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Among the BSHRM- 1 Students of JBLCF-B

A Research Paper Presented To the Members Faculty of the Business Department of John B. Lacson Colleges Foundation- Bacolod

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree; Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management

By: Cuenca, Shiela Mae Tiu, Eliviña Fernandez, Paul Porquez, Arlene May Malhabour, Mary Rose Bolado, Jeannete Cari-an, Lina Vedor, Jinky Lima, Roselle Bolahan,

March 2013

Chapter I Introduction

Without a doubt, food is one of the better things in life. If people didn’t eat, they will go hungry. If they don’t eat for too long, they will die. If they don’t eat, they will miss out on all the great gastronomic experiences that life can bring them. From ages unknown, man has realized that to be healthy, they have to eat the right foods. According to The New book of Knowledge (S) by Grolier International (1981) on page 330, healthy individuals live longer, are stronger, faster and therefore better feed and more comfortable. After all, the first instinct of everyone is self-preservation right?

It is important to understand what food safety and hygiene means. The quality of food has been something that has always been held in high regard. But in the past few decades, food sanitation and hygiene has been a growing concern among the public. This is because we are now better educated and aware of the dangers of eating contaminated foods.

The provision of sanitation is a key development intervention – without it, ill-health dominates a life without dignity. Simply having access to sanitation increases health, well-being and economic productivity. Inadequate sanitation impacts individuals, households, communities and countries.

Increasing access to sanitation and improving hygienic behaviors are keys to reducing this enormous disease burden. In addition, such changes would increase school attendance, especially for girls, and help school children to learn better. They could also have a major effect on the economies of many countries – both rich and poor – and on the empowerment of women. Most of these benefits would accrue in developing nations.

Food service employees who demonstrate good health habits and practice food safety provide more efficient and sanitary food services. Food borne illnesses can also be spread if employees are not properly trained on how to receive and store food. It is very important that food employees are knowledgeable in all food handling areas.

Teaching good hygiene practices when preparing food includes instructing employees on the use of sanitary gloves when handling certain products, sanitizing workstations after each job--especially when handling raw meats and dairy products--and cooking and cooling foods to their proper temperatures.

Running a safe kitchen requires knowledge and practice of safe food handling procedures. Food hygiene includes common procedures such as keeping your hands clean and refrigerating perishable foods. But is also means taking care at all levels of cooking, from purchasing at the market to storing, preparing and serving. Train employees in all methods of food hygiene and maintain good practices in order to run a safe, clean kitchen.

Consistent safe food handling practices require vigilant supervision from kitchen managers and head cooks. Show cooks on their first day where the safety logs, temperature control sheets, bleach buckets, sanitizing solution and test strips are located. Supervisors must train employees on kitchen protocol regarding food storage, where raw meats are prepared and safety procedures for appliances and knife work.

Food received or used in food service establishments must be from sources approved or considered satisfactory by the health department and must be clean, wholesome free from spoilage, adulteration and misbranding, and safe for human consumption. The food must have been prepared, processed, handled, packaged and stored in a sanitary manner so as to be protected from contamination and spoilage.

Health inspectors in some counties requires restaurants to maintain daily temperature logs of refrigerator and freezer temperatures, and will check those records upon inspection. Cooks on the morning shift check the unit temperature and make sure refrigerators and freezers are at 40 or 0 degrees respectively. Any deviation in these norms requires immediate attention.

Awareness of food hygiene and safety in the food service industry is improving largely because of the threat of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) legislation. But the role food sanitation and hygiene play in food quality; staff motivation and profitability are still grossly under-estimated. What is more, the consequence of a case of food poisoning is taken too lightly. One highly publicized incident of food poisoning is

sufficient to destroy a food business not to mention deter hundreds of tourists. Around the world, awareness of food safety and the demand for public assurance programmes is growing. Food safety is no longer an option - it is an obligation!

Theoretical Framework

Commitment is the mental or physical act of more directing increased resources to an activity or interpersonal relationship. Processes of cognitive dissonance may then increase the perceive value of the target and this may lead to increased involvement and motivation.

According to Baxter (1989), a commitment is an intention to (a) perform some action, (b) effect some outcome, or (c) produce some consequences perceived as obligatory requiring an investment of personal or social resources (e.g., time, effort, money) over some non-trivial period of time. Unlike wishes and wants, an intention contains the means of its own fulfillment and therefore constitutes self-directed action; there are no unconscious intentions.

As commitments are voluntary, once enacted, the actor is obliged to keep it. However, in reality there is no necessary one-to-one correspondence between commitment making and commitment keeping. Commitment making is incentive driven, but commitment keeping is driven by disincentives against not keeping the commitment. The greater one's

sense of obligation surrounding commitment making, the more likely is the actor to keep the commitment.

The sense of obligation constitutes the mechanism that unifies commitment making and keeping. The more that free choice is involved in the incentive-driven commitment making process (i.e., the characteristic absence of force or coercion), the greater the actor's sense of obligation surrounding the disincentive-driven commitment keeping process.

Conceptually, a commitment encompasses two intersecting psychological dimensions and includes four constructs: the emotion-cognition dimension and the motivationvolition one. At the intersection, unifying commitment is the concept obligation.

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable

BSHRM- CSS1 Students

Fig. 1 Schematic Diagram of the Study

Dependent Variable Level of Commitment to Food Sanitation and Hygiene

Statement of the Problem

This research aims to determine the level of Commitment to Food Sanitation and Hygiene of the BSHRM-CSS1 Students of John B. Lacson Colleges Foundation-Bacolod.

