Police Correspondence 2 For Psbrc

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What is Police Correspondence a

written communication for purposes of conveying factual information and building up goodwill and maintaining harmonious relationships between the writer and the reader.

Characteristics of Correspondence

1.Accuracy-refersto correctness in both information and words use. It also means using the exact words meant to express your intended meaning.

2. Clarity-reports that are clear are easy to read and understand. It means freedom from ambiguity.

Strategies to obtain clarity:

Avoid elaborate and impressive words.  Avoid double negatives and construct positive sentences. 

3. Conciseness- to express much in a few words as possible – to be brief but substantial. Another term for this is compact. This means exclusion of irrelevant information.

Six strategies in writing concise sentence: Use active voice instead of passive voice.  Reduce long clauses into phrases.  Cut unnecessary words and empty phrases.  Eliminate repetition and redundancy.  Avoid “nominalization” or using the noun forms of verbs  Avoid the use of “there is/are/were” as sentence openers 

4. Completeness – means perfection, fullness or sufficiency of information which can attain in answering the 5 Ws and 1H. 5. Courtesy – expressions that manifests politeness, civility, affability, urbanity, considerateness and respectfulness. 6. Visual appeal – attractive, has a visual impact and generally looking good but not multi-coloured. 7. Tonal appeal – must be simple, straight forward


 

Memorandum – generally defined as the statement of information. Tone of Memorandum - differs in accordance with the person/s reading it. ◦ ◦

  

From a chief of office to his subordinate, the tone is impersonal such as “Strict compliance is expected . . .” From a writer sending a memo to somebody of equal rank, the tone is usually personal such as “ I have noticed changes in. . .” A junior officer writing memorandum to the chief of office uses a more formal tone.

The Use of “FOR” and “TO” in addressing: “MEMORANDUM FOR:” – is written above the addressee if set to a superior office. “MEMORANDUM TO:” – is equally noted on the upper left corner of the page if it sent to subordinates. (A

Memorandum format is used concerning trip reports, policy, procedure, guidance or filling positions. Some police offices in the Philippines adapt such a format in a general usage. They use Memorandums to inform; to answer a question; to record a significant event (or a memorandum for record; Memorandum of Understanding, or Memorandum of Agreement); and to persuade – all using the “bottom line” technique.)


- are used for communicating with private individuals and/or non military organization. It differs from a military letter in terms of phraseology, paragraphing, abbreviations and in form. It avoids phraseology which is associated with command function; its main paragraph are unnumbered or lettered; and it does not encourage abbreviations, except in a certain cases.

Parts of Civilian Letters:     

  

Heading – composed of the following: address of the writer or the letterhead Dateline – indicates the date when it was written. Example: December 13, 2011 Inside Address – to where the letter is intended for. Attention Line – consider to speed up handling of the letter. It is written in the center page of the paper just below the inside address and above the salutation line if prepare in a blocked style. Salutation – greets the reader and the greeting may be formal or informal depending on the relations between the reader and the writer. Subject line – appears between the salutation and the body of the letter. Body – the message itself. One of the problems that may confront by correspondent is paragraphing, which does not pertain to the appearance of the message; but rather, to its content. He might confuse on how to end and how to begin another paragraph. The general rule for paragraphing is to have each separate idea or subject occupy a separate paragraph. Complimentary Close – usually followed by a comma and comes immediately after the last line of the message.

 

  

RULES ON SPACING: On standard 81/2 by 11 inch stationery, the date is usually typed on line 15, with the inside address typed 5 lines below it. One blank line is left before the salutation, each paragraph, the complimentary closing, and the company signature, it used. If an attention line or subject line is included, one blank line precedes and follow these parts The writer’s identification should be preceded by at least three blank line to allow room for signature At least one blank line usually separate the writer’s identification from the reference initials. Generally, no blank lines separate the reference initials from enclosure and carbon copy notations A postscript, if used, would be preceded by one blank line. MARGIN As far as margins are concerned, the letter looks artistic when there is a balanced appearance, a deviation from a military letter which has fixed margin rules. In civilian letter, symmetry is achieved and is dependent on the length of the letter.


