs, it would appear that drums

of different design were stacked on top of one another

Fig. 1 3 . Cross fragments from colonette. The Walters Art Museum,

with ornamental bands marking the transitions between

Baltimore (48.2086.45)

patterns. Separately formed capitals were set on top of the

stacked tiles and were probably attached by plaster. On occasion, shafts were set directly on top of one another without intervening bands. The incision of the Greek letter Ф on the upper and lower ends of two shafts suggests that

which is the main field of decoration. The capitals were

the letter facilitated installation by aligning the ceramic

shaped and fired as separate components to be placed at

half cylinders (cat. no. 26)

the top of the stacked shafts. The lower edge is narrower

The surviving fragments include a large number of

in diameter than the upper, matching the diameter of

patterns, both for the shafts and for the bands painted at

most of the shafts in the collection. Although the shape of

their ends. Six types of shaft patterns are represented in the

the capitals in the Walters Art Museum and others from

London collection: chevron, marble, peacock feather, flo-

excavated sites in Istanbul, including the Topkapi Sarayi

rette, vine scroll, and sawtooth rows. Of these, the chevron,

Basilica, is somewhat different, these were also produced

marble, peacock feather, and sawtooth patterns are found

on a wheel and fired as separate components.35 The colon-

on tiles excavated in Istanbul as well as on fragments in the

nettes may have been placed directly on the pavement or

Walters Art Museum. Vine scroll and florette colonnettes

attached to ceramic bases. Several tiles, wider in diameter,

are unique to the London collection. The band patterns are

may have served as the bases for ceramic shafts (see cat.

more numerous: black and white checkerboard, florette,

no. 35). Several of the bands have a convex moulding close

compressed circles enclosing plants, alternating diamonds

to the end; these also may have served as bases for colon-

and four-petaled flowers, scrollwork, guilloche, jeweled

nette shafts, imitating in their profile the torus moulding

band, heart-shaped leaves, tongue and dart, and triangles

of ancient column bases (cat. no. 37)

enclosing florettes. Bands are not paired with specific shaft

Painted crosses, set off within medallions, mark two

patterns. A similar design of interlocking triangles and half

pairs of colonnette shafts in the London collection (cat.

florettes, for example, is found on shafts decorated with

nos. 23, 25). The tile fragments in the Walters Art Museum

both chevron and marble patterns (cat. nos. 22, 26). The

also include a cross from a shaft decorated with a diaper

use of similar band designs on differently patterned shafts

pattern (fig. 13). 36 The Musée National de Céramique,

and the restricted palette of glazes ensured that the overall

Sèvres, includes another example in its collection of

appearance of the colonnettes was harmonious even if the

tile fragments.37 Such cross decoration is unique to the

juxtaposed patterns appear, at times, discordant.

Byzantine tiles painted by the Nikomedia workshop.

Ornate capitals crowned the colonnettes. Fragments

of at least six capitals can be identified in the London

Separated from the patterned shaft by a circular frame,

collection (cat. nos. 17, 18, 19, 28, 40, 41); three of them

the painted crosses imitated in shape and green glaze color metal votive crosses that were affixed to or incised into

have figurai decoration. The capitals have a bulbous center,

columns in Byzantine churches.38

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гг. Chevron Shaft and Interlocking Triangles

chevron pattern (called lozenge braid), glazed in blue green

Enclosing Half Florettes

and white, were found in excavations of the Kyriotissa

H. of shaft as reconstructed 35; D. 14.5;

Church (Kalenderhane Camii) in Istanbul (Gerstel and

Th. at base 1.1; lh. at rim 0.8 cm

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered ' v.9).

lhe 136 preserved fragments belong to at least four col-

onnette shafts decorated with identical bands along the

upper rim. One additional shaft does not have a band, lhe bottom edges are flat and slightly rolled, lhe shafts

are decorated with a chevron pattern in which amber and green alternate with white reserve and deep purple.

23a, b. Chevron Shaft with Cross a: D. of medallion 11; L. of cross 7.6; lh. 0.8 cm; H. of shaft as reconstructed 15;

D. as reconstructed 15 cm; b: D. of medallion 11.4; L. of cross 8; lh. 0.8 cm

The upper band (H. 3.4 cm), bordered at the top and

Crosses within medallions from two colonnette shafts

the bottom by a green strip, is divided into interlocking

with chevron decoration. The first cross (a), formed of six

amber and white reserve triangles (for a similar pattern,

joining fragments, decorates a short shaft approximately

see cat. no. 2 6). Half florettes within the triangles are

15 cm in height. The second cross (b) is reconstructed

glazed in deep purple enclosing a white reserve half circle

from ten fragments that decorated a taller shaft. On both,

or green enclosing an amber half circle. Two crosses on

a framing white reserve band, oudined in black, divides

an amber background punctuated the colonnette (cat.

the cross from the patterned shaft. Amber glaze fills the

nos. 23a, b). Fragments from a colonnette decorated with a

ground between the arms of the cross and the circular

band, lhe interior of each cross is divided into green, white reserve, and black rectangles. A square, painted with

concentric squares in deep purple (?), amber, and white reserves, marks the point where the arms intersect. Small circles, in imitation of the round finíais on metal crosses, ornament the corners of each arm. Two fragments from

a medallion enclosing a cross are among the tile fragments in the Walters Art Museum (fig. 13). lhe interior

of the Baltimore cross is ornamented with a pattern of segmented squares. A single fragment from another col-

onnette decorated with a medallion (perhaps enclosing

a cross) is found in the Musée National de Céramique,

22

23a

23b

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Sèvres (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered,

effect. The red color is intended to evoke columns of

C.3). Marble shafts within the London collection are also

precious stone, such as porphyry. The upper edge of the

decorated with crosses in medallions (cat. no. 25)

column is rolled. The upper 7 cm has striations that sug-

gest wheel throwing and is similar to the fabrication of

24. Chevron Shaft and Band of Compressed Circles Enclosing Lobed Plants

the capitals in the Walters Art Museum.39 The patterned band a the top of the colonnette, set off by green bands, measures 9.2 cm black lines divide the pattern into squares

M.P.H. 12.5; D. 15; Th. 0.8-0.9 cm

enclosing diamonds alternating with four-petaled flowers.

Twelve band fragments are preserved from at least three

Each diamond encloses a smaller square, set on an amber

colonnette shafts decorated in a chevron pattern (the shaft

ground. The squares enclose a smaller, quartered square

fragments are counted in cat. no. 22). On two of the shafts,

with dots in the center of each compartment. On each

the decorative bank is located along the upper rim; the

side of the diamond is a small trilobed leaf, which was

same band design decorates the lower edge of the third

initially colored with deep purple glaze. The four-petaled

shaft. The band (H. 3.6 cm), bordered on the top and the

flowers are glazed amber. Trilobed leaves, glazed green,

bottom by green strips, consists of repeated compressed

fill the spaces between the elongated petals. The identical

circles that are linked by amber stylized tendrils. Within

pattern of diamonds alternating with four-petaled flowers

the circles are green lobed plants. The decoration on the

is found on a capital (cat. no. 28). Five of the fragments

band is similar to a pattern of hearts with five-pointed

from the lower edge of the colonnette are decorated with

leaves that adorns rectangular strips found in excavations

a meander border (H. 1.2 cm) separated from the marble

at theTopkapi Sarayi Basilica (Gerstel and Lauffenburger,

shaft by a black line. Six fragments belong to crosses that

A Lost Art Rediscovered, xii.16).

punctuated two of the shafts. The crosses are centered in

2 5 . Marble Shaft with Band of Diamonds Alternating with Four-petaled Flowers and Cross H. of shaft as reconstructed 37.5;

D. at rim 17.5; D. at base 16.5; Th. 1 cm Sixty-six fragments of at least three colonnette shafts with

decorative bands. Red slip is applied to the tile with a sponge, then covered with a clear glaze, creating a marble

*5

4

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an amber medallion that is encircled by a white reserve

26. Marble Shaft with Band of Interlocking

band. The flaring arms of the cross terminate in discs,

Triangles Enclosing Half Florettes

which touch the framing circular band. The interior of

Est. H. of each shaft 35 cm

the cross is painted with bands of green, white reserve, and black. For similar crosses on shafts in the London

One hundred eighteen fragments of four or more colon-

collection, see cat. no. 23.

nette shafts. The upper edge is rolled. The shaft is decorated with a red and black sponge pattern on white reserve

in imitation of marble or another precious stone. At the top of three of the shafts is a rectangular band bordered by

thick green strips and divided by black lines into triangles;

fragments are preserved from one additional band. The descending triangles are amber in color and enclose green trilobed leaves with amber semicircles at the center. The

ascending triangles are white reserve with deep purple trilobed leaves enclosing white semicircles. A similar pattern is found on the banded end of a chevron colonnette (cat. no. 22). Two of the shafts are incised with matching halves of the Greek letter Ф, an indication that the letter was intended to facilitate the stacking of the shafts when installed. This letter is divided between two shafts with finished edges, an indication that the letter was intended to facilitate the stacking of shafts when installed.

27. Black and White Checkerboard Band M.P.H. 7; D. at base 13.6; Th. 0.9 cm Twenty fragments from the bands of at least two colon-

nettes. The edges are scored and snapped; the outer surfaces are flattened. The decoration is a black and white

checkerboard pattern bordered at the upper and lower edges by a green band. Two fragments preserve traces of an adjacent shaft pattern, perhaps half-concentric circles or petals in amber with green glaze at the center. The band

pattern is unique to this site.