Specific Questions

1. What is the level of Commitment of BSHRM-CSS1 Students to Food Sanitation and Hygiene? 2. Is there significance that BSHRM-CSS1 Students should be aware of the hazards to food safety? 3. What would be the possible outcomes if BSHRM-CSS1 Students would not practice proper sanitary practices in handling food?

Statement of the Hypothesis

There is no significant difference on the level of commitment of BSHRM-CSS1 Students to food sanitation and hygiene.

Significance of the Study

This study will give more information or knowledge to the students of BSHRM-CSS1 of John B. Lacson Colleges Foundation- Bacolod on the level of Commitment of Food Sanitation and Hygiene.

Delimitation of the Study

This study is confined only to BSHRM-CSS1 Students of John B. Lacson Colleges Foundation- Bacolod, enrolled this second semester, school year 2012-2013.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally:

Commitment- the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose; the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action Sanitation- the state of being clean and conducive to health; making something sanitary (free of germs) as by sterilizing Hygiene- a condition promoting sanitary practices; the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health

Food- any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue Sanitary Practice- practices designed to protect the public health through disease and infection prevention and control.

Chapter II

Reviews of Related Literature


Food safety is defined by the FAO/WHO as the assurance that when food is consumed in the usual manner does not cause harm to human health and wellbeing. Food safety is of utmost concern in the twenty-first century. Food service establishments are sources of food borne illnesses and food handlers contribute to food borne illness outbreaks. According to WHO (1989), food handling personnel play important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of food production and storage.

Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on the part of the food handlers may enable pathogenic bacteria to come into contact with food and in some cases survive and multiply in sufficient numbers to cause illness in the consumer.

Studies by FAO (1995) recorded poor knowledge, practices in food handling in the assessment of microbial contamination of food sold by vendors. The hands of food service employees can be vectors in the spread of food borne diseases because of poor personal hygiene or cross-contamination. Studies point out that most outbreaks result from improper food handling practices. Lack of basic infrastructure, lack of knowledge of hygiene, absence of potable water, lack of proper storage facility and unsuitable environments for food operations (such as proximity to sewers and garbage dumps) can contribute to poor microbial quality of foods. Inadequate facilities for garbage disposal posed further hazards. In addition poor sanitary practices in food storage, handling, and

preparation can create an environment in which bacteria and other infectious agents are more easily transmitted. Moreover, inadequate time and temperature control and cross contamination are responsible for food poisoning outbreaks.

Poor personal hygiene frequently contributes to food borne illness which indicates that food handlers' knowledge and handling practices needs to be improved. Studies on the conditions of food and drink establishments have been scanty in Ethiopia. A study conducted among food handlers in Bahir Dar town indicated that most of them were infected with enteric bacteria and parasites. Good personal hygiene and food handling practices are the basis for preventing the transmission of pathogens from food handlers to the consumers. A USA based study suggested that improper food handling practices contribute to about 97% of food borne illnesses in food services establishments and homes. Therefore, to reduce food borne illnesses, it is crucial to gain an understanding of the knowledge and practices of food handlers. Information on the food safety knowledge and practices from Bahir Dar is limited. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain current information on the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town.

Liquid and solid waste disposal systems were not proper moreover domestic animals were found in some food establishments. It has been noted that foods should be prepared in places far away from the sources of contamination such as rubbish, wastewater, and animals. Ready to eat foods sold in unsanitary locations are susceptible to contamination by flies and domestic animals and the link between, other animals and diarrheal diseases has been reported where dogs and cats are known to carry pathogens such as E. coli and

Salmonella. Then again, there was statistically significant association between the license status and the sanitary conditions of the food establishments and this result is in agreement with other results of studies conducted in Ethiopia. This study supports the reports of earlier work that post processing contamination of ready to eat foods with animals is common and needs attention. Statistically significant difference in the sanitary conditions among the establishments was observed in this study which is in agreement to the finding of a study done in Turkey. This difference is attributed to the difference in licensing criteria employed by agencies among the establishment. Legal binding processes and inspection are crucial steps for maintaining good the sanitary quality of food and drink establishments compared to unlicensed ones as well as among the establishments.

Most (53.6%) food handlers reported that meals are prepare well ahead of peak selling time (which is lunch time) where it varies between six to eighteen hours earlier. This timing difference would result temperature abuse. Preparation of meals long before their consumption and storing them at ambient temperature were identified as key factors in the handling of meals that contribute to food poisoning. Moreover, studies conducted on street vended foods have revealed that high microbial counts were associated with food when held at room temperature for four or longer hours. Moreover, studies conducted on street vended foods have revealed that high microbial counts were associated with food. Thus the consumption of left-over food may cause food borne illnesses to family members, consumers and the beggars. In the transmission of food borne diseases the role of time, temperature abuse and poor management of leftover has been highlighted.

Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter describes the research methodology, research instrument, subject respondents, validity of research instruments, conduct of study, procedure of data analysis and statistical tools made in this study.

The Research Respondents

The respondents of the study are the BSHRM-CSS1. Out of the population of 145, the sample size of 106 is the actual respondents of the study. The sample size was obtained by the use of Slovin Formula for sample size.

The Research Instrument

The study made use of self constructed questionnaire, comprising 15 items. The instrument underwent validation from the experts. It also underwent reliably testing with .9 correlations. The score in the instrument is interpreted as follows:













The Research Procedure

After the instrument was validated and made reliable, it was reproduced and distributed to the respondents. The instruments were gathered and analyzed to answer the specific questions.

Statistical Analysis

Question number 1 required the use of mean. Question number 2 required the use of Ttest

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