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The Effect of Globalization on Philippine Culture Let me begin by sharing to you two of my friends. My first friend loves to eat. His favorite food is McDonald’s fried chicken. And he always craves for that crispy and juicy fried chicken with lots of gravy. He really likes McDonald’s that he even looks like Ronald. Then, my other friend is more into music. She spends a lot of time listening music in her 16GB Ipod. And her favorite singer is no less than Justin Bieber or JB. She really loves JB that she would even scream each time JB appears on T.V. Now, can you spot something common on both of them? It’s the effects of the process of globalization. This process has affected the way we communicate, we think, we eat, we dress and we live our lives. In short, globalization has transformed our culture, our Filipino culture. Globalization has become one of the most popular buzzword used by different people worldwide. So what is globalization? It is the integration of the economic, political and cultural systems across the globe? Or is the “McDonaldization” or, perhaps, Americanization of world culture and United States dominance of world affairs? Is globalization good or bad? These questions would receive very different answers from Washington, Berlin, Tokyo, New Delhi, Beijing, Manila and other places worldwide. Indeed, simple answers to these questions, answers that people from different walks of life in different countries would agree on, would be virtually impossible to reach. But let us have a balanced and comprehensive definition of globalization. According to Globalization101.org, "Gobalization is the acceleration and intensification of interaction and integration among people, companies and governments of different nations. And this process has effects on human well-being, on the environment, on economic development and, most importantly, on culture. " The process of globalization has instituted profound impact on culture since ancient times. The Phoenician traders’ impact on ancient Greek culture, Chinese silk and jars used in prehistoric Philippines and the spread of coffee, chocolate and tobacco from Latin America to the world are few of the examples of globalization of culture. In today’s modern world, globalization has become more complex and pervasive. And this is brought by different factors that have compounded through time. Among these factors are as follow: The shift to a new mode of production and distribution or, simply, capitalism; improved and cheaper cost of transportation and communication; colonization; proliferation of mass media; and recently, the rise of computers. Culture, as way of life shared by a certain group of people in a certain society, has created a unique identity as that of British, Chinese or Filipino. But today, culture has become the arena of contention on the issue of globalization. And with the unprecedented presence of globalization, Castells argues that globalization has eroded differences in culture and produced a seamless global system of culture and economic values. Hence, are we having a common culture or a dominant culture over another? I say, it depends on how we view globalization of culture in relation to values. It depends on whether one thinks that local cultures should be protected from outside influence, or whether one thinks that new cultural creativity results from interaction and mixing of ideas from different cultures. In our own culture, the effects of globalization are immense and diverse. Now, let us look some of these effects. The usage of English language is one of the most apparent effects of globalization on our culture. Although English is important for us to be globally competitive, it has undervalued our native languages. And it has become a pre-requisite to everyone who is seeking for a higher status in society. Another, who wouldn’t recognize Avatar, Barney, Glee, Rain, Wonder Girls or Kobe Bryant? Globalization has made it possible for us to be wired and plugged into T.V. programmes, movies, news, lifestyles, and entertainment of other countries. In return, many Filipinos, especially youth, have forgotten the traditional
Filipino activities such as Moro-Moro, Kundiman, Sarsuela, etc. Moreover with the growth of access to internet, most young Filipinos would spend more time in playing computer games and updating their statuses on Facebook or Twitter than playing sports or doing productive work at home. These may seem negative effects on our culture but let us look at the other side of the coin. Heard of Mr. Kenneth Cobonpue or Ms. Monique Lhuillier? They are Filipinos whose ideas and designs have brought international acclamation and caught the attention of foreigners and Hollywood stars. In music and entertainment, the songs of singer Apl d’ Ap of Black Eyed Peas is one of the manifestation of how he has integrated Filipino language in his music. And globalization has also paved way for our culture to be appreciated by the world through international fair trade, cultural shows abroad and other international activities. In sum, globalization of culture has created both positive and negative effects on culture. In our own culture, globalization has improved our way of living and created an impetus for us to strive for a better life. But in the process, it has changed some of our traditional ways of life, practices, beliefs and ideologies. Hence, globalization is neither good nor bad. Rather, certain aspects of the complex and multi-faceted process of globalization have effects that can be viewed in different ways depending on the values at stake Globalization has offered considerable controversial impact. It has been viewed as a process that is major factor that is a key to the development of the world economy and also it is inevitable and irreversible. Some regard it with hostility, fear that increases inequality between nations, threatens employment and living standards and social progress. These brief facts is an overview of some aspects of globalization and aims to identity ways in which countries can tap the gains of this process while remaining realistic about its possible abilities and its dangers. In fact, globalization offers essential opportunities for global developments but it is not progressing in an evenly pace. Some countries have adapted to globalization and it is participating into the global economy faster than other countries are. This is because countries with globalization some countries have been able to integrate and are growing faster and reducing poverty. However, the effectiveness of globalization in developing countries is widely active because globalization helps give opportunities in such countries in order to establish stability especially in the economy, trade, politics, society, labor, technology and to reduce poverty level. Developing country like the Philippines , is one of the countries in Asia where the country has been effected by globalization. The country is taking part in the process of globalization ever since the country signed agreements with WTO (World Trade Organization) in 1995. Since then, the nation had hope for WTO to bring developments within the nation’s poor economy and also to have a role within the global economy and trade. Now, globalization is very effective in the Philippines, it has allowed major changes in the nation like more labor, and more Filipino and foreign companies has emerged in the nation in order to help the country’s developing economy. Generally, the Philippines is one of the developing countries that is rapidly dealing with globalization ever since the influence of the US during the World War II. The country had high levels of education and English literacy due to the influence of Uncle Sam, decent savings rates, and an export-oriented agricultural sector that generated more
than sufficient foreign exchange. The industrial sector was growing rapidly and the country had one of the highest per capita incomes in Southeast Asia.