26

27

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2 9 . Peacock Feather Shaft

28. Capital with Black and White Meander, Diamonds Alternating with Four-Petaled

Est. D. 18; Th. 0.5-0.7 cm

Flowers, and Interlocking Triangles

M.P.H. 9; D. at base 13.8; Th. 0.8 cm

Ten fragments from the shaft of at least one colonnette; the lateral edges are scored and snapped. The shaft depicts

Three joining and three nonjoining fragments from a

peacock feathers alternating in color between deep purple

capital with flaring profile. The lower, flattened rim of

and green. Each feather is bordered in amber and clear

the capital is decorated with a black and white meander

glaze and contains a black barb terminating in a circle at

pattern. At the center of the capital is a band of squares

the center. At the lower edge of the design is an amber

enclosing alternating diamonds and florettes. The dia-

band. A similar pattern decorates the shafts of colonnettes

monds, placed against a white reserve ground, frame

found in excavations at the Hospital of Sampson, the

smaller squares, which are segmented on the inside and

church of the Virgin Kyriotissa (Kalenderhane Camii) and

ornamented with dots. Four prominent petals flare from

the Istanbul Law Court, as well as a reconstructed tile in

a central core within the green florettes. At the top of the

a private collection in England and one in the Musée du

capital is a narrow band of interlocking amber and white

Louvre (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered,

reserve triangles. The identical pattern of diamonds alter-

11.18, IV. i, V.8, XV.6, xv.11, B.15).

nating with four-petaled flowers bands a colonnette with

a marble shaft (cat. no. 25). A similar meander pattern decorates the lower edge of the same marble shaft and is also found on a fragment from the edge of a square plaque

found at a site to the southeast of Izmit.40

28

29

30

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3 0. Florette Shaft with Marble Band

foliate design of contrasting white reserve and manganese

H. of shaft as reconstructed 36; D. 18; Th. 0.7 cm

flowers under arches (fragments from the same shaft may

be included in cat. no. 30). The band at the top of the The 116 fragments belong to at least three, and most likely

colonnette is a black and white abstract scroll coated with

four, colonnette shafts. The lateral edges are scored and

a thin layer of green glaze. The design is set off from the

snapped. The upper edge of the shaft is banded by a red

shaft by framing bands of amber.

and black marble pattern framed by amber strips; the lower part of the shaft is banded by a red and black marble

pattern. Below this, a green strip framed by amber bands borders the lower edge. The shaft is covered with bands

32. Florette Shaft with Jeweled Band

M.P.H. 10.8; D. at rim 28.4; Th. 0.7 cm

of florettes that alternate between amber and green, deep

The two joining fragments belong to the top of a wide

purple and clear. A similar florette pattern is found on flat

colonnette (the curvature is unusually shallow) with a

and convex tiles (see cat. nos. 64, 77).

flattened rim. Additional fragments belonging to the same

shaft have been used in the reconstruction. The interior surface shows evidence of smoothing. Green strips border

3 1 . Florette Shaft and Scrollwork Band

a jeweled band (H. 6.5 cm) decorated with alternating

M.P.H. 13.5; D. at rim 16; Th. 1 cm

concentric rectangles and checkerboards. The concentric

Five joining fragments are preserved from one colonnette

rectangles are amber, white reserve, and black. The check-

shaft; additional fragments belong to a second colonnette.

erboard is segmented into twelve boxes, each containing

One of the shafts has a flat upper surface with scrape marks

a black dot. Below the jeweled band are the traces of two

on the interior. The upper surface of the second is rolled.

green medallions enclosing large florettes painted on a

Little survives of the column shaft, which was painted in a

white reserve ground.

31

32

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3 з • Florette and Guilloche Capital M.P.H. 5.8; D. at base 16.4; Th. 0.7-0.9 cm

shaft is bordered by a band of heart-shaped leaves (H. 6.7

cm) framed by green strips (b). One additional shaft is not banded at the end.

Six fragments belong to a capital decorated with narrow

guilloche band (H. 3.8 cm) along the lower rim. Amber strips separate the narrow band from bulbous center of the capital, which is covered with florettes. The guilloche

35. V ine Scroll ( ?) Shaft and Florette Band

M.P.H. 10; D. at base 22.7; Th. 0.7 cm

is drawn in black line on white reserve and may have been

Nine fragments from the base of one colonnette. The

coated with clear glaze. On the interior surface, a narrow

thick band, framed by amber strips, is decorated with

ledge corresponds to the change in pattern on the outer

florettes turned on side. The pattern on the shaft is difficult to read.

surface of the tile. A similar guilloche band, though running in the opposite direction, decorates the top of a vessel

decorated with a marble pattern (cat. no. 88). The two bands appear to be the work of the same painter. A similarly painted guilloche decorates a tile found in excavations

of the Topkapi Sarayi Basilica, where it forms an orna-

36. Foliate (?) Shaft and Band of Concentric Squares and Diamonds

Th. 0.9 cm

mental strip on a concave tile (Gerstel and Lauffenb urger,

Nine fragments belong to the upper section of two colon-

A Lost Art Rediscovered , xi 1 . 24) .

nette shafts decorated with an ornamental band. The shaft

is decorated with scrolling tendrils with leaves. A band of

34a, b. Vine Scroll Shaft with Jeweled Band and

Heart-Shaped Leaf Band H. as reconstructed 36;

D. 16.2; Th. 0.8 cm

alternating squares and diamonds is set off from the shaft by amber strips. The concentric squares are decorated with

bands of amber glaze and white reserve. The diamonds are segmented and contain dots in alternating boxes. Trilobed forms extend from the sides of the diamond. The reverse

Seventy- two largely nonjoining fragments of at least three

side of the colonnette has a sketch of a tree branch with

colonnette shafts with scrolling, green vines encircling

leaves (?).

deep purple and amber flowers. Amber-glazed clasps control the scrolling tendrils and enliven the palette. Eight fragments of a related shaft have additional black flowers on long tendrils. There are no parallels for this pattern, and it is not found on shafts recovered from other sites.

37a, b. Bands of Vine Scrolls and Heart-Shaped Leaves M.P.H. 10.3; D. 15.5; Th. 0.8 cm

A jeweled band decorates the upper end of one shaft (a).

Nine fragments from two bands of the lower ends of foli-

This ornamental band, framed by green strips, consists

ate column shafts with convex mouldings in imitation of

of concentric squares alternating with circles (H. 6.6 cm)

the torus moulding on column bases. The moulding, here

in imitation of a jeweled band of inset gemstones and

a band of heart-shaped leaves, bulges slightly in profile

pearls. Each amber square frames a green interior. The

below the edge. A ledge on the interior corresponds to the

white reserve circles, stacked two above two, are enclosed

change in decorative pattern on the exterior. A decorative

within a black square. A similar jeweled pattern of alter-

band of amber strips framing a vine scroll decorates the flat

nating concentric rectangles and circles decorates a flat

edge of the band. The leaves on the vine scroll are glazed

rectangular tile (cat. no. 82). See also the rectangular tiles

amber and the grapes deep purple. Adjacent, on the convex

excavated in the Topkapi Sarayi Basilica and the church of

section of the band is a row of amber leaves turned on

the Virgin Kyriotissa (Kalenderhane Camii) (Gerstel and

side to form a chain. Each leaf encloses a five-lobed green

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, v.i, XII.3). Another

florette with a black teardrop at the center.

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33

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3 8. Bands of Vine Scrolls and Tongue and Dart Th. i cm

40. Diaper Pattern M.P.H. 7.1; D. at rim 17; Th. 0.8 cm

The three nonjoining fragments belong to the end of a

Two fragments from the lower edge and bulbous center

colonnette with a flattened rim. At the edge of the shaft is a

of a capital. The capital bulges above the flattened rim. A

narrow decorative band (2.7 cm) of amber strips enclosing

ledge on the interior corresponds to the pattern change

a tongue and dart design. The painter has modified the

on the exterior. A narrow green band (3.6 cm) framed by

traditional design by alternating the direction of the darts

amber strips decorates the edge of the tile. On the main

within their square frames. The shaft, or a second band at

decorative field, dark diagonal lines intersect to create a

the end of the shaft, has a delicate vine scroll design.

pattern of alternating diamonds. White reserve diamonds enclosing foliate forms alternate with diamonds that are subdivided into checkerboard patterns of nine boxes. The

3 9. Band with Heart-Shaped Leaves

corners of the boxes are filled with green glaze; at the center

Th. 0.6-0.7 cm

of each side the white squares are marked by four lines in

Seven fragments from the lower edge of two colonnette

imitation of the fastenings for gemstones in metalwork.

shafts most likely with foliate decoration. An amber strip

The center box is colored black. For a similar capital shape,

runs parallel to the edge. Above this, heart-shaped leaves

see cat. nos. 19, 20, 41.

enclosing concentric circles run in a tight pattern. Between

them are small, upright and pointy leaves.

38 39

40

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42 . Band of Interlocking Triangles

4 1 . Diaper Pattern Th. i cm

Enclosing Florettes

M.P.H. 7; Th. 0.9 cm Three fragments from a capital similar in shape to cat. nos. 19, 20, and 40. Dark diagonal lines intersect to create a pat-

Two fragments from the banded edge of a colonnette.

tern of alternating diamonds. Amber diamonds enclosing circles alternate with diamonds divided into nine boxes.

A green strip runs along the rim, which is flattened.