– prepared intra-organizationally.

Parts: 1. The heading comprises the following:  Letterhead  File reference  Identifying initials  Date  Subject  Channel line  Address  Attention line (optional) 2. Body – the message itself. 3. Complimentary Ending – composed of the following:  Authority Line  If signing for a chief with non- star rank: BY ORDER  If signing for a chief with star rank: BY COMMAND  If not addressed to a member under: FOR THE  Signature

INDORSEMENT – is a reply or forwarding statement usually, an integral part of the correspondence and is not withdrawn from the basic communication to which it is appended. It shows all facts relative to the communication. Communication being sent by endorsement to a superior office starts with “Respectfully.” Communication sent to an office of equal rank, “Respectfully transmitted”. Communication sent to subordinate units – “Respectfully referred”. Unlike the military endorsement which has numbered paragraphs, (if there are two or more), the civilian counterpart does not have, not unless tabulating, or enumerating points. Starting with the word “Respectfully” (whether submitted, forwarded, transmitted, referred, or returned), the text, which is usually composed of one paragraph, should really be brief, accurate, clear, and definitely observing grammar rules, even it subscribing to the principle of omission or deletion.



Categories of Issuances Administrative - written in the form of Circulars or Orders Operational – written policies about activities to be undertaken in relation to the implementation of strategic plan


Forms of Administrative Issuances Circulars: General Circulars Office Circulars Memorandum Circulars

Directives: Training Directives Letter Directives Fiscal/Comptroller Directives 11/15/16

Orders: General Orders Special Orders: Letter Orders Operation Orders Office Orders


Forms of Operational Issuances Standard Operating Procedures Case Investigation Plan Operational Plan Implementing Plan Strategic Plan


Police Report Writing Police Report – done by the police, facilitating compliance to instructions which is commonly based on the different issuances.




Serve as basis for Prosecution – since it is the first document that prosecutor examines before deciding whether a charge shall be made or a case submitted for trial Serve as Source of Statistical Information – reports are gathered to determine crime trends and provide statistical information on crime incidents in a particular location in consideration of other variables as population, income class and standard of living. Crime statistics serves as the basis in police operational decisions

3. Serves as Reference for Development of Operational Strategies, Policy Changes and Training Program Formulation - since it is a reliable tools in management’s decisions to institute tactical changes, update policies and enforce more stringent rules relevant to the public safety officer’s job. 4. Useful to Media – it is an important source of news.


Basis for Performance Evaluation public safety officer will be judged by the superior based on the quality reports submitted.

READERS OF THE REPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Officer on Patrol Report Writer Immediate Superior Station Chief Department Level Congress National Prosecution Service Courts of Justice Prosecution and Defense Panel Media Public and Private Agencies


Pre-Writing – an activity of the writer prior to the actual drafting Activities in Pre-writing: a.

Gather Facts


Record Facts


Organize Facts

Tasks: a.

Field Interview




Recording statements


Use of video/camera for documentation


Gathering of evidence

2. Writing a Draft – in this activity the writer plan and organize the gathered facts then he must try to find out if his writing provide the principles of written communication, then evaluation will be done through editing and proofreading activities. He must also consider the format to be used

THE PROCESS AFTER WRITING THE DRAFT Editing Process: The writer must see to it that his writing is: a. Accurate b. Clear c. Concise d. Complete e. With objectivity Proofreading process – The writer must consider the following: a. Grammar e. Abbreviations b. Sentence Structure f. indention and spacing c. Punctuation g. numbers d. Capitalization h. spelling 3. Re-Writing and Finalizing – the writer must be emphatic



Construct Sentence considering primarily what you have learn about grammar and composition. (The usual subject predicate order or pattern). Opening Sentence – can be in various ways, such as when to use adverbs, when to use prepositional phrase, use of participle or participial phrase, use of past participle or participial phrase, perfect participle or perfect participial phrase, use of subordinate or dependent clause, inverted order, start with infinitive phrase




Expanding Sentences is use in narrative reports provide clarity of the idea that the writer wants to convey in the most logical way Using transitional words or phrases – provide linkages between sentence ushering in unified or unbroken flow of ideas Paragraph – compose of sentences.