There was much to look forward to on the economic and business front. The Philippines is a country of ups and downs of conspicuous consumption of devastating poverty, hunger and suffering. The economy is basically agricultural, with rice, corn, and kamote (sweet potatoes) the staple food crops. Key cash crops include coconuts, fruits and vegetables, sugar, tobacco, and abaca (the famous "Manila hemp" used for rope making). In aggregate, about two-thirds of Filipinos continue to depend on the agricultural sector. The Philippines is rich in natural resources, as reflected in the fact that foreign exchange earnings have derived largely from export of primary commodities. The export of fruits and vegetables, especially pineapple products and bananas, plays a key economic role every year. Among the minerals that the Philippines produces are copper, gold, nickel, chromium, iron, and manganese. Mining will continue to be important in the future, particularly copper, nickel, chromite, and iron. It is estimated that 90% of the country's mineral resources are unsurveyed and undeveloped. However, the costs are high according to the international standards and many gold mines and other operations are not economically at its best. The Philippines global economy remains in transition and the nation has been living through a period of increasing volatility. Globalization, whether individuals favor it or not, is taking place at a rapid pace, integrating more and more of the nation’s and world economy. Philippines have four regions that globalization has targeted and these four are: liberalization, mobility of capital, technology, and management of organization through private and public sectors. Each of these factors has been in its own way force throughout the world. But more interesting is the realization that governments today no longer possess the reserves to materially affect the global capital markets. Capital now moves according to the dictates of markets, not of governments. With its great confidence on joining the WTO, the Philippines are still lagging behind its Southeast Asian neighbors in terms of economic performance. Whereas, the Philippine economic growth was second only to Japan ’s in the 1960’s. But when the nation joined the WTO in 1995, the Philippines had entered the global economic game with its domestic political economy unprepared and undeveloped. As a result, the Philippine state has failed to create the kind of organized socioeconomic environment that would have prepared the country for global competition. There are many things that globalization that brought quick changes into the Philippine society. With its vast development it has brought about technologies mostly computers and software and also telecom companies are being introduced into the market. Thanks to globalization, such technologies were influenced by Philippines neighboring Asian countries like Malaysia and China , and even Japan . Thanks to globalization, it has opened its economy to foreign trade and investment. Furthermore, globalization has allowed Filipino workers to travel the world, but most head for the Middle East, East Asia, the US and Canada and Europe due to better economies and better money. Filipinos working overseas numbered more than three million about 10 percent of the labor force. The total number of overseas Filipinos may be as high as eight million, according to the government.
Those Filipinos working overseas send about $10.7 billion back to their families or relatives in the Philippines in 2005. In contrast, the question that the Filipino society asks themselves is: “Can the Philippines handle globalization”? Many Filipinos believe that globalization has done nothing for their country. And this is due to the poverty that has been becoming worse each year. The Philippines is still corrupt and still faces economic and political problems, therefore, the nation and its people does not trust the process of globalization. The majority of Filipinos believe that globalization has brought about problems and conflict rather than changes. The people of the Philippines mostly rely on its leaders because it’s the leaders whom the society believes and trust for the people know that the leaders are the ones that can make the whole Philippine society better and much more developed or well-organized. So, globalization has to take place within the country in order to make such changes happen. Due to the process of globalization in the Philippines , poverty level has been increasing. There are over 80 million people living in the whole of Philippines about 60 percent of the population lives in poverty. This is why the Philippines is corrupt because they cannot solve nor reduce the poverty rate. However, poverty has been a major struggle within the nation and most the society is the ones that are suffering especially those who suffer are the ones who do not have any jobs, money, and homes. That is why the people protest to the leaders and the government to ask them for better lives. For example, the world economic globalization affects nearly every person, but the process of globalization is a challenge to indigenous peoples. I n most countries, native peoples have little voice within the government, and their owned lands are taken away by corporations. Indigenous farmers typically farm small plots and sell their crops locally; their farms do not scale up to the size and technology necessary for export.Like the indigenous peoples of the Cordilleras, in the southern part of the Philippines , have lived in the mountains for generations. In the past century, Cordilleras farmers began planting cash crops, including vegetables, coffee and beans. Increasingly the people are moving to towns and cities because they government are taking over their lands and allowing companies to built their industrial plants there due to the major threats that the indigenous people face.The farmers in the Philippines are suffering and this is due their competitiveness in selling crops to the market is being eroded by foreign imports. In fact, vegetable prices in the Philippines are high. Consumers in non-producing areas pay 50-100% more than what farmers usually receive. Farmers receive 28% more than wholesale prices in surrounding countries. These results are why vegetables are smuggled in the nation for vegetables have become a form of contraband. These are the problems with developing countries is that they are very corrupt politically and economically but its not the fault of globalization but it’s the whole nation is at fault.Overall, the Philippines is a developing country that is bound to develop due to globalization. I believe that globalization will make its impact in the Philippines because the whole society relies on westernization due to globalization. Globalization can make the Philippines into a better nation if the Philippine leaders to make their economy more advance through global trading and allowing more foreign investors to the help boost the economy. And by accomplishing those goals, the Philippines should be able to reduce the poverty level as well as increase labor force for job opportunities for those that are in need for a living. However, sine the poverty level is still increasing, most Filipinos has managed to find work overseas and they have managed to seek better living than in the
Philippines. The most effective factor in the Philippines is education. The society’s mentality is to be educated and it’s with education that people in the nation see their opportunity for a better life in the future.