The corners of the boxes are filled with green glaze; at the

triangles that are painted in alternating colors. The white

center of each side the white squares are marked by a dot.

reserve triangles enclose trilobed, deep purple forms. The

The center box is colored deep purple. The circles within

green triangles enclose amber circles.

Intersecting horizontal and diagonal lines form rows of

the amber diamonds are decorated with black discs on four sides. A flat rectangular plaque with the identical pattern is found in the collection of the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.48).

43 . Shaft with Sawtooth Rows and Interlocking Triangles Enclosing Florettes

M.P.H. 12.4; Th. 0.9 cm Eight fragments of a colonnette shaft that has scored and

snapped edges. The sawtooth rows are evenly spaced at 1.4 cm and alternate in color between green and white reserve. For the use of this pattern on a painted column,

see fig. il, a painted colonnette in the Karanlik Kilise in

Cappadocia.

42

43 41

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44a, b. Basketweave

Large Square Plaques

Est. H. and W. 27; Th. 0.8 cm (larger plaque); Square plaques decorated with intricate ornamental pat-

Est. H. and W. 1 6; Th. 0.7 cm (smaller plaque)

terns are found both in the Walters Art Museum and

the Musée du Louvre. Large plaques measure approxi-

Eight fragments from the outer edges and corner of one

mately 28-32 cm. The patterns are framed by circular

or two large square plaques and five fragments from the

green bands that open into heart-shaped leaves in the

interior of one small square plaque. The larger plaque (a)

corners of the plaque. The London tiles are of a similar

has a deeply scored wavy line on the reverse of two of the

scale and, with two exceptions, cat. nos. 54, 59, the patterns

fragments. The smaller plaque (b) has a preparatory draw-

are also framed by green bands. Most of the patterns on the

ing of rosettes on the reverse. A green band terminating

London plaques are repeated on a second plaque (cat. nos.

in heart-shaped leaves in the corners frames a basketweave

44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53), suggesting that the plaques

pattern, which is painted in deep purple, amber, and white

might have been paired when affixed to the wall surface.

reserve. On the small plaque, this pattern frames a central

Although a number of the patterns are derived from opus

medallion of concentric circles alternating in white reserve

sectile designs for pavements, the tiles are too thin to have

and amber. On the larger plaque, the center is associated

been used as flooring.41 There are no registration marks

with a rosette with angular petals in white and amber. A

or letters found on the reverse of the square plaques. Two

basketweave pattern also ornaments three ceramic column

unusual sets of tiles with decoration that extended from

capitals in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore (Gerstel

one plaque to another, however, are marked on the obverse

and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.72-A.74) and

with Greek letters or symbols that must have facilitated

at least four large flat plaques and a colonnette shaft from

placement (cat. nos. 54).

a second site to the southeast of Nikomedia.42

45a, b. Half Florette and Disk H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 27; Th. i cm

Three joining and four additional fragments belong to

a large, square plaque that has beveled edges (a). Two worn fragments are preserved from a second plaque of nearly identical design (b). A broad, green circular band terminating in broad, green leaves in each corner frames the central pattern. Three preserved rows of half circles

enclosing half florettes begin from the outer band and progressively decrease in size toward the central medallion. The arches alternate between amber, which encloses

a green florette with an amber and black interior, and white reserve, which encloses a deep purple florette with a white reserve and black interior. At the center of the tile

is a black disk encircled by a deep purple band. Inside the disk are seven white circles surrounding a white reserve band and an amber circular core. A compass point is preserved beneath the amber glaze at the center of the tile.

28

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The second plaque has four rows of florettes rather than three; the central medallion of the design is identical. A similar design, though on convex tile, decorates fragments

in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered^ a. 67).

46. Half Florette and Intersecting Squares H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 29; Th. 0.8 cm Three joining and three nonjoining fragments of a large

square plaque with beveled edges. The depression left by a compass point is visible. At the center of the plaque is a medallion enclosing two intersecting squares whose exter-

nal corners terminate in loops. The squares enclose concentric circles of white reserve and green glaze. A broad,

green band encircles the central pattern. Five preserved rows of diamonds and triangles formed by intersecting arcs

enclose half florettes, which begin from the inner medallion and progressively increase in size toward the exterior of

the plaque. The diamonds and florettes alternate in color between amber, green, and white reserve. One large fragment preserves traces of a scallop pattern on the reverse.

For a large square plaque in the Walters Art Museum, with intersecting squares at the center, see Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.35.

47. Half Florette and Intersecting Squares H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 29;

Th. 0.7 cm Five nonjoining fragments of a large square plaque. A broad, green circular band terminating in green leaves in each corner frames the central pattern. At least four rows of half circles enclosing half florettes begin from the inner

46

medallion and progressively increase in size toward the exte-

rior of the plaque. At the center of the plaque is a medallion

enclosing two intersecting squares whose external corners terminate in loops. One additional fragment comes from the center of a second plaque of identical design.

47

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48a, b. Interlocking Triangles and Intersecting Squares

triangles decorates a large square plaque in the Walters

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 26;

Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art

Th. 0.7 cm

Rediscovered , a. 34).

Eleven nonjoining fragments of one large square plaque (a) and twenty-six additional fragments of a second plaque (b). A thick green band terminating in broad green leaves in each corner encircles the pattern. Six bands of inter-

49 . Interlocking Triangles and Marble Disk H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 20.5;

Th. 0.7-0.9 cm.

locking triangles, created by the intersection of concentric

Three joining and twenty-four nonjoining fragments

circles and radiating arcs, are colored amber, deep purple,

belong to three or four plaques.44 On each plaque, a green

green, and white reserve and form a lively geometric pat-

strip that opens into green leaves in the corners encloses a

tern. The concentric black lines were painted first and then

central disk and surrounding decorative bands. The central

the radiating arcs. Set off by a narrow white reserve band,

pattern consists of bands of amber and green interlocking

the inner medallion is decorated by intersecting squares

triangles formed by the intersection of concentric black

of white and amber enclosing a four-petaled flower. On

lines and arcs. Set off from this pattern by a green band

the reverse of two of the corner fragments are preparatory

is a "marble" disk at the center, which is created by red-

sketches for corner leaves. The pattern of interlocking

colored slip applied with a sponge. The reverse of two

triangles and squares recalls sunburst designs in Byzantine

joining fragments is marked by traces of red slip where

opus sectile pavements of the period in Bithynia and the

the painter cleaned off his brush. Similar patterns in opus

Byzantine capital.43 A similar pattern of interlocking

sectile are common in Byzantine churches of the period. The marble pattern at the center clearly refers to inset disks

of precious stone in floor pavements.

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5 o. Rosette and Segmented Square Th. 0.8 cm

by a green border and four corner leaves. The inner medal-

lion contains a four-petaled flower against a black ground.

On the other, the diaper pattern extends to the edge of This single fragment from the center of a square plaque

the tile. The inner medallion of the tile has a star pattern

preserves traces of a compass point. The central medallion

with radiating geometric petals in alternating white reserve

contains a four-petaled flower with a segmented square at

and amber. Three fragments preserve on their reverse a

the center. The square, which is glazed amber, has deep

sketch of interlocking triangles surrounding a medal-

purple discs at each corner.

lion containing a florette. Similar patterns decorate two large square tiles in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and

5 1 . Geometric Pattern with Central Medallion H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 28;

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.36, A.38), and the

reverse side of a plaque in the same collection (a. 39).

Th. 0.8 cm

Twenty-two fragments belonging to two large square plaques. The design of both plaques is a diaper pattern

5 2 . Geometric Pattern with Eight-Petaled Flower H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 26.5 cm

formed from alternating white reserve segmented dia-

Thirteen fragments of a large square plaque and additional

monds and amber glazed diamonds enclosing circles. The

fragments from a second plaque. A central core of an

tiles differ in the treatment of the border and the central

eight-petaled angular flower is surrounded by a diaper pat-

medallion. On one tile, the diaper pattern is surrounded

tern of segmented squares alternating with circles. Corner leaves frame the composition. For a similar core pattern,

see a rosette plaque in the Musée du Louvre (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , в.4).

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53. Acanthus

54a, b. Interlocking Triangles and Rosettes

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 26;

Est. H. 28-32; Est. H. of reconstructed com-

Th. 0.7 cm

position of nine plaques 90 cm

Eight fragments of a broad acanthus are painted against

Thirty-four fragments, largely nonjoining, belong to two

a white reserve background. A wide green band encircles

sets of plaques that were intended for installation next to

the plant and opens into broad, heart-shaped leaves in

one another. Analysis of the fragments suggests that two

the corners of the plaque. The space between the band

different patterns were painted on sets of at least nine

and the edge of the plaque is glazed amber. The plants

tiles which, when installed, would have displayed a very

curving leaves are decorated with half florettes that are

large circle with loops at the corners, a quincunx pattern

glazed green and deep purple set against amber and white

found in opus sectile pavements. At the points of juncture

reserve. At the base of the acanthus, broad leaves curve

between the tiles, there are letters or symbols. The incom-

upward to reveal both the veining of the lower surface and

plete number of fragments prevents a full reconstruction

the more ornate, floral and polychrome patterning of the

or understanding of the meaning of the symbols in assem-

upper surface. Recalling a bouquet, an amber band clasps

bling the tiles. The first set of tiles (a) has a framing band

the plants stem. To either side, thin tendrils terminate in

of interlocking triangles that are colored in alternating

heart-shaped leaves originally glazed green. The stem of

green and amber in one band and deep purple and white

the plant ends in two roundels of amber enclosing black

reserve in the other. The second set of tiles (b) has a band

circles. Eight additional fragments belong to at least two

of rosettes, which are turned sideways and framed by white

plaques of the same type. Large plaques with similar acan-

reserve bands. A similar turning of the rosettes on side is

thus plants are found in the Walters Art Museum and the

found on tile fragments from a colonnette base and a small

Musée du Louvre (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art

square plaque (cat. nos. 35, 60). The central motif within

Rediscovered , A.40, A.43, в.3).

each set of tiles is different: rosettes (a) and triangles (b). The playful juxtaposition of patterns is characteristic of

this workshop. The installation of tiles adjacent to one another, as suggested by the continuation of patterns from one piece to the next without intervening borders, has also been proposed for flat tiles with a cross motif found in the

Topkapi Sarayi Basilica and for figurai tiles in the Walters

Art Museum, Baltimore (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, xii.33, A.20, A.21). Fragments from

a site to the southeast of Nikomedia are also decorated

with patterns that run across tiles (Gerstel, "More Tiles of Nikomedia" [forthcoming] ) .