Start to write short paragraph Give complete Idea in each paragraph Connect the paragraph Be consistent in verb tense, person and number

HOW TO ORGANIZE REPORT 1. Create an outline, complete with headings.

(Reports should have an introduction, body of evidence, and conclusions, by identifying your headings, you can ensure that your information flows logically.)

2. Write your introduction (let your reader know right away what to expect from the report. Highlight the research method and resources used, state your findings, describe the report organization, so that reader can skip to a specific section if necessary)

3. Develop Evidence (The Body of the report will give the reader all the information to: 1. 2. 3.

Decide Evaluate Assess or identify problems

Keep language use clear, concise and understandable)

4. Use conclusion/s

(this portion, reminds the reader what the problem was and how evidences addresses it. The report may identify solution, so state resources you need)

5. Use first hand information (if a report is a Progress Report, talk directly wherever possible to the people performing the work to minimize information, and give report credibility.)

6. Use annexes or something that will provide pictures of (Be aware that complex information and information. relationships between items or events may lead to misconception)

7. Edit out extraneous message/s (Avoid anecdotes or personal observation/s unless it relate directly to the report)

POLICE REPORT WRITING Report Writing – an activity of the police after performing police operation.  Police Report – a story of actions performed by the police written in a chronological or step by step account of an incident that took place at a given time. 

Formats of Police Reports: Narrative – telling a story that actually occurred. (as opposed to narrative fiction writing which is a product of writer’s imagination)  Informative – providing information as required by higher authority 

Principles of Effective Report Writing  Accuracy –

achieve by relating information on investigation gained through the physical senses: a. sight b. smell c. taste d. hearing e. touch  (It is always difficult to attain complete accuracy because of an individual writer’s weaknesses and limitations. To offset those feelings, the following are suggested: Know your weaknesses and limitations; Be aware of the following distinctions between:    

Facts and hearsay Facts and opinions Facts and conclusion Words use

Completeness – narrating all the facts discovered during the course of investigation  Brevity – keeping out of the report unnecessary detail 

Difference between: 

Completeness – inclusion of all relevant, pertinent, essential information

Brevity – exclusion of all unrelated, extraneous, unnecessary detail such as incidental and non essential information.

To gain brevity consider the following: *Knowledge of sentence and paragraphing structure; *Avoidance of unnecessary adjective *Use of redundant words. *There must be coherence – continuity and understandability *There must be unity or singleness of the ideas presented.

*There must be emphasis – gives weight and easy visibility *Impartiality- report all the facts without addition or subtraction. It can be achieved when: *Nothing is concealed or withheld because it may tend to weaken a case or it doesn’t happened to fit the preconceived notion held by the investigator; *investigator maintaining an unbiased and open mind about the case 11/15/16

Proper Form – arranging the contents to enable the reader to identify quickly any section, part or item.

(Rules: Anything that will make the report easier to read may be considered in the proper form. Observing the rules of grammar and composition improve the form and correct grammar provides effective report writing)

Mechanics of Good Report: 1. 2. 3.


5. 6. 7.


It should present a chronological sequence of events It should be typed written or computerized It should provide a complete data of victim or suspect Abbreviation should be avoided except those that are commonly used It should be briefed but clear Every incident should be written in separate report It should be accurate and state facts and not opinions. It should answer the 5Ws and 1H

TYPES OF NARRATIVE REPORTS Operational Reports – are written in narrative form and are important documents in the administration of justice as they are used in the prosecution of cases before the courts of justice. Example: Investigation Report  Administrative Reports – written solely for intra-agency use as basis for administrative decision. Example: Accomplishment Reports 



Definition - A police blotter is a record of daily events occurring within the territories/jurisdiction of a given police station. It contains material details concerning the event for legal, and statistical purposes. This police blotter is therefore an informational record book that is utilized for evidentiary or referral purposes. 