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55. Cross Th. 06- 0.7 cm Four nonjoining fragments of a large square plaque with no preserved edges. The reverse side of the plaque is rough.

The cross is made up of concentric rectangles of green,

white reserve, amber, and black, each outlined in black line. The inner rectangles terminate in a black discs; the outer rectangle terminates in a dotted circle, reminiscent of the round finials that adorned the arms of processional crosses. At the center of the intersecting arms is a square enclosing a rosette. The cross is identical in its proportions

and decoration to that on a large square plaque in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 31). The two works may be attributed to the hand of the same painter.

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Small Square Plaques Smaller plaques are found in abundance in the London collection. They vary in size between 14 and 22 cm.

5 6. Intersecting Squares H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 21.5;

Th. 0.9 cm Three joining and six nonjoining fragments of a small square plaque with beveled edges. A green band that terminates in open leaves in the four corners frames a central

pattern of two intersecting squares of amber and white

reserve. Between each of the eight corners are trilobed florettes oriented toward the inside of the plaque.

5 7. Rosette with Cusped Octagon H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 20; Th. 0.6 cm Twelve fragments from a small square plaque. The dominant

motif is a single rosette surrounded by two circular bands divided into boxes. The petals of the flower are formed of

5 9 . Acanthus Scroll Est. H. and W. 19.5; Th. 0.8 cm

concentric bands of amber, white and black. At the center of the flower is a cusped octagon with a white reserve circle

The fourteen fragments belong to two small square

at the center. Traces of a compass point are visible. Sketches

plaques. Elongated vines colored green and amber create

are preserved on the reverse side of four fragments.

a design of connecting circles enclosing clusters of grapes and heart-shaped leaves. At the center of the plaque is a concentric circle glazed amber at its core. At the corners,

58. Rosette

and most likely around the edges, the plaque was painted

Th. 0.7-0.8 cm

with a red marble pattern. Drawings on the reverse con-

Five fragments belong to a small square plaque or flat

firm that the fragments belong to two separate plaques.

rectangular plaque with beveled and squared edges; only

On the reverse of one tile, the painter has sketched a

two sides are preserved. A half rosette or rosette on a green

diaper pattern (see cat. no. 68). A sketchy floral pattern

ground is crowned or framed by white reserve arches that

is partially preserved on the reverse of the second set of

are segmented into squares that alternate between amber

fragments. The identical scroll design, though without the

and white. Each square is ornamented with four strokes

marble border, is found on a square plaque of comparable

and five dots. The rosettes petals, which are outlined in

size in the Walters Art Museum as well as on a rectangular

a thick black line, are black at the core with white and

plaque in the same collection (Gerstel and Lauffenburger,

amber surrounding bands.

A Lost Art Rediscovered , a. 56, a. 57).

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6o. Florette

62. Cross

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 14;

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 17;

Th. 0.8 cm

Th. 0.6 cm

The small, square plaque is reconstructed from four join-

Section of a small square plaque reconstructed from two

ing and three nonjoining fragments. The edges of the

joining and two nonjoining fragments. The edges of the

plaque are beveled. The glazes are in poor condition with

tile are beveled, and its reverse is smoothed. A cross,

amber glaze running over the edge. The design of the

framed by a circular green band, is represented against a

plaque, dominated by concentric circles, is distinctive in

white reserve ground. Heart-shaped leaves fill the plaque s

having no leaves in the corners. The space between the

corners. The cross is made up of concentric rectangles of

outer circle (D. 13 cm) and the edges of the tile is filled

white reserve, amber, and black. Each color is outlined in

with amber glaze. At the center of the design is a visible

thick black lines, which form finials at the outer corners

compass mark. The outer circle of white reserve encloses a

of the arms. The reverse of the plaque is marked by a

band of florettes turned on side, a decorative feature found

painter s sketch in red slip. A similar cross, though larger

on other tiles in this collection (cat. nos. 35, 54). Another

in scale, is found in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and

circle of white reserve surrounds the central medallion,

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.31).

which was originally glazed green. Rectangular Tiles 61. Florette

H. and W. of plaque as reconstructed 20;

Th. 0.7 cm

6 3. Chevron M.P.H. 18.2; W. 15.4; Th. 0.7-0.8 cm

Eleven fragments from two small square plaques with

hi fragments are preserved from several flat, rectangular

half florettes in three rows running from the core to the

tiles. A thick, green band borders the tile. The chevron

tile exterior. The florettes alternate in color between deep

pattern consists of rows of amber and green compartments

purple and green; the backgrounds alternate between

alternating with rows of white reserve and deep purple.

amber and white reserve. A circular band opening into

Ten fragments preserve traces of paint on the reverse. Of

heart-shaped leaves in the corners frames the florettes. At

these, seven represent a chevron pattern. For a similar

the center of the plaque, a quatrefoil encloses a checker-

design on a colonnette shaft, see cat. no. 22.

board with dots at the corners.

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64. Florette

glazed green. The half florettes are deep purple with an

Th. 0.6-0.7 cm

amber, semicircular center along the edges of the tile. A

similar pattern of checkerboards and florettes is found Twenty-six fragments of a flat rectangular plaque with

on a flat rectangular plaque in the Walters Art Museum

beveled edges. The span of each arch within the foliate

(Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.49)

pattern is 4 cm. The bands of florettes alternate in color

and tile fragments recovered from a site to the southeast

between amber and green, deep purple and white reserve.

of ízmit (Gerstel, "More Tiles of Nikomedia," cat. no. 20

The reverse side of this fragment has a sketch of a diaper

[forthcoming]).

pattern. An error in the sketch on the reverse - the draw-

ing of two segmented squares next to one another - may

account for the decision to decorate the opposite side of the tile.

6 8 . Diaper Pattern Est. H. 15.3; Th. 0.9-1 cm The twenty-four fragments of this rectangular flat tile are

grouped by the size of the checkerboards, 3-3.2 cm. The

6$. Florette

tiles are bordered on their upper and lower edges by a

Th. 0.7 cm

green band. A broad rectangular plaque with the identical

Twelve fragments decorate a flat tile with beveled edges.

pattern is found in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and

The span of each arch within the foliate pattern is 2.8

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , A.44).

cm, resulting in a denser petal scheme than cat. no. 64. In color, the bands of florettes alternate between amber and green, deep purple, and white reserve. A single fragment has florettes radiating from the corner rather than parallel to the lower edge of the tile. It is likely that these

69. Diaper Pattern H. 8; Th. 0.7 cm H. 9.2; Th. 0.6 cm

fragments belong to cat. no. 54 and may have formed part

Differences in measurements demonstrate that the four-

of the center tile of the nine-tile composition.

teen preserved fragments belong to two separate flat plaques. Uneven firing has produced slight differences in glaze color. In design, these are similar to cat. no. 68, but

66. Vine Scroll

black discs radiate from the perimeter of the green circle within the amber diamonds.

H. 7; Th. 0.7 cm Seventeen fragments of at least two flat, rectangular tiles.

The pattern, set against an amber ground, presents grapes and flowers encircled by a narrow vine. Graceful, multi-

70. Diaper Pattern

lobed green leaves cluster along the vine at the top and

The four different flat tiles with similar patterns are dif-

bottom of the plaque at regular intervals.

ferentiated by the size of the checkerboards: 2 cm (12 frag-

ments); 2.4 cm (41 fragments); 3 cm (185 fragments); 3.4

67. Checkerboard and Florette H. 7; Th. 0.7 cm

cm (12 fragments). One of these fragments is now in the collection of the Benaki Museum. A large number of the fragments have preparatory sketches on the reverse that

The twenty-seven nonjoining fragments belong to at least

include a diaper pattern, half circle with half rosette, flo-

two flat rectangular plaques. The pattern, set on an amber

rette, step, and, perhaps even letters.

ground, alternates diamonds at the center of the tile, and half florettes at its periphery. The diamonds are divided into

checkerboards with deep purple central squares flanked by a jewel prong pattern. The corner compartments are

3*

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74. Sawtooth Rows

7 1 . Diaper Pattern Th. 0.8 cm

Th. 0.6-0.7 cm

The four fragments belong to a flat tile divided by black lines into diamonds. The colors of the diamonds are either amber or white reserve. At the center of each diamond is

Five fragments of flat tile. The sawtooth rows are evenly

spaced at 1.8 cm and alternate between green and white reserve.

a trilobed form that is deep purple with a green center. There are no parallels to this pattern, although it is similar

to others in this category and is reminiscent of a florette

pattern on a large square plaque (cat. no. 46).