Note: Each PNP operating units shall maintain an official police blotter where all types of operation and undercover dispatch/es shall be recorded containing the five Ws and one H of information. It is a logbook that contains the daily registry of crimes, incidents reports, official summary of arrests and other significant events reported in a police station. A separate police blotter however shall be maintained for crime incident reports involving violence against women and children or those cases involving a child in conflict with the law to protect their privacy pursuant to R.A. 9262, Anti Violence against women and children act of 2004 and R.A. 9344 (Juvenile Justice and welfare act of 2006) respectively. Specification of Police Blotter shall be provided by concerned PNP office.

Form and Size -  a.  The police blotter shall be a record book bound with hard cover and shall be 12 inches by 16 inches in size.  b.  The front cover of the blotter shall contain the name or designation of the police and particular police station, the volume or book number, the series number and period covered.

Contents of Entry    a. The entry in the police blotter should answer the following cardinal elements of a police record, to wit:

The 5W’s and 1H plus Disposition of the case.

 b. In answering the above 5Ws and 1H and the Case Disposition, all such substantial and material details about the event, including: the names of the suspects; the victim; the witness, if any; the nature of the action or offense; the possible motive; the place; the date and time of occurrence; significant circumstances that aggravate or mitigate the event or the crime should be entered along with the identity of the officer to whom the case is assigned(Officer-on-case); and, the status of the case. 

c. The following incidents or transactions, among others, are entered in the police blotter 

(1)Violation of Laws and ordinances reported and/or discovered; (2)All calls in which any member of the PNP is dispatched and/or takes official action; (3)All fire alarms, reports and information received by the station; (4)Movements of prisoners with corresponding notations on the authority for such indicating therein the names of escorting police officers. (5)Cases of missing and/or found persons, animals, and property; (6)Vehicular and other types of accidents which require police action; (7)All personal injuries, bodies found, and suicides; (8)Damage to property; (9)All cases in which a police member is involved; (10)All arrest whether covered with warrants or not and returns of warrants of arrest made. (11)Miscellaneous cases, general and special orders, violations of rules and regulations, and any other reportable incident that the Sub-Station Chief, or higher authority desires to be recorded.

Procedures in Making the Entries a.

b. c.

d. e.

All entries in the police blotter shall be handwritten in a clear, concise and simple manner but answering as practicable the 5Ws and 1H. Clarity should not be sacrificed for brevity. Only facts, not opinions, are entered in the blotter. No erasures shall be made on the entries. Corrections are made by drawing one horizontal line over such word or phrases and the actual entry initialed by the police officer making the correction. A ballpen or pen with blue, black ink is used for making the entries. Misrepresentations in the blotter or any attempt to suppress any information therein is punishable criminally and administratively.

f. The entries must be legibly written in long hand and consecutively numbered. g. Every page of the blotter shall be consecutively or chronologically filled-up. No line or space shall be left blank between any two entries. h. Any development of a case to be reflected in the blotter should be a new entry at the time and day it was reported. A reference to the previous entry number of the case shall, however, be made. i. In every shift, under the supervision of the Duty Officer the Complaint Desk Officer, shall make the actual entries in the blotter and at the end of his tour of duty, both the Duty Officer and Duty/Complaint Desk Officer shall sign the blotter.

Units Required to Maintain the Blotter: a. Every police station or sub-station shall maintain a police blotter. b. All PNP operating units, in addition to the station/sub-stations shall maintain separate blotters.


Date Committed

Blotter Entry Number

Time Committed

Reporting Unit

Place of Commission


Date Reported Time Reported

Incident Type Narrative (5W’s and 1H

On this time and date, Ms. Dina Makabangon, 45 years old, a resident of # 32 Kamagong Street, Brgy. Puti Pula, Presentacion, Camarines Sur, appeared before this office to report a a stabbing incident in which her husband Froyo Makabangon, 49 years old of the same address, was killed allegedly by two neighbours, namely, Inting Abella and Boyong Bartoloy having a drinking spree. Minutes later, she heard shouting of invectives, followed by a commotion. She immediately rushed to check what was happening. She then saw two suspects mauling her husband. She tried to pacify the suspects but her pleas fell on deaf ears. Instead, Inting Abella allegedly drew a bladed weapon from his waistband and repeatedly stabbed the victim who sustained wounds in the chest and abdomen. After which, the suspect fled on foot. Bleeding profusely from multiple stab wounds, the victim was rushed to Gat Bonifacio Hospital where he was declared dead on arrival (DOA) by the attending doctor. _____________________________ Name/Signature of Complainant ______________________________ Rank/Name/Signature of Desk Officer