7 5 . Circle with Four-Petaled Flower

H. 16.4; W. 22.4; Th. 0.7 cm The twenty-six fragments belong to at least four flat tiles

with squared and beveled edges. Green glaze strips run

72. Sawtooth Rows

along the upper and lower edges of the tile. The background

W. 40; Th. 0.6 cm

is glazed amber. The white reserve leaves are outlined in

The nineteen fragments of this flat tile have beveled and

black and the fronds are colored in green glaze. The tips of

squared edges. The sawtooth rows are evenly spaced at 1

the leaves connect to form a pattern of repeating medal-

cm and alternate between green and white reserve. Nine

lions; each medallion encloses a four-petaled flower with

fragments have drawings on the reverse side. Of these, five

a black center. Between each medallion is a trilobed green

have sawtooth rows, two have a checkerboard, and three

leaf oriented to either the top or bottom of the tile. For

loose sketches. Brush strokes are not continuous across

a comparable pattern, see a convex tile in the Walters Art

tile but begin and end with each change of direction.

Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Redis-

In some tiles, uneven spacing reveals that the patterns

covered , A.70 [with collected comparisons]). Examples

were drawn freehand. A tile with identically drawn and colored sawtooth rows is in the collection of the Walters

of this pattern are commonly found on tiles excavated in istanbul.

Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , a. 53). For a similar design on a colonnette shaft, see cat. no. 43.

76. Jeweled Band and Concentric Circles Est. H. 10; Th. 0.8 cm The thirty-five fragments belong to at least two flat, rect-

73. Sawtooth Rows

angular tiles. Rows of concentric circles on an amber back-

Th. 0.5-0.8 cm

ground line the borders. At the center is a jeweled band

The twenty-six fragments of this flat tile have beveled and

comprised of concentric rectangles and a checkerboard of

squared edges. The sawtooth rows are evenly spaced at 1.4

fifteen compartments. Small dots decorate alternate com-

cm and alternate between green and white reserve. One

partments of the checkerboard. Six fragments are painted

corner fragment, damaged before glazing, reveals that

on the reverse with patterns seen on other tiles, including

imperfect tiles were not necessarily discarded.

foliate patterns, diamonds enclosing circles, concentric

circles, and jeweled band. The concentric circles on the fragments are of different diameter, demonstrating that there are several different tiles belonging to this pattern. There are no direct parallels for this pattern.

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Convex Tiles

77« Florette

78. Half Circle with Half Rosette

H. 9; Th. 0.7-0.8 cm

H. 11; W. 38; Th. 0.6-0.8 cm

Ninety-four fragments of at least two convex, rectangular

Seventy-four fragments of at least six convex tiles with

tile with squared and beveled edges. The foliate pattern is

squared and beveled edges. The pink and white color of

divided into four rows of arches. In the lowest row a green

clay reveals uneven firing. The tiles are decorated with

half circle inscribes a green half florette with an amber

half rosettes on a green background under white reserve

center. In the center row a green band frames a deep purple

arches. Here, the rosette is formed by three full and two

florette that encloses a smaller, white florette. The upper

half petals along the lower edge. Scrolling green leaves fill

row repeats the color scheme of the lowest but the inner

the space between the arches and decorate the corners of

circle is replaced by an amber florette. The backgrounds within the arches alternate in color between amber and

the tile. For a similar design on flat and concave tiles, see

white reserve. At the upper edge of the tile, a row of flo-

cat. nos. 57, 58, and 83. Convex tiles of similar design and

rettes is partially visible. The identical pattern is found on

size are found in the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and

twenty-three fragments of a convex tile (foliate design) in

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , a .66).

the plaque. A green band runs along the upper edge of

the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , a. 67) .

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79' Half Circle with Half Rosette Th. о .6 cm

80. Circle with Disk

H. 11; W. as reconstructed 27; Th. 0.6 cm

Seventeen fragments of at least one convex tile with bev-

The eighteen fragments belong to at least two convex

eled lower and side edges. The upper edge of the tile is not

tiles with beveled and squared edges. The pattern con-

preserved. Half rosettes emerge from the lower border. At

sists of repeated medallions on an amber background.

the center of each rosette is an amber semicircle framed

Semicircular arches enclosing trilobed shapes of deep

by a green band. The petals have a black core surrounded

purple set against white reserve hug the perimeter of the

with white and amber bands. One fragment preserves a

medallions and create a cusped octagon from the green

painted head of a bearded man on the reverse, though

glazed space in their interior. At the center of each medal-

perpendicular to the pattern on the obverse.

lion is a black disc that contains seven white circles ringing

a central, amber circle. The center of each small circle is painted in an opposing color, either black or white reserve.

Open green leaves with black veins fill the spaces along the edges of the tile between the medallions. A convex tile

of similar design, though smaller dimensions, is found in

the Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 68).

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8 1 . Paired Acanthus Leaves

82. Jeweled Band H. 6.5; Th. 0.6 cm

H. 10.5; Th. 0.5 cm The seventeen fragments belong to at least two convex

The sixty-seven fragments of convex tiles are of indetermi-

tiles with beveled edges. The repeated foliate pattern has

nate width, but appear to be long strips that could have

broad symmetrical amber leaves outlined in white and

been used as borders. The pattern consists of alternat-

set against a green background. A heart-shaped leaf is

ing concentric rectangles and circles. The rectangles are

placed at the center of each pair of broader leaves; smaller

formed of amber, white, and green bands (5.2 x 7.8 cm).

curling tendrils spread at the base of the tile between the

The circles, positioned two over two on a black ground,

plants. Lobed black and white leaves running along the

are white reserve enclosing a green core. A jeweled pattern

bottom of the tile. A similar convex tile is found in the

of alternating concentric squares and circles decorates a

Walters Art Museum (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost

colonnette with a foliate shaft (cat. no. 34a). A similar pat-

Art Rediscovered, a. 62). The design is also found on tiles

tern decorated tiles found in excavations at the Topkapi

excavated at the Church of Saint John Stoudios, the Atik

Sarayi Basilica and the Church of the Virgin Kyriotissa

Mustafa Pa§a Camii, and the Topkapi Sarayi Basilica. In

(Kalenderhane Camii) (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost

examples from Istanbul, however, the leaves are glazed

Art Rediscovered, XII.3, v.i).

green and the line is finer (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, x.3, xn.15, D.3, 196). Three additional

fragments belonging to a similar tile do not have black and white leaves at the lower edge.

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Concave Tiles

8 з . Haif Circle with Half Rosette

H. Ю.8; Th. 0.7-0.8 cm

84. Tongue and Dart H. 6.2; Th. 0.6-0.7 cm

Thirteen fragments from two or three concave tiles. The

The thirty-two fragments of concave tiles represent a

upper, lower, and right edge of a single tile is preserved.

tongue-and-dart motif painted on a white-reserve ground.

The tile s edges are slightly squared and beveled. Half

A green band runs along the upper edge of the tile. The

rosettes on a green background are crowned by white

tongue is decorated with bands of green and amber that

reserve arches that are divided into two bands of repeated

alternate with black darts to create a continuous design.

boxes with dots at center. At the center of each rosette is

an amber half circle surrounded by a green band. The

Sketches on the reverse side of two fragments include a face. Similar concave tiles are found in the Walters

five petals of the rosette have black cores surrounded by

Art Museum and the Musée du Louvre (Gerstel and

white reserve and amber bands. Between each large petal

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , a. 61, в .6), and at

is a white reserve petal tip. A green band runs along the

a site to the southeast of îzmit (Gerstel, "More Tiles of

upper border of the tile. At the corner of the tile is an

Nikomedia," cat. no. 28 [forthcoming]).

open green leaf, which is usually characteristic of square

plaques. A nearly identical pattern is found on convex tiles in the Walters Art Museum and the Musée du Louvre (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.65, A. 66, B.8).

85. Tongue and Dart H. 7.4; Th. 0.6-0.7 cm Eighty-one fragments of concave tiles that have an identi-

cal pattern to cat. no. 84 but different dimensions. Three of the fragments are painted on the reverse with lines or dots.

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Strips

86. Marble

H. 3.1; Th. 0.6 cm Two fragments of a rectangular, thin strip with black and

red slip on white reserve. For a similar design on a colonnette, see cat. no. 26.

87. Concentric Circles H. 3-3.2 (97 fragments) and 4.3 cm (7 fragments); W. 32.5; Th. 0.5 cm One hundred five fragments of flat, rectangular strips with

squared, slightly beveled edges. The design of concentric circles outlined in black paint is placed against an amber

background. The inner circle is filled with green glaze, though poorly preserved; the outer circle is white reserve.

The large number of end pieces with whole circles demonstrates that the tiles were painted after the final shape

was cut. Six fragments have drawings in red iron-oxide on the reverse: concentric circles, an eye, eyebrows (?), fingers (?), simple lines, and a vegetal motif. One fragment

with bubbled amber glaze on the obverse and reverse was damaged during firing. Strips with concentric circles are

found at numerous sites (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 54 [with collected comparisons]). Flat strips with concentric circles are also associated with

a site to the southeast of Izmit (see Gerstel, "More Tiles

of Nikomedia," cat. no. 30 [forthcoming]).

Vessels

8 8 . Marble Vessel with Guilloche Rim

Th. 0.3-0.4 cm. Twelve fragments from a small globular vessel with a vertical rim. The fragments are unusually thin and were

produced on the wheel. Amber bands on the rim frame a narrow guilloche pattern painted in black line on white

reserve (H. of band 4.5 cm). The marble pattern on the body is red on white reserve. A similar guilloche band, though running in the opposite direction, decorates the end of a florette shaft (cat. no. 33). The two bands appear

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to be the work of the same painter. Seven thin-walled frag-

the Baltimore and Paris collections were drilled from the

ments decorated with a red marble pattern may belong to

plaques and submitted as powder; the balance of the NAA

additional vessels. There is no trace of residue (oil or wine)

samples from the London collection were submitted as

in the base of the vessels suggesting that they might have

ceramic fragments, a preferable technique. The use of drill

been used as containers for holy water.

bits for the powdered samples may have been responsible

for elevated amounts of some trace elements as metal TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

contaminants.51 The ceramic plaques or tiles in London share many of

From a technical viewpoint the tiles in the London col-

the manufacturing steps with those previously studied.52

lection are strikingly similar to those in the Walters Art

The clay was first rolled out between two guides to create a

Museum and the Musée du Louvre. As described in earlier

sheet of fairly uniform thickness. Cloth or loose sand was

publications, the tiles from the Walters Art Museum, the

used as separators in order to ensure that the rolled clay

Musée du Louvre, and the Musée National de Céramique,

would not adhere to the working surface. For the majority

Sèvres, are low-fired white wares with aggregate in the

of flat tiles, the final dimensions of the plaques were estab-

form of added quartz, iron oxide, and organic temper.

lished by placing a template of the desired size over the clay

They are formed from highly aluminous clays (about 20-25

and cutting the clay with a sharp-edged tool. This quick

percent aluminum oxide) characteristic of a kaolinitic

cut resulted in a beveled edge tapering toward the back.

clay source. Silica and alumina account for almost 90

The bevel cut allowed for tiles to be placed directly next

percent of the overall composition.45 Scientific analy-

to each other without any intervening spaces, a technical

sis, including neutron activation analysis (NAA)46 and

feature that was of particular importance when designs

inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/

continued across tiles to form a complete pattern (see,

MS),47 concluded that the tiles in the Musée du Louvre

for example, cat. no. 54). In almost all of the London tiles

and Walters Art Museum belong to one broad composi-

there is evidence that the craftsman worked on the reverse

tional group. This group is linked to an assemblage of tiles

through scraping or scoring to even out the thickness or to

excavated at the so-called Hospital of Sampson in Istanbul

roughen the surface in order to facilitate adhesion. Many

and today in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection. Indeed, the mean concentration value of all of the tiles is not very

of the final shapes of the tiles in the London collection are identical to those found on tiles in the Walters Art

diverse. While the actual source of the clay has not been

Museum and the Musée du Louvre: flat square and rectan-

confirmed through direct sampling, earlier studies have

gular tiles, convex and concave plaques, and half capitals.

suggested possible clay sources on the European side of

Tiles in the London collection, however, introduce some

the Bosporos.48 Examination of the tiles in the London

new forms, several new patterns, and exhibit the use of

collection shows the use of a very similar soft-white ware

connecting tiles to create larger, more complex patterns.

clay body with quartz and iron oxide inclusions. Six sam-

Parallel throw lines on the reverse of several forms indi-

ples from the London collection and two samples from a second collection of tiles from a site to the southeast

cate that the potters' wheel was used to create some special

of îzmit were analyzed using neutron activation analysis

observed on tiles in the Baltimore and Paris (Gerstel and

(NAA).49 Hierarchical cluster analysis of the combined

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.72-A.74, c.3). All

data sets suggests that the London tiles are broadly similar

of the tiles and decorative forms that were thrown on the

to those previously studied.50 The drilled sample taken

wheel have lines along their inner edges that indicate that

from the Panteleimon fragment (cat. no. 10) associates it

the clay was scored while wet, then fired and snapped. This

most closely with the tiles in the Walters Art Museum.

technical feature is associated with decorative elements

forms (see cat. no. 22). The same working method can be

This may be a result of preparation; samples from both

such as colonnette shafts. These were initially produced

the Panteleimon tile and the previously analyzed tiles in

as vessels in the round and were then divided; the use of

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the wheel allowed the preparation of two matched halves.

and beyond Constantinople. Several tiles excavated in

Most convex and concave tiles were rolled out flat and

Constantinople are also painted with gold leaf,55 a treat-

then placed into or over a form, perhaps made of plaster,

ment that is absent from tiles in the London, Baltimore,

on which they were allowed to dry slowly in order to

and Paris collections.

maintain a desired shape.

The overall preservation of the glaze colors on the

Once the clay tiles were dried and smoothed, patterns

London collection is slightly poorer than those in the

were drawn onto their surfaces with iron-oxide slip. Most

Walters Art Museum and Musée du Louvre, though all

of the drawings were executed freehand; in some cases a

three collections show the same general trends. In the

compass and rule were used for arcs and intersecting linear

overwhelming majority of cases the amber glaze, colored

patterns (see, for example, cat. no. 46). The skill with

by iron oxide, is the best preserved; the green glaze, which

which these drawings were executed is at a very sophisti-

is applied fairly thickly, is the most poorly preserved. This

cated level and is in some respect more refined than the

condition may result from the poor body-to-glaze fit

subsequent glaze application. A mistake in the glaze appli-

resulting from differences in rates of thermal expansion

cation on the jeweled Gospel book of an episcopal saint

between the glaze and the dimensionally stable ceramic

in the London collection (cat. no. 8) illustrates this point.

body. Lead glazes are known to be more dimensionally

This error may indicate some division of labor; perhaps

stable than alkali glazes, and as a general rule the green

one craftsman was responsible for the assured line of the

glazes contain a higher proportion of alkali in their recipe

images and inscriptions and another was responsible for

than the correspondingly more stable amber glazes; this

the broad applications of glaze. In most cases the tiles were

makes the green glazes more susceptible to crazing or

cut to their final dimension prior to the application of the

cracking and eventual loss.56 The clear glaze applied only

drawing. In only one case, the sawtooth pattern (cat. nos.

over areas of reserve such as the facial feature and skin

72-74), was the repetitive design painted before the tile

tones, is especially thin and extremely deteriorated, some-

was cut to size.53

times rendering it opaque.

After the application of the drawings and inscriptions,

One final technical link between the collections in

colored glazes were applied. While the glaze compositions

London, Paris, and Baltimore is the presence of sketches

of the London tiles have not yet been analyzed, they mimic

on the reverse of many of the tiles (cat. nos. 4, 36, 57, 59,

in every way the glaze colors and application sequence identified in the Baltimore and Paris collections. On the

62, 63, 70, 72, 76, 79, 85, 87). The sketches were painted with the same iron-oxide slip that was used for the under-

basis of previous analyses we would expect the composi-

drawings on the front of the tiles. The sketches on the

tions of the glazes to be a lead or lead-alkali mix with the

reverse of the tiles are largely unrelated to the patterns on the obverse.57

primary alkali flux expected to be sodium oxide. Amber colored by iron oxides and green colored by copper oxides

The examination of two large collections of tiles attrib-

were applied within the painted outlines and predominate.

uted to a single workshop provides the opportunity to make

Deep purple or brown, colored by the addition of manga-

some suggestions about workshop practice. Colonnette

nese oxide, is often used to fill in areas of hair and portions

shafts in the London collection have the same maximum

of vestments. Facial features were further embellished with

preserved height, 35 cm, suggesting that multiple tiles of

touches of pink slip applied beneath clear glaze.

The London tiles show no trace of cobalt blue glaze.

With the exception of a single tile, the Baltimore and Paris groups also lack cobalt as a coloring agent.54 Cobalt

the same size, shape, and decoration were produced to cover large surface areas. The duplication or multiplication

of patterns suggests mass production on some level.

Despite our increasing understanding of the work-

blue was used in tiles excavated from the Hospital of

shop practices involved in tile production and decora-

Sampson, the Topkapi Sarayi Basilica, and the Baths

tion, however, the study of the London collection offers

of Zeuxippos. This localized use within the capital may

no additional information about methods of installation

be significant in trying to identify workshops within

within Byzantine churches. Like the tiles in Baltimore and

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Paris, the London fragments preserve no traces of mortar

association, based on stylistic grounds, has yet to be tested

or plaster on the reverse, suggesting that the tiles separated

scientifically, but the comparison is compelling. Another

cleanly from the fine plaster that was used to bond them

workshop, which used different glazes and painted in a

to the wall surface or that the plaster deteriorated once

crisper line, was responsible for the limited tile decoration

the tiles were buried with other destruction debris from

in the church of St. John Studios, the church now known

the church that they once adorned.

as the Atik Mustafa Pa§a Camii, and, perhaps, the church of Constan tine Lips.58 The tiles from these buildings are

CONCLUSIONS

thinner and the clay whiter. Yet another workshop was involved in the decoration of the tiles in the Boukoleon

In 200I, the authors of A Lost Art Rediscovered attempted to

palace chamber where the tiles are decorated with different

place the unprovenanced tiles in the Walters Art Museum

glazes and an unusual marble pattern produced by driz-

and the Musée du Louvre into the context of excavated

zling the glaze onto the tile surface.59 Whether all of these

materials from Constantinople. Although scientific testing

workshops operated in the city of Nikomedia, or whether

revealed general similarities in the clay type, the painted

the author of the Botaneiates inventory employed the term

decoration clearly differed. The London tiles, a group

"Nikomedia" to denote a specific style of tile revetment

of more than three thousand fragments from a modest

remains an open question. Indeed, the broad dating of the

church in the hills to the northeast of Izmit, were pro-

monuments in question suggests that several generations

duced by the same workshop that was responsible for the

of artisans in a single large workshop or in multiple small

tiles today in Baltimore and Paris. This collection, and

workshops may have produced the tiles.