Spot Report – usually done within 24 hours after an incident took place. It is commonly written in a narrative format answering the five cardinal elements of information and usually address to higher office to inform the chief regarding the details of a particular occurrence.


PROGRESS REPORT – has a follow up effect, can simply be an accomplishment report which may be analytical in approach and comparatively longer. This may be accompanied by a memorandum having these important highlights: why the report is being made; purpose and scope of the report and sources of information.

Parts of Progress Report: 1.

– contain a brief statement of when, where and by whom the investigation was made and should cite the authority for making it. If the investigation is made on the basis of verbal orders, this must be stated. If it made in accordance with written orders, specific reference to the document, stating the date and the original directing authority, whether local or chief of higher office would be necessary. AUTHORITY FOR INVESTIGATION

2. Details – contain narrative investigative activities conducted by the investigator which is arranged logically and chronologically


3. Recommendation – contain practical suggestion/s for appropriate action to be taken to make suitable disposition of all phases of the case at hand, thus it contains what the investigator intends to do


Investigation Report – done by the police who conducted investigation of an incident that occurred at the given time and place which shall be a basis for an appropriate legal action.


Parts of Investigation Report:

Authority – contain a brief statement of when, where of when, where and by whom the investigation was made, citing the authority for making it. If the investigation was made on the basis of verbal orders, this must be stated, naming the individual issuing order and the date thereof. If it were made pursuant to the document, stating the date and the original directing authority, whether local or chief or higher headquarters is necessary.

b. Matters Investigated – represents the mission of the investigator. c. Facts of the case – present the real truth about the matters d. Discussion – contains presumption and inference from all circumstances in the case directing authority the clearest possible picture, factual matter of argument in addition to the facts presented to establish the conclusion/s and recommendation/s e. Conclusion/s – represent a concise summary of the results of investigation. f. Recommendation – practical suggestions for appropriate action/s.


Incident Reports written account of an event, that document the exact details of the occurrence as basis for further actions. It is the jump-off points of investigations designed to ferret out the facts and recommendations.

Initial Investigation Report – normal offshoot of a spot report or incident report that requires resolution—be it in the form of a formal complaint for crimes committed or recommendations for the closure of a particular case. This report consists of the investigator’s narrative on the incident, initial reported findings based on witnesses’ statements and evidence/s gathered within the place of occurrence, and appropriate recommendations.

Parts of Initial Investigation Report: 1.



Authority - (Where did the authority to investigate originated?) Details – (The chronological account of an incident and the actions taken with regards to incident) Recommendation – suggested practical course/s of action

(Investigation Reports that are not followed by progress reports serves as a final report.)

Final Investigation Report – refers to the final report on a particular incident or case where all important angles and details considered in the initial investigation and progress reports are taken into account.

Vehicular Accident Report – involves vehicles and other incidental occurrence.

After Operation Report – an informative report on common operational activities involving police action such as service of warrant of arrests or apprehension of suspects and other fugitives.

After Encounter report – report on special mission or combat operations involving lawless elements and subversive terrorists or rebels.

Parts of After Encounter Report: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Authority – Period covered Area covered Participating Troops Narrative Results of Operation Lessons Learned Recommendation

REFERENCES Handbook for Public Safety Officers (Master Report Writing Without Sweat & Nosebleed) by Amador B. Navarroza, Florian Navarroza Flores and Roger Victor Q. Flores.  Correspondence Manual by Isabel Lucinario – Horbuda  PNP Publication and Issuances  Internet Research 


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