another collection of fragments associated with a site to

The publication of tiles from the Nikomedia work-

the southeast of Izmit, provides the critical link to the

shop serves to clarify one of the mysteries surrounding

city of Nikomedia, a site named in medieval sources as a

the decoration of Middle Byzantine churches: the short-

center of tile production but one that has never yielded

lived use of polychrome tiles as a decorative medium in

the excavated materials that could confirm the veracity

Byzantium. Scholars have suggested that tiles in the Walters

of the written source. Other unpublished materials from

Art Museum and the Musée du Louvre should be dated ca.

the region of Izmit suggest that this was an active work-

iooo, although a date earlier in the tenth century cannot

shop that exported tiles to sites within Bithynia and even

be excluded.60 This date accords with that of tile finds from

beyond.

excavated contexts in Constantinople, which cluster in

Tiles excavated in Constantinople differ sufficiently

the period between the early tenth and mid-eleventh cen-

for us now to propose the existence of one, if not two,

tury.61 After that time, it would appear that tiles no longer

additional workshops involved in the large-scale produc-

decorated ex novo the interior walls of the capitals finest

tion of architectural ceramics. The tiles that once decorated

buildings. The abrupt disappearance of polychrome tiles

the interior of the Topkapi Sarayi Basilica - a building

as a decorative feature of Byzantine architecture has been

whose medieval identity remains elusive - provide the

attributed to a number of factors, including changing artis-

closest comparison to the tiles produced by the Nikomedia

tic tastes.62 One simple explanation for this phenomenon,

workshop. The glaze colors, range of unusual shapes, simi-

however, may rest in the history of Nikomedia following

larities of pattern, combinations of patterns on a single

the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.63 In

tile, the free-hand application of line, the large number

the late eleventh century the city was in turmoil. Captured

of crosses, and the rare existence of figurai tiles in this

by the Turks in 1087, it was retaken by the imperial forces

Constantinopolitan setting, all suggest that the painter

in 1090, and then was briefly inhabited by Crusaders in

who produced the tiles for this church was associated

1097. One of them, Stephen, count of Chartres, offers

with the workshop that created the tiles in the Walters and Louvre as well as the tiles from Nikomedia docu-

primary testimony about the condition of the city in that year. In a letter to his "sweetest wife Adele" written from

mented in this article and in a forthcoming work. This

nearby Nicaea, Stephen describes Nikomedia as "urbem

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desolatam aTurcis."64 Conditions were no longer optimal for the creation or, indeed, the exportation of tiles from the ruined city. It was only under the Ottomans that tiles would again be produced in Bithynia, but this time in the

city of Nicaea (Iznik).

yuvaiKÍ" in F. K. Dörner, Inschriften und Denkmäler aus Bithynien

(Berlin, 1941), 107. A funerary monument of 207, also found

in Bithynia, was raised by "the slave of Klaudios Philokalos," according to its inscription. It is tempting to view this as the same

Klaudios mentioned in the inscription found at the church site. See H. Kern, "BijdrageTot De Verklaring Van Eenige Woorden In Pali-Geschriften Voorkomende," Verhandelingen der Koninklij ke

Sharon E. J. Gerstel ([email protected]) is Professor of Byzantine Art and Archaeology in the Department of Art History at the University of Californiay Los Angeles.

Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Afdeeling Letterkunde

17 (1888): 13.

4. Although the tiles described in this article are glazed, a number of tiles had lost their surface decoration due to exposure to the

elements. For a plaque joined from glazed and worn tiles, see

Julie Laujfenburger ([email protected]) is Senior

Objects Conservator at the Walters Art Museum.

cat. no. 72.

5. S. Gerstel and J. Lauffenb urger, A Lost Art Rediscovered: The

Architectural Ceramics of Byzantium (University Park, Penn.,

2001). NOTES

6. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 238, 301-2.

i. The authors thank the London collector for his generosity in encouraging the study of these tiles and providing copies of his

7. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 243, 279.

8. Istanbul Archaeological Museum, inv. no. 6545. Istanbul Arkeoloji

personal correspondence. The tiles are in the process of conser-

Müzerlert Yilligi 10 (1962): 13; Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A

vation and, whenever possible, reconstruction. Penny Fisher,

Lost Art Rediscovered, 62П9, 238. See also P. Verdier, "Tiles of

former chief conservation officer at the British Museum, has been

Nicomedia," in Okeanos: Essays Presented to Ihor Ševčenko on

charged with the conservation and restoration of the tiles. On tiles

His Sixtieth Birthday by His Colleagues and Students , Harvard

from this collection, see S. Gerstel, "New 'Tiles of Nikomedia

Ukrainian Studies 7, ed. С. Mango and O. Pritsak (Cambridge,

and Architectural Polychromy in Medieval Byzantium," in

Mass., 1983), 633.

ana ohm A ta eopti ka : Studies in Honor of Thomas F Mathews ,

ed. J. Alchermes (Mainz, 2009), 173-80; S. Gerstel, "'Tiles of Nikomedia and the Cult of Saint Panteleimon" in Byzantine

9. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , 301.

10. The five hundred tiles from this collection form the subject of

Religious Culture: Studies in Honor of Alice-Mary Talbot , ed. E.

a separate study to be published by S. Gerstel, "More Tiles of

Fisher, E. Papaioannou, and D. Sullivan (forthcoming 2011).

Nikomedia." The tiles were recovered from the ruins of a church

Research for this paper was supported by a Faculty Research

to the southeast of îzmit. According to one source, the church

Grant from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by des-

was dismantled for use as building materials for a nearby village.

ignated funds from the UCLA Dean of Humanities. The authors

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) testing of two tile fragments

are deeply grateful to Timothy Stowell, Dean of Humanities,

from this second private collection show an elemental profile

for his sustained interest in this project and support for travel connected to this research.

similar to that of the fragments published in this article and also those in the Walters Art Museum. Patterns on the tiles as

2. Although one large column was observed at the site in the early 1960s, there is no internal evidence to support the church's recon-

struction as a cross-in-square plan. There were no traces of cham-

bers flanking the sanctuary, nor were there remains of bonded

well as methods of manufacture link them to the Nikomedia workshop. 1 1 . The author has examined two additional small groups of tiles that are said to be from the region of Izmit. The patterns are similar to

bricks that might have belonged to pendentives. The width of

those from the workshop discussed in this article, including flo-

the church (reconstructed as 9m) would suggest, however, that

rettes, checkerboards, tongue and dart, and concentric rectangles.

the building was not simply barrel vaulted.

The clay fabric is, however, finer and the tiles are thinner.

3. The three-line inscription was incomplete in 1961; no measure-

12. The Latin inventory is dated May 1192. For the text, see F.

ments were recorded at that time. As far as we are aware, the

Miklosich and J. Müller, Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi

inscription is unpublished and may be lost. The text, as preserved

sacra et profana, III (Vienna, 1865), x; С. Imperiale, ed., Codice

in a photograph, reads: - ] KA(auSioç) oiaokaaoc zün

diplomatico della Repubblica di Genova: Fonti per la storia d'Italia

ЕАТТП КАТ E С (kêÚâCêv) [- / - ] E ОТ С EN ТО M NH M EI ON

89 (1942): 68.14-17. For a translation of the text into English,

e ATT ci KAI т[- / - ](yu)NAiKi фотр KAI т[ - . The lan-

see Michael Angold, "Appendix," in The Byzantine Aristocracy, IX

guage mirrors that of other Roman funerary inscriptions from

to XIII Centuries, ed. M. Angold, BAR International Series 221

Bithynia. See, for example, a marker for a family tomb from

(Oxford, 1984), 255, 263m (with bibliography). A Greek transla-

Çayirkôy, inscribed: "то [xv]y][¿£íov KarauKeiiacrev éaurw ка! rrj

tion of the inventory is dated 13 October 1202. For the text, see

SO

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Miklosich and Müller, Acta et diplomata, 55. For a translation of the text into English, see Angold, "Appendix," 259, 263 П4 (with bibliography); C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire,

312-1453: Sources and Documents (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972),

239-40. On the use of the term "testis de Nicomedia" and its Greek translation, see also R. B. Mason and M. Mundell Mango,

27. lhe larger piece was offered for sale in a London Gallery in 2008.

28. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.27, f.i.

29. For a polychrome bowl with the representation of St. Nicholas, see Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 252. Recent

"Glazed 'Tiles of Nicomedia' in Bithynia, Constantinople,

excavations in Istanbul have brought to light other examples of

and Elsewhere," in Constantinople and Its Hinterland , ed. С.

bowls decorated with sacred figures. For a base fragment exca-

Mango and G. Dagron (Aldershot, 1995), 313-31; Gerstel and

vated in Sultanahmet and decorated with an image of the Virgin

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , 230.

13. On Nikomedia as a production site, see Verdier, "Tiles of Nicomedia" (note 8), 635; Mason and Mango, "Glazed 'Tiles of

Nicomedia'" (note 12).

and Child, see Giin fyginda Istanbulun 8000 yili : Marmaray, Metro, Sultanahmet kazilari (Istanbul, 2007), 153. 30. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.29, A.30, B2.

3 1 . Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, в. 5.

14. S. E.J. Gerstel, "Ceramic Icons from Medieval Constantinople," in Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 42-65. This

number would increase if preparatory sketches of figures found

32. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 283.

33. Elizabeth A. Hendrix, "Painted Polychromy on Carved Stones

on the reverse of tiles were included. For these, see Gerstel and

from the Lower City Church," in C. S. Lightfoot, ed., Amorium

Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.44, A.46, a. 53, a. 71. For

Reports, II: Research Papers andTechnical Reports, BAR International

figurai tiles produced in Bulgaria, see T. Totev, The Ceramic Icon

Series 1170 (Oxford, 2003), 129-33; esp. 129, pl. ix/i.

in Medieval Bulgaria (Sofia, 2001). 1 5. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, d.i, d.2, f.i, F.2, F.3, F.4, I.I, J.I, XII.I, XII. 2, XX.I.

1 6. An additional figurai tile that represents a female saint or the Virgin Mary derives from an undocumented site near Nikomedia.

The tile fragment is unpublished.

17. On the use of yellow to signify gold, see L. James, Light and Colour in Byzantine Art (Oxford, 1996), 31.

18. Plaques painted with images of the apostles in the collection of the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, were marked on the reverse

side with Greek letters, most likely to facilitate installation. See Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.5-A.16

19. We have been unable to find examples of sculpted capitals from this period that were decorated with figures. Within the context of

monumental painting, the alternation of heads and floral motifs

within interlace bands can be seen in the late ninth-century painted decoration of the Temple of Fortuna Virilus in Rome. See J. Lafontaine, Peintures médiévales dans le temple dit de la Fortune Virile à Rome (Brussels and Rome, 1959).

20. For a discussion of these painters, see Gerstel, "Ceramic Icons" (note 14), 42-65.

ing the decoration of banded colonnettes, see E. S. Bolman, "Late

Antique Aesthetics, Chromophobia, and the Red Monastery, Sohag, Egypt," Eastern Christian Art 3 (2006): 1-24. For discussions of polychromy in Middle Byzantine written sources and sculpture, see James, Light and Colour (note 17); E. Ivison, "Polychromy in the Lower City Church: An Overview," in C. S. Lightfoot, ed., Amorium Reports, II (note 33), 119-28; M. Altripp,

"Beobachtungen zur polychromie Byzantinischer Blauplastik in Griechenland," Jahrbuch * der österreichischen Byzantinistik 52

(2002): 259-70; Gerstel, "New 'Tiles'" (note i). 35. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.72-A.74,

XII.37. At the Hospital of Sampson the shafts and capitals were fused (Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 11.18),

suggesting that a different workshop was involved in their production. 36. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 63. 37. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, c.3.

38. N. Teteriatnikov, "Devotional Crosses in the Columns and Walls

of Hagia Sophia," Byzantion 68 (1998): 419-45. For an example of a votive cross that may have been affixed to a column, see I. Kalavrezou, ed., Byzantine Women and Their World (New Haven

21. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a.i, a.2, A.3, A.4, B.I.

and London, 2003), 135. 39. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.72-A.74;

22. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 22, a. 23, a. 24, A.25, A.2 6, a. 27.

75-76. 40. Gerstel, "More Tiles of Nikomedia" (note 10), cat. no. 23.

23. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, f.i. 24. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, a. 27, f.i 25. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, A.3, a. 24

26. Gerstel, "'Tiles of Nikomedia' and the Cult of Saint Panteleimon" (note 1).

34. For an earlier, though similar treatment of the wall surface includ-

41. See Gerstel, "New 'Tiles'" (note 1), 177-79; U. Peschlow, "Zum byzantinischen opus-sectile-Boden," m Beiträge zur Altertumskunde

Kleinasiens, ed. R.M. Boehmer and H. Hauptmann (Mainz, 1983)» 435-47-

42. Gerstel, "More Tiles of Nikomedia" (note 10), cat. nos. 17, 18.

S1

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43- The pavement from the small chapel found behind the so-called

House of Justinian in the Boukoleon Palace contains both elements. N. Asgari, "istanbul temei kazilarindan haberler - 1983," Ara§ttrma sonuçlan toplantisi 2 (1984): 45-46.

44. Gerstel, "More Tiles of Nikomedia" (note 10). For this tile, see Gerstel, "New 'Tiles'" (note 1). 45. C. Vogt, A. Bouquillon, M. Dubus, and G. Querré, "Glazed Wall Tiles of Constantinople: Physical and Chemical Characterization

and Decorative Processes," in Materials Analysis of Byzantine Pottery , ed. H. Maguire (Washington, D. С., 1997), 54, fig. 12. 46. J. Lauffenburger, С. Vogt, and A. Bouquillon, "Technical Insights

into the Working Practices of the Byzantine Tile Maker," in

52. For a discussion of manufacturing steps, see Lauffenburger, Vogt,

and Bouquillon, "Technical Insights," 67-87 (note 46). 53. Examination of the tile edges shows that the iron oxide slip was sliced through, which indicates that the lines of the pattern were

applied prior to cutting the final dimensions of the tile. 54. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , A.28.

55. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , vili, VII.4, XVI.I

5 6. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , 82-83: Tables I, II, IV.

57. In all but one case (cat. no. 4), the sketches are found on the reverse of ornamental tiles.

Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 78-82. 58. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 189-95, 196,

47. The Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochemiques in

Nancy, France, conducted ICP-AES/MS on tile samples from

203-5.

the Louvre and Sèvres. A diamond drill sampled two hundred

59. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , 172-75.

milligrams of powder in each tile.

60. For a slightly later date based on analysis of polychrome bowls,

48. See A. H. S. Megaw and R. E. Jones, "Byzantine and Allied Pottery: A Contribution by Chemical Analysis to Problems of Origin and Distribution," Annual of the British School at Athens

78 (1983): 236, 242-43, 247, 256-58. 49. Eight ceramic tiles were analyzed by neutron activation analysis at the Archaeometry Laboratory, University of Missouri Research

Reactor (MURR). Sample data were compared with those generated between 1992 and 1994 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Program on Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials (ATAM). 50. Several discrepancies in the findings relate to the manner of obtaining samples. In all but one case for the London Collection

(sample BYZ6) the samples were submitted as ceramic fragments to MURR, sample BYZ6, a sample taken from the St. Panteleimon tile (cat. no. 10) was submitted as a drilled sample.

primarily from Corinth, see G. D. R. Sanders, "Byzantine Polychrome Pottery," in J. Herrin, M. Mullett, and C. OttenFroux, eds., Mosaic : Festschrift for A. H. S. Megaw (London, 2001),

89-103. 61. A group of tiles found in excavations carried out in the south

aisle of the church of St. John Stoudios may be dated to the mid-eleventh century. Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered , 203-5.

62. See the discussion by M. Mango in Gerstel and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, 28-29. 63 . For an excellent history of the city, see C. Foss, Survey of Medieval

Castles of Anatolia, II: Nicomedia (Oxford, 1996). See also M. Kleonymos and C. Papadopoulos, Biïvvixà r¡ Шторо^ {¿ovoypayia тщ B&vvíaç хой tùjv жбкгш avrrjç (Constantinople, 1867). 64. Stephani, comitis carnotensis, ad Adelam, uxorem suam, epistola,

All of the previous samples submitted to ATAM were also drilled

scripta ex castris obsidionis nicaenae, in Recueil des Historiens des

samples. MURR labs identified contaminant metals (specifically

Croisades , Historiens Occidentaux, III (Paris, 1866), 886.

cobalt and tungsten, but perhaps others as well) in both the MURR and ATAM drilled samples. Their presence as a contaminant removes them from the list of comparative elements.

5 1 . While it is optimal to collect ceramic fragments as samples in

illustration credits: Courtesy of the Amorium Excavations Project: fig. 12; Photo © DeA Picture Library/Art Resource, NY:

fig. 10; Courtesy Sharon Gerstel: figs. 1, 2, 9; Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri: fig. 5; Courtesy Veronica Kalas: fig. 11; Musée du Louvre,

order to negate the effect of metal contaminants from drill bits,

Paris: fig. 3; Marie Saldaña: cat. 54a reconstruction; Courtesy of the

it is not possible in many cases since the required sample is fairly

State Historical Museum, Moscow: figs. 6, 8; The Walters Art Museum,

large. By drilling from a break edge there is no damage to the

Julie Lauffenburger: figs. 14, 15; The Walters Art Museum, Susan

decorative face of the tile.

Tobin: figs. 4, 7, 13

52

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ADDENDUM

As a result of a recent loan request for the ceramic icon tile

A subsequent reexamination of the fragmentary icon

of St. Constantine (48.2086.6, Gerstel and Lauffenburger,

tiles in storage at the Walters revealed the proper place for

A Lost Art Rediscovered , cat. A.27), a graduate intern in

this important fragment. Figures 16 shows the fragment

training in the Division of Conservation and Technical

as now joined to the tile of St. Basil (48.2086.16, Gerstel

Research discovered that one of the fragments reassembled with the tile - the saints head associated with the

and Lauffenburger, A Lost Art Rediscovered, cat. a. 23). Even

Constantine tile prior to entering the Walters' collection -

deteriorated, the correct placement is confirmed by com-

did not belong. Consequently, the old plaster restoration

paring working lines across the back of the tile. ( JL)

though the glazed surface of the saints face is somewhat

(fig. 14) was taken apart, and the fragment was removed (fig. 15). The tile was cleaned and reassembled.

Fig. 14. St. Constantine before treatment. The Walters Art Museum,

Baltimore (48.2086.6)

Fig. 15. St. Constantine after treatment. The Walters Art Museum,

Baltimore (48.2086.6)

Fig. 1 6. St. Basil after treatment. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

(48.2086.16)

53

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